西格蒙德·弗洛伊德

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西格蒙德·弗洛伊德

  1. 1. 西格蒙德·弗洛伊德 1856- 1939 西格蒙德·弗洛伊德 1856 年出生于奥匈帝国。他的父亲是一个小商人,弗洛伊德的生身母亲是他父亲的第二个妻子。弗洛伊德有两个约比他年长 20 岁的异 母哥哥。当他在四岁的时候,他的家庭搬到了维也纳,虽然他时常宣称,他厌恶这个城市,可是他却依旧住在那里,直到该地在 1938 年被德国占领为 止。弗洛伊德具有犹太人的家庭背景:尽管他的父亲是一个自由思想者而弗洛伊德却认为自己是一个无神论者。 弗洛伊德是 一位雄心勃勃的优秀学生。于是,医学和法律是成了这个犹太青年最容易接受的职业。1873 年,他进入了维也纳大学医学院。可是,他特 别对科学感兴趣,他对 行医的思想逐渐厌倦起来。 他希望从事神经生理科学方面的研究,但纯理论的科学研究,在那些日子里,除非你独立又很富 裕,否则就难以维持。弗洛伊德已订婚,在他能够结婚之前,他需要 负担得起家庭。所以,他决定先当一个神经专科的私人开业医生。 在他当私人开业医生获得锻炼的过程中,另一个内科医生和生理学家 约瑟夫·布洛伊尔【1】成了他的知已好友。他们经常在一起讨论医疗病例, 布洛伊 尔的后来的情人对弗洛伊德的科学研究产生了持久的影响。此人名为安娜· 欧 是一位年轻妇女,患有当时人们称为的歇斯底里症。她经常暂时性地瘫 痪,发病时,她不能使用其本国的语言即德语来说话,但仍然会说法语和英语;她不能喝水,即使渴了也是这样,等等。布洛伊尔发现,如果他催眠了 她,在催眠状态下,她会说出在有意识状态时所不记得的事情,催眠以后,她的症状会得到了一定缓解——因此,这种治疗方法称为“谈话治疗法”。后 来,弗洛伊德去了巴黎,在让马丁·夏科【2】的指导下对精神病科学作进一步的研究,让马丁·夏科是当时欧洲从事研究歇斯底里症和催眠术应用的著名 精神病学家。 1886 年,弗洛伊德返 回维也纳,开设了一个专门从事神经和大脑疾病的私人开业诊所,并结婚成家。他试图用催眠疗法去治疗患有歇斯底里症和神经质 的病人,但后来他却逐步地摒弃了 这种疗法。他发现如果把患者放置在一个放松和舒服的位置(例如放在沙发上),然后鼓励他们自由思索并说出地进 入他们头脑里的任何东西(自由联想)。然后他 就能分析病人曾经记得过和表示过些什么,并由此确定过去在病人身上曾经发生过那些创伤事件以至造 成了他们目前所受的病痛。 1900 年,弗洛伊德发表了《梦的解析》【3】,并把无意识思想的观念【4】介绍给广大公众。在 1901 年,他又发表了《日常生活中之精神病学》 【5】,在此书中,他作了推理:认为健忘或口误(现在称为“ 弗洛伊德口误”)根本不是偶然发生的,而是患者“动态无意识”地揭示了一些有意义的事 情。这些想法似乎认为科学来自民间艺术,然而弗洛伊德仍 然还有着更具争议性的想法。他得出的结论是,性冲动是个人心理最有力的塑造者,即使是 婴儿,他们也有性欲。当他把这些想法在 1905 年公布时,整个社会都 为之震惊。他最有名的理论是“俄狄浦斯情结”(即恋母情结)【6】——-儿童(也 就是说那些男孩子们)对自己的母亲有着一种性的吸引力和具有对父亲的嫉妒 意识甚至达到仇恨父亲的地步。后来他把它开发到也适用于女孩,成为一 对相并列的理论。 在 1902 年,弗洛伊德被任命为维也纳大学的教授,在他名下聚集了一批热忱的追随者。到 1906 年,他有了 17 个门徒,但不久就更多了,他们构成了一 个精神分析学会。在其他城市也出现了类似的群体。但是,弗洛伊德的集团成了政治斗争中的受害者,他的一些亲密的追随者(如阿尔弗雷德·阿德勒和 卡尔·荣格)在痛苦的感受中从集团中分裂了出去。 弗洛伊德继 续工作和开发他的理论,写出了数量惊人的作品。1909 年,在马萨诸塞州的克拉克大学,他第一次在国际上解释了他的理论,于是他的名字 变得家喻户晓。 1923 年,他被诊断出由于长期吸入雪茄烟所导致的颚部的癌症(口腔癌)。他享年 67 岁。为了治疗他的进展性癌症,在最后的 16 年 里,他做了 30 次手术。 与此同时,政治上的癌症也正在欧洲发展中。到 1933 年,法西斯纳粹党已经在德国上台执政。纳粹把他写的书放在其他人的作 品中一起焚烧。纳粹于 1938 年 接管了奥地利,弗洛伊德的护照也被没收了。但由于他在外国人中间的名声和影响力说服了占领军让他离开维也纳,他 和 妻 子 就 逃 到 了 英 格 兰 , 他 死 在 1939 年 9 月 。 弗洛伊德的支持者狂热地称赞他,批评家们则称他为一个反面人物甚至是一个思想肮脏的泛性论者,但没有人不同意,他一直是本世纪(指 20 世纪)最 具有影响力的科学家之一。他不仅影响着心理学和精神治疗的专业实践,同时他也改变了人们(在西方文化的领域里)观察自己和思考他们生活的方 法。 “解剖是命运。” “类比不能决定什么,这是事实;但是它们可以使一个人在家里感受到更多的东西。” 译注: 【1】约瑟夫·布洛伊尔(Josef Breuer)[Joseph(Josef) Breuer 1842.01.15-1925.06.20],奥地利医生,生于维也纳,逝于维也纳。他 1863 年毕业于维也纳 大学,1868 年任维也纳大学荣誉讲师,1871 年起就当私人医生,1894 年,他当上了维也纳科学院的通讯院士。布洛伊尔和 S.弗洛伊德两人均在布吕克 指导下受过物理主义和生理学训练。他们都被告知心理学是有关中枢神经系统的研究,心能就是由大脑细胞所供应的物理能。他们也都由此得出如下概 念:心理活动有赖于有机体所供应的能量,当能量水平过高时,本身便需要释放。从 1880 年 12 月到 1882 年 6 月,布洛伊尔就已经给一个女病人安娜· 欧[Anna.O]治疗歇斯底里症。后来,在医学史上,它成为了划时代的著名病例。这个女病人原名 柏达·巴本哈因姆(1859-1936 年);她是布洛伊尔首创 的“涤清法”的第一位受益者。她原是一位聪明伶俐的姑娘,她患病时才 21 岁,她的病是在她去服侍她衷心敬爱的父亲时开始发作的。布洛伊尔第一次接 触这个女病人时,她的临床症状极为复杂,包括全身痉挛性麻痹、精神抑制和意识错乱等。在一次偶然的观察中,布洛伊尔发现,如果能使她用言语表 达出她在病症发作时的那些笼罩着她的幻想和妄念,就能去除她的那种意识错乱状态。由于这一发现,布洛伊尔终于创造了一套新的治疗方法。依据这 一方法,把她催眠到很深的程度,然后要她告诉他:每次发作时压迫着她的心灵的,到底是哪些念头。就这样,布洛伊尔用这种方法,克服了她那反复 发作的抑郁性意识错乱,接着又用同样的方法,为她解除各种抑制和肉体上的毛病。经过长久而辛苦的努力之后,布洛伊尔终于能用这种方法治愈那位 病人。事实证明,那位女病人复原之后,一直都很好,而且能担任繁重的工作。这种让患者自己用言语表达幻觉的方法,布洛伊尔称之为“谈话治疗 法”或“烟雾扫除法”,后来,布洛伊尔把这一方法简称为“涤清法”或“净化法”。布洛伊尔发现,在采用“谈话治疗法”时,病人会忽然忘记自己的祖国的语 言 - 德语,而只能讲英语。这就说明,在催眠状态下,患者失去了自控能力,恢复了受到多种压抑的、难以在正常状态中表现出来的原始意识状 态。1882 年 11 月 18 日,布洛伊尔把安娜· 欧病例告诉弗洛伊德,弗洛伊德对布洛伊尔的方法日益感兴趣,并将这些方法运用于他自己的患者。1895
  2. 2. 年,他与弗洛伊德合作出版了《癔病研究》一书,布洛伊尔的名字排在前面。后来,这个名叫安娜·欧的女性患者对布洛伊尔产生了爱情,加上催眠方法 的疗效不能永久保持,他与弗洛伊德在对待移情的态度上也意见不合,最终使他在 1895 年离开了这一工作领域,从而结束了和弗洛伊德的合作关系。主 要著作:癔病研究:1895。 【2】让马丁·夏科(Jean-Martin Charcot) 法国医学教师和临床医师,他与 G.迪歇恩(1806~1875)同为现代神经病学的奠基人。1882 年在巴黎开设了欧洲 当时最大的神经科诊所。作为一名极为出色的教师,他以研究癔症和催眠而闻名,此项工作影响了他的许多学生,其中包括弗洛伊德。他描述了因运动 性共济失调或其他类似疾病造成的关节面及韧带损伤(夏尔科氏病或夏尔科氏关节)的症状,最早提出大脑不同的部位与具体功能之间的联系,并发现了 大脑中的粟粒性动脉瘤。 【3】《梦的解析》的内容简介:一八九九年,弗洛伊德《梦 的解析》出版,像一把火炬照亮了人类心理生活的深穴,揭示了许多埋藏于心理深层的奥 秘。它不但为人类潜意识的学说奠定了稳固的基础,而且她建立了人类认识 自己的新的里程碑。书中包含了许多对文学、神话、教育等领域有启示性的 观点,引导了整个二十世纪的人类文明。有史以来,他第一次科学的告诉人们为什么会做 梦?为什么会做奇奇怪怪的梦?梦意味着什么?梦诉说着什 么?梦将我们引向何方?…… 【4】无意识思想的观念(the notion of the unconscious mind):在弗洛伊德的性格心理学的理论中 “无意识思想”是我们能够意识到的认知之外的 感觉、 思想、冲动和记忆的储存器 。大多数的无意识思想都是不能接受的或不愉快的,诸如痛苦、焦虑或冲突等。根据弗洛伊德的理论,“无意识的思想会继 续影响我们的行为和经历,即使我们并不知道这些潜在的影响。但有时 the unconscious 也可作潜意识讲。潜意识(心里学家弗洛伊德在其《精神分析 学》理论中首先提出),是指潜藏在我们一般意识底下的一股神秘力量,是相对于“意识”的一种思想。又称“右脑意识”、“宇宙意识”,脑内革命作者春 山茂雄则称它为“祖先脑”。详见潜意识的“百科”。 【5】 《日常生活中之精神病学》本书内容包括:专有名词的遗忘、外国字的遗忘、名词与字序的遗忘、童年回忆与遮性记忆、口误、读误和笔误、印 象及决心的遗忘、误引行为等。 【6】俄狄浦斯情结:俄狄浦斯情结即恋母情结。在古希腊神话中有这么一个预言:底比斯王的新生儿(也就是俄狄浦斯),有一天将会杀死他的父亲而与 他的母亲结婚。底比斯王对这个预言感到震惊万分,于是下令把婴儿丢弃在山上。但是有个牧羊人发现了他,把他送给邻国的国王当儿子。俄狄浦斯并 不知道自己真正的父母是谁。长大后他做了许多英雄事迹,赢得伊俄卡斯忒女王为妻。后来国家瘟疫流行,他才知道,多年前他杀掉的一个旅行者是他 的父亲,而现在和自己同床共枕的是自己的亲生母亲。俄狄浦斯王羞怒不已,他弄瞎了双眼,离开底比斯,独自流浪去了。 Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud 1856 - 1939 author: People and Discoveries Sigmund Freud was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1856. His father was a small time merchant, and his father's second wife was Freud's mother. Freud had two half-brothers some 20 years older than himself. His family moved to Vienna when he was four years old, and though he often claimed he hated the city, he lived there until it was occupied by Germany in 1938. Freud's family background was Jewish, though his father was a freethinker and Freud himself an avowed atheist. Freud was a good student, and very ambitious. Medicine and law were the professions then open to Jewish men, and in 1873 he entered the University of Vienna medical school. He was interested in science above all; the idea of practicing medicine was slightly repugnant to him. He hoped to go into neurophysiological research, but pure research was hard to manage in those days unless you were independently wealthy. Freud was engaged and needed to be able to support a family before he could marry, and so he determined to go into private practice with a specialty in neurology. During his training he befriended Josef Breuer, another physician and physiologist. They often discussed medical cases together and one of Breuer's would have a lasting effect on Freud. Known as Anna O., this patient was a young woman suffering from what was then called hysteria. She had temporary paralysis, could not speak her native German but could speak French and English, couldn't drink water even when thirsty, and so on. Breuer discovered that if he hypnotized her, she would talk of things she did not remember in the conscious state, and afterwards her symptoms were relieved -- thus it was called "the talking cure." Freud went to Paris for further study under Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist known all over Europe for his studies of hysterics and use of hypnosis. In 1886, Freud returned to Vienna, opened a private practice specializing in nervous and brain disorders, and married. He tried hypnotism with his hysteric and neurotic patients, but gradually discarded the practice. He found he could get patients to talk just by putting them in a relaxing position (the couch) and encouraging them to say whatever came into their heads (free association). He could then analyze what they had remembered or expressed and determine what traumatic events in their past had caused their current suffering. In 1900, Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams, and introduced the wider public to the notion of the unconscious mind. In 1901, he published The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, in which he theorized that forgetfulness or slips of the
  3. 3. tongue (now called "Freudian slips") were not accidental at all, but it was the "dynamic unconscious" revealing something meaningful. To many, these ideas seemed to be making science out of a folk art, but Freud had still more controversial ideas to come. He concluded that the sexual drive was the most powerful shaper of a person's psychology, and that sexuality was present even in infants. He shocked society when he published these ideas in 1905. His most well-known theory is that of the "Oedipus complex" -- that in children (boys, that is) there is a sexual attraction towards the mother and a sense of jealousy to the point of hatred of the father. He later developed a parallel theory for girls. In 1902, Freud was appointed professor at the University of Vienna and began to gather a devoted following. By 1906, there were 17 disciples, and soon more, who formed a Psychoanalytic Society. Other such groups emerged in other cities. But Freud's group fell victim to political infighting, and some of his closest adherents (such as Alfred Adler and Carl Jung) split from the group with bitter feelings. Freud continued working, developing his theories, and writing -- producing a stunning volume of work. In 1909 he made his first international presentation of his theories, at Clark University in Massachusetts. His name was becoming a household word. In 1923, he was diagnosed with cancer of the jaw, a result of years of cigar smoking. He was 67. He would have 30 operations over the next 16 years to treat the progressive disease. Meanwhile, a political cancer was growing in Europe. By 1933, the Nazi party had risen to power in Germany. They burned books by Freud, among others. They took over Austria in 1938. Freud's passport was confiscated, but his fame and the influence of foreigners persuaded the occupying forces to let him go, and he and his wife fled to England. He died there in September, 1939. Supporters have praised Freud rapturously and critics have called him everything from a con-man to a dirty-minded pansexualist . . . but no one disagrees that he has been one of the most influential scientists of the century. Not only did he influence the professional practice of psychology and psychiatry, but he changed the way people (in Western cultures) view themselves and think about their lives. "Anatomy is destiny." "Analogies decide nothing, it is true, but they can make one feel more at home."

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