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10/30/14 
Bread 
Fermented Cereal Products
10/30/14 
Bread 
• A staple food prepared from a dough of flour and 
water, usually by baking --- Wikipedia 
• Food made o...
10/30/14 
Manufacturing Process 
 Mixing and kneading the dough 
 Fermentation 
Fermentation 
 Cutting, "resting" and g...
In breadmaking, fermentation 
involves two microorganisms 
10/30/14 
Yeast Lactic acid bacteria 
Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
Roles of Yeast 
 Increases dough volume 
 Develops structure and texture 
 Imparts distinctive flavor to the bread 
 E...
Roles of Lactic Acid Bacteria 
 Produce lactic acid 
 Produce flavoring compounds
BREADMAKING 
Microorganisms involved 
 Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
 Leuconostoc mesenteroides 
Leavening is performed by y...
 During fermentation, dough "conditioning" 
takes place. 
 Conditioning is a result of the action of 
gluten induced by ...
Dough Conditioners 
 Ammonium salts, which are sometimes used to 
stimulate the yeast 
 Sugars, which are usually added ...
NOTES 
The rate of gas production by yeast can be 
increased by the addition of the following: 
 More yeast 
 Sugar or a...
Production Steps 
• (see separate handout about bread making) 
• Additional notes about Baking Step
Fermented Rice Cake 
PUTO 
a leavened, steamed rice cake 
made from year-old rice grains which are 
soaked, ground with wa...
Production Steps 
1. Initial Cooking 
2. Grinding 
3. Draining of ground “slurry” (galapong) 
4. Preparation of starter (l...
Control of Process 
1. Rice – high or medium amylose content 
2. Soaking time or hydration factor of rice is 
3 – 4 hours ...
Identified Fermenting Microorganisms 
•The predominant organisms were always 
composed of: 
Leuconostoc mesenteroides (45 ...
Changes in Microflora 
1. Starter (a) aerobic colonies of bacteria and 
yeast (early stages), (b) predominant LAB and 
yea...
Physical Changes 
1. Acid development – by S. faecalis 
2. Leavening – by S. cerevisiae and Leuconostoc 
mesenteroides 
3....
Biochemical Changes 
1. Changes in rice during storage 
• Old rice is more flaky than freshly harvested 
rice 
• Fresh ric...
2. Changes in pH and Total Acidity 
•Starter: pH decreases from 6.0 to 4.2 
TA (%lactate) – 0.3 to 0.62- 0.66% 
•Drained r...
Nutritional Value 
• 251 calories / 100g 
• 3.5% protein content 
• 56% carbohydrates
BIBINGKA 
• Method of fermentation is the same as in puto 
• Cooked by baking or roasting 
• Cooked in a moulder (bibingka...
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Fermented cereal products 2

Fermented Cereal products

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Fermented cereal products 2

  1. 1. 10/30/14 Bread Fermented Cereal Products
  2. 2. 10/30/14 Bread • A staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking --- Wikipedia • Food made of flour, water, and yeast or another leavening agent, mixed together and baked --- Google • A staple food made from flour or meal mixed with other dry and liquid ingredients, usually combined with a leavening agent, and kneaded, shaped into loaves, and baked. --- Thefreedictionary
  3. 3. 10/30/14 Manufacturing Process  Mixing and kneading the dough  Fermentation Fermentation  Cutting, "resting" and gas reproduction  Molding  Baking  Slicing  Packaging
  4. 4. In breadmaking, fermentation involves two microorganisms 10/30/14 Yeast Lactic acid bacteria Saccharomyces cerevisiae Leuconostoc mesentoroides
  5. 5. Roles of Yeast  Increases dough volume  Develops structure and texture  Imparts distinctive flavor to the bread  Enhances the nutritive value of the product 10/30/14 5
  6. 6. Roles of Lactic Acid Bacteria  Produce lactic acid  Produce flavoring compounds
  7. 7. BREADMAKING Microorganisms involved  Saccharomyces cerevisiae  Leuconostoc mesenteroides Leavening is performed by yeast  Longer fermentation will produce more acids, resulting in a tendency of dough collapse
  8. 8.  During fermentation, dough "conditioning" takes place.  Conditioning is a result of the action of gluten induced by the following: a. proteolytic enzymes b. pH reduction due to acid production
  9. 9. Dough Conditioners  Ammonium salts, which are sometimes used to stimulate the yeast  Sugars, which are usually added in the formulation for activity of yeast
  10. 10. NOTES The rate of gas production by yeast can be increased by the addition of the following:  More yeast  Sugar or amylase-bearing malt  Yeast food On the other hand, gas production is decreased by the following:  Salt addition  Addition of too much yeast food  Use of too high or too low a temperature
  11. 11. Production Steps • (see separate handout about bread making) • Additional notes about Baking Step
  12. 12. Fermented Rice Cake PUTO a leavened, steamed rice cake made from year-old rice grains which are soaked, ground with water, and allowed to undergo a natural acid and gas fermentation Generally served with grated coconut Breakfast and snack food Types: plain and special
  13. 13. Production Steps 1. Initial Cooking 2. Grinding 3. Draining of ground “slurry” (galapong) 4. Preparation of starter (lebadura) 5. Fermentation (1st stage) – mixing of lebadura and galapong 6. Addition of sugar and lye 7. Fermentation (2nd stage)
  14. 14. Control of Process 1. Rice – high or medium amylose content 2. Soaking time or hydration factor of rice is 3 – 4 hours 3. Fermentation temperature of 28 – 30 °C in about 42 hours; can be shortened to about 21 hours using prepared starter 4. Addition of lye reduces acidity of the product 5. Use of proper cover during steaming.
  15. 15. Identified Fermenting Microorganisms •The predominant organisms were always composed of: Leuconostoc mesenteroides (45 – 89%) Streptococcus faecalis (20 – 50%) Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 18% of the population at the end of fermentation.)
  16. 16. Changes in Microflora 1. Starter (a) aerobic colonies of bacteria and yeast (early stages), (b) predominant LAB and yeast (later stage) 2. Drained flour – absence of aerobic colonies; presence of acid-forming 3. 1st stage of fermentation – consists of LAB and few yeast colonies 4. 2nd stage of fermentation – dominated by yeasts.
  17. 17. Physical Changes 1. Acid development – by S. faecalis 2. Leavening – by S. cerevisiae and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 3. Amylose content – main factor affecting gloss, cohesiveness, and tenderness of cooked rice 4. High amylose content rice varieties give higher yield and greater volume than low amylose content varieties.
  18. 18. Biochemical Changes 1. Changes in rice during storage • Old rice is more flaky than freshly harvested rice • Fresh rice (upon cooking), loses more solids to the cooking water than stored • Non-reducing sugar decreased while reducing sugars increased. • Slight drop in pH for stored rice.a
  19. 19. 2. Changes in pH and Total Acidity •Starter: pH decreases from 6.0 to 4.2 TA (%lactate) – 0.3 to 0.62- 0.66% •Drained rice flour after 24 hours pH 3.9 to 4.12; TA (%LA) – 0.34 – 0.42% •Fermenting Mixture 1st stage – pH: 4.4 to 4.10%; %LA 0.40 – 0.59% 2nd stage – pH 7.0 decreased to pH 6.12 – 6.25; %LA (final) = 0.24 – 0.28%
  20. 20. Nutritional Value • 251 calories / 100g • 3.5% protein content • 56% carbohydrates
  21. 21. BIBINGKA • Method of fermentation is the same as in puto • Cooked by baking or roasting • Cooked in a moulder (bibingkahan) lined with banana leaves • Classified as ordinary and special types.

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