It change Material properties, such as color, strength, hardness and Chemical reaction. For example carbon nanotube harder than steel by 100 times, but it also lighter in 6 times
The concepts of nanotechnology are not inherently new to nature or to the history of mankind. Science and nature have taught us that biological systems are built using small cells and proteins that follow an intrinsic plan dictated by infinitesimally small genetic coding (Roukes, et al., 2002). A well documented and early example of a manmade nanoprocess is the work of Medieval stained glass makers who used small nanosize gold particles of varying sizes to create the different color hues found in stained glass windows of Medieval churches and structures. Hence, gold particles display a different form of color depending on their size at the nanoscale (Ratner & Ratner, 2003). Gold at the larger scale, the macroscale, such as a gold brick reflects the well known yellowish color.
Nanofabrication It is a collection of technologies which are utilised in making micro devices. Micro fabrication is the term that describes processes of fabrication of miniature structures, of micrometer sizes and smaller. For instance, fabrication of IC (Integrated circuit).Nanofabrication or micro fabrication technologies originate from the microelectronics industry and the devices is usually made on silicon wafers. Nanofabrication methods can be divided into two categories: a) top down methods and b) bottom up methods
In near future, the computer industry will use the above technology extensively to fabricate microprocessor chips. The microprocessor chips would be smaller, faster, reliable, efficient and lighter computers.
When illuminated with ultraviolet light, they emit a wide spectrum of bright colors that can be used to locate and identify specific kinds of cells and biological activities. بعض العقاقير عقار أزيثرومايثين Azithromycin وهو العقار المعروف تجاريا باسم زيثروماكس Zithromaxهذا العقار يتوفر بصورة كبسولات تحوى بداخلها حبيبات العقار كما تتوفر فى صورة معلق (شراب)يقوم الجسم بامتصاص حوالى %59 من الكمية المتعاطاة عند القيام بتقطيع حبيبات هذا العقار لتصبح حجم حبيباتة بحجم صغير داخل إطار مقياس النانو فإن معدل امتصاص الجسم لهذا العقار يصل إلى %99.5 تم عمل نفس الشىء مع عنصر الفضة وتم استغلال قدرتة على قتل البكتريا فى صنع بعد العقاقير ظهرت تقنية تسمى تقنية المعلقات النانوية SuspensionsNano تحويل المواد الغير ذائبة إلى مواد معلقة داخل محلول وذلك من خلال تحويلها إلى جزيئات نانوية NanoParticles
The astounding power and features exhibited by matters at nanoscale dimensions are now employed in the oil and gas industry as well as various other industries to produce seamless objects which possess enhanced properties. Various countries of the world are now leveraging nanotechnology because of the benefits it offers, although the technology is still in its infancy. Iraq is surely not left behind in this quest. On 14 December 2011, the Iraqi Ministry Defense announced that it has started using nanotechnology in military applications as well as security. According the ministry, the technology will help in the development of the military technology and would go a long way in curbing violence. The Deputy Chief of Army Staff said that the technology will be used in producing lots of military equipment in the future which will substitute the presently used ones. He also added that the technology will be used in detecting car bombs and explosive devices. It will also be used in detecting armed group and also capture them.
Nanotechnology is already in use in many computing, communications, and other electronics applications to provide faster, smaller, and more portable systems that can manage and store larger and larger amounts of information. These continuously evolving applications include: Nanoscale transistors that are faster, more powerful, and increasingly energy-efficient; soon your computer’s entire memory may be stored on a single tiny chip. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) enabled by nanometer‐scale magnetic tunnel junctions that can quickly and effectively save even encrypted data during a system shutdown or crash, enable resume‐play features, and gather vehicle accident data. Displays for many new TVs, laptop computers, cell phones, digital cameras, and other devices incorporate nanostructured polymer films known as organic light-emitting diodes, or OLEDs. OLED screens offer brighter images in a flat format, as well as wider viewing angles, lighter weight, better picture density, lower power consumption, and longer lifetimes. Other computing and electronic products include Flash memory chips for iPod nanos; ultraresponsive hearing aids; antimicrobial/antibacterial coatings on mouse/keyboard/cell phone casings; conductive inks for printed electronics for RFID/smart cards/smart packaging; more life-like video games; and flexible displays for e-book readers.
Using nanotechnology we can design and manufacture electronic components and devices that can be used directly to make smaller, faster and reliable computer. According to M.C. Roco, the third and fourth generation of nanotechnology would rely heavily on research in computer science. Now, let us try to understand the meaning of nanotechnology and its implication.
What is a Carbon Nanotube? A Carbon Nanotube is a tube-shaped material, made of carbon, having a diameter measuring on the nanometer scale. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, or about one ten-thousandth of the thickness of a human hair. The graphite layer appears somewhat like a rolled-up chicken wire with a continuous unbroken hexagonal mesh and carbon molecules at the apexes of the hexagons. Carbon Nanotubes have many structures, differing in length, thickness, and in the type of helicity and number of layers. Although they are formed from essentially the same graphite sheet, their electrical characteristics differ depending on these variations, acting either as metals or as semiconductors.
تعتبر النقاط الكمية إحدى أشكال المواد النانوية الأكثر شهرة، وسميت بهذا الاسم لأن الإلكترونات فيها تكون محصورة في ثلاثة أبعاد (الطول والعرض والارتفاع)، أي أن النقاط الكمية هي مواد نانوية متناهية الصغر (مئات من الذرات فقط) محاطة بمواد لها طاقة فجوة أعلى (ونعني هنا بطاقة الفجوة الطاقة التي يحتاجها الإلكترون لكي يتحرر عن الذرة)، هذا الحصر الكمي للإلكترونات في الأبعاد الثلاث يكسب هذه النقاط الكمية خاصية فريدة في التعامل مع الضوء بفاعلية ما يجعلها مرشحاً مثالياً لتكوين الخلايا الشمسية. والصورة أدناه صورة مجهرية للنقاط الكمية وتظهر الذرات منتشرة على جانبي النقاط الكمية. وعندما تكون النقاط الكمية بقطر يساوي 10 نانو متر يمكن صف 3 مليون نقطة كمية بجانب بعضها البعض على طول اصبع ابهام الانسان
Perform millions of operations simultaneously Generate a complete set of potential solutions Conduct large parallel searches Efficiently handle massive amounts of working memory cheap, clean, readily available materials amazing ability to store information Low energy consuming
Earrings that become your cell phone by allowing listening amplification and location-focused microphones to interface with voice-activated technology. Chips in your jacket, shirt, blouse, or pants that can be downloaded with your ID, allowing fast access to secure items. Holographic lenses in eyeglasses that work like bifocals. While one hemisphere of the lens is unaffected, the other is connected to networks of information, providing the ultimate in virtual reality for users. A nano health supplement that boosts the immune system to such acute senstitivity that contact with any potential presence of a virus or bacteria manifests into various visuals codes onto the skin. This supplement is called 6sense. This project explores the future implications of nano smartsensor technology that is currently used to gather information about the presence of a virus in our environment. Particularly focusing on how this forewarning may eventually lead to paranoia and affect our relationsips with each other and our environment. The 6sense health supplement is biokleptic & integrated into our own immune system to enable it to become a systematic code of reference, tailor-made to our own genetic make up. This supplement boosts our immune system and augments our own natural senses with a degree of sensitivity and intelligence that has not been possible before.But how will this affect our intimate relationships if a mark appears in the wrong place at the wrong time? …
Nanotechnology and its impact on modern computer
Nanotechnology and It’s Impact on
By Farah Al-Tufaili
Kufa University – College of computer science and
Nanotechnology : It is defined as theengineering of functional systems
at the molecularscale.
Nanotechnology refers to the manipulation of matter on an atomic
and molecular scale.
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WHY SHOULD YOU KNOW SOMETHING
The National Science Foundation
estimates that by the year 2015 there
will be a need for 2 million workers
worldwide in the fields of nanoscience
An additional 5 million workers will be
needed in support areas for these fields.
By 2015, nanotechnology is expected to
be a $3 trillion “industry”
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How Big is a Nano?
– Nano = 1 billionth;100,000 x’s smaller
than the diameter of a human hair.
Examples of Nanoscale
– A cubic micron of water contains
about 90 billion atoms. A micron is
one thousandth of a millimeter, and a
thousand times larger than a
– Another way to visualize a
1 inch = 25,400,000 nanometers
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SCALE OF THINGS—NANOMETERS
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The concepts of nanotechnology are not new to nature or to mankind. An early
example of a manmade nanoprocess is stained glass.
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Stained glass windows. Picture of gold nano particles.
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BRIEF HISTORY, CONTINUED
Tokyo Science University.
Birth of Nanotechnology
• Professor Taniguchi of Tokyo Science
University used the word “nanotechnology” to
describe the science and technology of
processing or building parts with nanometric
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NANOTECHNOLOGY IS NOT NEW!
Cold nanoparticles in glass are reflected as red
Ancient stained-glass makers knew if they put finely ground gold or silver in the
glass they would get beautiful colors. They used nanosized gold and silver
particles. Optical properties change with the nanoscale.
• Top-down nanofabrication – start with large
material and bring it down to the nanoscale
• Bottom-up nanofabrication – start with
individual atoms and build upwards to make a
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What Are Some Applications Of
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Drug delivery, tissue
1. Azithromycin or
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Quantum dots are
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Nanotechnology in Iraq
• Nanoscale dimensions are now employed in the oil and gas
industry as well as various other industries to produce
seamless objects which possess enhanced properties
• On 14 December 2011, the Iraqi Ministry Defense announced
that it has started using nanotechnology in military
applications as well as security.
• Nanotechnology holds positive prospects in different fields
including clothing, food packaging, disinfectants, sunscreens,
cosmetics, appliances, textiles, fuel catalysts and so forth.
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NANOTECHNOLOGY IN IRAQ, Continued
• The Iraq’s Ministry of Industry and Minerals has created a new
department which specializes in nanotechnology.
• The role of this department is to provide information and
ideas to researches in the country and also those abroad.
• 8 research centers in the Directorate and these research
centers are in various industrial fields which include
petrochemicals, energy, textiles, packing, pharmaceuticals
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Opportunities and Challenges in Iraq
• Iraq went through protruded conflicts and stagnation, but this
has opened up economic opportunities to the country.
• Lots of factors sum to make Iraq a wonderful business and
investment destination for foreign investors.
• Although the country is opened up for investment, there are
lots of challenges facing Iraq.
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Opportunities and Challenges in Iraq
The government’s Five-Year National Plan between 2010 and 2014 targets an annual
economic growth rate of 9.4 percent and an investment of US$186 billion.
Of course, there are few challenges to doing business in Iraq especially as Iraq has been
ranked among the worst places to do business on earth. A few of these challenges include:
Lack of transparencies with government
Unequipped banking system
Issues with the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
Undeveloped arbitration law
Internal dispute over oil rights with the autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government
and so forth.
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ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE OF
o Reduced energy use
o Better medical treatment
o Lower costs for computing
o Environmental risks
o Privacy risks
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ELECTRONICS AND INFORMATION
Nanotechnology is already in use in many computing,
communications, and other electronics applications. These
continuously evolving applications include:
Magnetic random access memory (MRAM)
Displays for many new
Other computing and electronic products
WHY WE USE NANOTECHNOLOGY
• The extensive use of computer and its wide application in the modern
world have forced the researchers to improve and manufacture a
smaller, faster and a more reliable computer.
• This objective can be fulfilled by nanotechnology.
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FASTER COMPUTERS WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY
The silicon transistors in your computer may be replaced in ten years
by transistors based on carbon nanotubes.
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IMPACT ON MODERN COMPUTER
• Faster and smaller: by replacing silicon transistor with transistor base on
nanotubes we will get faster, smaller and less energy consuming computers.
• Increase the speed: The most common semiconductor material in transistors is
silicon, since it is cheap and easy to process. But silicon has its limitations. By
exchanging the silicon in the channel for a carbon nanotube, the transistors can
be made both smaller and faster than today's transistors.
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1- CARBON NANOTUBES
It is a tube shaped carbon material that
is measured in nanometre scales.
With the advancement of
nanofabrication technique, researchers
used this material to create electronic
components like transistors, diodes,
relays and logic gates.
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2- QUANTUM DOTS
Quantum dots are crystals that emit only one
wavelength of light when the electrons are
excited. It is a new material made by bottom
up method of nanofabrication.
In future quantum dots could be used as
quantum bits and to form the basis of
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3- DNA COMPUTING
DNA computing uses biological materials like
DNA, biochemistry and molecular biology, in
place of traditional silicon-based computer
technology. Biomolecular computing or DNA
computing is a fast developing area,
research is going on to better understand
the theory, experiments, applications of DNA
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3- DNA COMPUTING
It is an approach to nanocomputers. DNA
computing uses bottom up approach or
method to make DNA molecules and DNA
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4- NVRAM (Non Volatile RAM)
Is computer memory that can get back stored
information even when not powered. Examples of
non-volatile memory include read-only memory,
flash memory, ferroelectric RAM.
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4- NVRAM (Non Volatile RAM) , CONTINUED
Using NVRAM laptop computers would no longer
need back up batteries, permitting them to be
made still smaller and lighter. This achievement of
nanotechnology is considered as a long –standing
dream of the computer industry.
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FUTURE PREDICTIONS OF
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Thank you for