Motivating self and others


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Motivating self and others

  1. 1. ADORA A. VOSOTROS Ph.D – EPM l Mindanao University of Science and Technology
  2. 2. DEFINING MOTIVATION Motivation - The internal and external forces that lead an individual to work toward a goal. Motivation can affect the following: • intensity, • direction, and • persistence a person shows in working toward a goal
  3. 3. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Psychologist Abraham Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other needs. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is most often displayed as a pyramid which serves for easy explanation and better understanding.
  4. 4. Most Basic Needs For Survival Classroom Application •Student’s environment should be clean and well maintained •Students should be getting the required sleep and food at home otherwise, they will not be able to move on to the next level within the hierarchy.
  5. 5. Classroom Application It is important for a child to feel secure within the classroom otherwise he/she would not be able to maintain focus on what is being taught. This would pose a major problem academically.
  6. 6. •Classroom Application If a student does not feel like they belong, whether it be within a circle of friends or their family they will have a hard time focusing on their learning. It will also be difficult for them to participate in group activities and ask questions when they feel the need to ask.
  7. 7. Classroom Application After the first three needs have been satisfied, the need for self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition and accomplishment become increasingly important. If a student has low self-confidence or low selfesteem. He/ she would not be able to develop creatively nor develop problem solving skills.
  8. 8. This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Self-actualizing people are: •self-aware •concerned with personal growth •less concerned with the opinions of others •interested fulfilling their potential.
  9. 9. Classroom Application As teachers, we need to guide our students through the first four levels to help them attain the skills within the fifth level. At the same time, we must realize that even secondary school students may not have the maturity needed to proceed through each level of Maslow's hierarchy. Therefore, we must be able to guide our students through these levels at the appropriate times.
  10. 10. Early Theories of Motivation ERG theory (Clayton Alderfer) There are three groups of core needs: •existence, •relatedness, and •growth
  11. 11. Early Theories of Motivation intrinsic motivators - a person’s internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction. extrinsic motivators – motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards.
  12. 12. Early Theories of Motivation Motivation-Hygiene Theory (also known as Two-Factor Theory by Frederick Herzberg ) “What do people want from their jobs?” factors leading to job satisfaction were motivators that are separate and distinct from the hygiene factors that lead to job dissatisfaction.
  13. 13. Early Theories of Motivation Motivators (factors that lead to extreme satisfaction) Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth
  14. 14. Early Theories of Motivation Factors that lead to extreme dissatisfaction: Company policy and administration Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work conditions Salary Relationship with peers Personal life Relationship with subordinates Status security
  15. 15. Early Theories of Motivation McClelland’s Theory of Needs (David McClelland) The theory focuses on three needs: •Need for achievement. The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. • Need for power. The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. • Need for affiliation. The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
  16. 16. EXPECTANCY THEORY The Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process of why individuals choose one behavioral option over another. It also explains how they make decisions to achieve the end they value. hree components of Expectancy theory: .Expectancy: Effort → Performance: the belief that one's effort will result n attainment of desired performance goals. .Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome: the belief that a person will eceive a reward if the performance expectation is met. This reward may ome in the form of a class reward, promotion, recognition or sense of ccomplishment. .Valence- the value the individual places on the rewards based on their eeds, goals, values and sources of motivation.
  18. 18. Contemporary Theories of Motivation Cognitive Evaluation Theory introduction of extrinsic rewards, such as pay, for work effort that was previously rewarding intrinsically (i.e., that was personally satisfying) will tend to decrease the overall level of a person’s motivation
  19. 19. Cognitive Evaluation Theory When extrinsic rewards are used by organizations as payoffs for superior performance, the intrinsic rewards, which are derived from individuals doing what they like, are reduced
  20. 20. Cognitive Evaluation Theory SELF-CONCORDANCE - the degree to which a person’s reasons for pursuing a goal is consistent with the person’s interests and core values
  21. 21. Goal-Setting Theory A goal is “what an individual is trying to accomplish; it is the object or aim of an action.” Goal-Setting theory – says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance; specific goals increase performance; difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals; and that feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback.
  22. 22. Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) According to Locke, goal setting motivates in four ways: • Goals direct attention • Goals regulate effort •Goals increase persistence • Goals encourage the development of strategies and action plans
  23. 23. Self-Efficacy Theory -an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. According to Albert Bandura, self-efficacy can be increased through: •Enactive mastery •Vicarious modeling •Verbal persuasion •arousal
  24. 24. Reinforcement Theory a theory that says behavior is a function of its consequences.
  25. 25. Equity Theory -equity theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities. Four referent comparisons that an employee can use: 1.self-inside 2.Self-outside 3.Other-inside 4.Other-outside
  26. 26. Model of Organizational Justice
  27. 27. Motivating Employees: A Reaction • Employee motivation can be as individual as the people who work for you. We've gathered the best and most interesting techniques to help you motivate employees. • When you think about it, the success of any facet of your business can almost always be traced back to motivated employees. From productivity and profitability to recruiting and retention, hardworking and happy employees lead to triumph.
  28. 28. • Unfortunately, motivating people is far from an exact science. There's no secret formula, no set calculation, no work sheet to fill out. In fact, motivation can be as individual as the employees who work for you. One employee may be motivated only by money. Another may appreciate personal recognition for a job well done. Still another may work harder if she has equity in the business.
  29. 29. • But you can boil down employee motivation to one basic ideal: finding out what your employees want and finding a way to give it to them or to enable them to earn it.
  30. 30. Reference Robbins, S.P & Judge T.A. (2011). Organizational Behavior (Global Edition). Pearson Education, Inc. Singapore