Speech Language Therapy in School


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Speech Language Therapist Role in Education

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Speech Language Therapy in School

  1. 1. SPEECH LANGUAGE THERAPY IN THE EDUCATIONAL CONTEXTBY: Néstor Antonio Pardo Rodríguez1Speech Language TherapistGraduate of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia.Email: nestorpardo2000@yahoo.comhttp://www.fonocol.loquegustes.comINTRODUCTIONHolland (1994), cited by Cuervo (1999) argues that "little importance have SpeechLanguage Therapists generate more knowledge and expand the scope and sophisticationof their clinical skills for trying people with disabilities in communication, if they are no ableto achieve that services reach those in need "For Bravo (1999, p.22), many children from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds,are unable to successfully follow the school curriculum in the early years, even with a bigintellectual capacity, due to enter primary school with a level cognitive and verbaldevelopment does not allow them to successfully carry out this learning. In turn, Fajardoand Moya (1999) indicate that learning refers to both the interaction between theindividual and their environment as the internalization of the results of this interaction.Rincón et al (2004, p. 44 and 45), argue that the quality is understood as the property orset of inherent properties of a thing that can appreciate it as well, for better as or worsethan others of its kind. Thus, the objective of providing quality education for all is at oddswith the ideas which were introduced many decades and offer an education for the poor"poor" and a "rich" education for the rich. The quality of education seeks to reduce thehuge educational gaps separating different social groups and aims to overcome loweducational levels diagnosed in Colombia, going beyond the social and culturalconstraints. So when talking about quality of education, one should take into account theconceptual clarity of educational projects and purposes thereof, the domains shouldstudents to understand and transform their context and interact and live on equal termsand strategies and ways to implement educational assessment.Cazden (1991), cited by Bustamante and Guevara (2003, p. 15) says that the areas ofschool life is presented as a multiplicity of communicative events. The school, like anysocial institution, is a communication system. And the latter (2003, p. 19) indicate that thenetwork learning process - learning is linked through discursive social interaction teacher -student. Teaching practices would be given by the relations of production, circulation andreception (passive or active) of the shares of thought and language among its members.This indicates that a proposal for teaching reading - writing and other academic contentcan not be done just from technology, but should include other aspects from the1 Speech Language Therapist graduate at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Over 27 years of experience inEducation, Health and International Cooperation, in Bolivia, Colombia, Nicaragua and Peru. He was Secretary of the Municipal Education, Municipal Advisory Council in the area of Education, Creator of SpecialEducation Programs, and Promoter of NGOs related to the theme of Education and Language Therapist (public and privatesectors) in Colombia. CIIR / Progressio in Nicaragua and British International Service in Bolivia Development Worker.Currrently, Consultant of the Cobija, Bolivia Mayoralty.
  2. 2. perspective of the institution where they will be taken, whose purpose is to be studentsintellectual development mediated communication processes, because the man actswithin a social context, ie a set of conditions that affect the individual at a given moment,which over the course of time has generated in the human species language and thoughtare the two fundamental characteristics that differentiate it from the animal.For example, according Puyuelo and Rondal (2003, p. 284), reading is a task thatdepends on factors perceptual, cognitive and linguistic act interactively. To be a goodlearning place the reader, the child must have developed certain phonological, languageand cognitive, to be trained. They include phonological awareness or ability to movephonemes to graphemes, semantic memory and working memory.From all this, the question arises. Who is for this training? Or rather, what training canhelp to be given opportunities to reach the welfare and well-connected from the school aspart of the education system? The answer may lie in the statement Flórez (2004, p. 136):Every school should benefit from the services Speech Language Therapy school becauselanguage and communication skills are the foundation of all learning and an essentialprerequisite for academic success, to develop social skills to become responsible citizensand perform productively in the world of work.In this article, therefore, would need to have a school speech pathologist in everyeducational institution and the role of it in the school.EDUCATIONAL SPEECH LANGUAGE THERAPYFlórez (2004, p. 138) argues that any Speech Language Therapy Service in school seekscompliance with the objectives of preschool and basic education through the design,implementation and management of prevention, promotion, diagnosis, intervention,rehabilitation students with and without communication disorders, and advice andcounseling to teachers and parents among others. In addition, the speech pathologist, oncampus, performs functional and measurable changes in the communicative status ofstudents to participate, as much as possible in all aspects of his / her educational, socialand vocational, and prepares to meet the communication demands of the working world inthe XXI Century (American Speech and Hearing Association - American Association ofSpeech and Language).Colombian Association of Speech Language Therapy presented his official position aboutspeech language therapy in the educational context (Alvarez, Beatriz Sepulveda,Angelica. "Colombian Association of Speech Language Therapy. Scientific Committee.School Speech Therapy Group. Bogotá, 2002) "The School Speech Language Therapist is a professional trained in humancommunication sciences and disorders, in education policy in dealing with students of allgrades - that may or may not communicative disorders -; is trained in the care of personswith disabilities who are in educational processes and is an expert consultant for:language and communication in the school, the optimization of communication skills in theclassroom, the integration of children with disabilities into regular classrooms, theimplementation of curricular, among others.
  3. 3. This professional can answer a wide range of knowledge and technical skills andprocedural, to the complex demands of school and school age students, is qualified towork in interdisciplinary teams and to assume other responsibilities outside the scope ofpractice, on the advice of other professionals. The School Speech Language Therapist will optimize the skills of all students, preventthe development of communication disorders, serving students whose educationalprogress, social and / or personnel is adversely affected by communication difficulties(disorders, delays or variations); investigate the relationships between humancommunication processes, normal and altered, and educational processes, and offercounseling to all members of the educational community. The services offered by the school speech therapist are organized to encourage allstudents to develop language and communication skills necessary for academic learning,participation in democratic life, the media and the world of work. The School Speech Language Therapist carries out prevention of communicationdisorders, promoting the welfare of all school communication, identification of studentswith communication disorders or at risk for, evaluation - diagnosis and intervention of thesame, inside or outside the classroom, as deem appropriate; counsel parents orcaregivers, advice for teachers and other professionals, research and documentation. The School Speech Language Therapist is a member of the teams educationalinstitution, and meets five key roles related to Speech Language Therapy serviceplanning, health services, development of prevention and promotion, consulting andresearch language. "LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATIONBustamante and Guevara (2003, p. 65) explains that in traditional courses of Spanish andliterature, education is often reduced to emphasize the importance of grammar, as itallows to achieve a good composition, ie the construction of texts "correctly" written by thestandards set by the authorities of the language.However, do not forget that communication is not just grammar. The communicationprocess is the transmission, man to man, meaning with a certain intellectual or cognitive,to evoke in another person the same content, which implies that there is a simpletransmission of information destined for an amorphous mass but the conceptual exchangebetween two or more partners aware, based on the analysis and focused on theappearance or behavior modification.Habermas (1984, p. 393) complements this by saying that a speaker chooses anexpression to understand language is intelligible to a listener about something and thetime given to understand himself. The speakers communicative intention thereforeincludes a) performing a speech act that is correct under the given regulatory context,thereby to establish a personal relationship with the listener, which could be consideredlegitimate, b) make a true statement (or presuppositions of existence adapted to thereality) to assume that the listener can embrace and share the knowledge of the speaker,
  4. 4. and c) truthfully expressing opinions, intentions, feelings, desires, etc., so that the listenercan trust what you hear.It should be borne in mind that the language or language, historical cultural phenomenonafter the speech, is by Rojas (1989), the kingdom of the joints of the signs, or as Saussure(1982, p. 53), a system that combines different set of signifiers with a different set ofmeanings, so that these joints become the power of thought and spoken languagemediates between the individual and society.From there comes the idea that word and no grammar that points to an object, aphenomenon, an action or a relationship. The word gives us the ability to analyze objects,out of which the essential properties and place in a given category. The word is anabstraction and synthesis, reflects the deep connections and relationships that are behindthe objects in the outside world (Luria, 1980, p.27)For Sawyer and Butler (1991) identify what a word means is a complex problem. Withinsemantic memory is a speakers mental dictionary. This provides information about thewords, their meanings and pronunciation, and their associational contexts. As a result,the meaning of a word is activated within the context in which it reads. In other words, thecontext of aid has to choose which of the meanings is appropriate, provided that the childhas sufficient knowledge of the world around him.According to Miller (1979), no communication, social organization is impossible. Theindividual who does not speak with any member of a group is necessarily isolated and cannot acquire knowledge, as it is constructed through dialogic exchange that allows theinterpretation of world trade.For Rossi - Landi (1970, p. 22 and 23), the language is not a creation of the individual, buta product of the community: In any case, the individual learning the language within alanguage was the production of the instruments that each language is today, was metsocially through tens or hundreds of millennia and would be totally absurd to think that canbe performed again by a single individual. It would be like learning to use tools andprocedures, say, of modern mining, but only cover the history of such removal.Miller (1979) indicates that the 1500 languages in the world offer strong evidence thatimplies learning. Thus, the child is unable to build, since according to Saussure (1982, p.136), in fact, no company knows, no language has ever known otherwise than as aproduct inherited from preceding generations and we must take as it is. Simply learn fromthe first days of life, the language model that gives the society of his birth, by which he cangrasp reality.Based on previously discussed, it is assumed that both the sender and receiver areindividuals with a substrate identical to the encoding or decoding (language). The emitterdemonstrates an intention to express feelings, thoughts, ideas or concepts, and assumesthat the receiver is ready to react and seize them, decrypted and compared with previousexperiences that can match. The first encodes the message, which is sent through achannel, and the second decode it. If this is the ideal process, the receiver canunderstand what is expected to transmit the caller to subsequently reversed roles, thelatter becoming a transmitter.
  5. 5. A useful overview of the process is commonly seen as a set of sub - processes in thebrain of the partners. The sub - initial process lies with the "speaker" in intention tocommunicate, and involves a series of steps usually hierarchical, from the implicitknowledge of meaning, syntax, word correspondence - sound or word - manual sign orgraphic are used to encode a message into an audible signal, kinetics or graphic. Therecipient, meanwhile, such as using a sub - the process by nested reverse perceptualprocessing stages, beginning with hearing or visual representation, and ends with therecovery of the message. Each stage of the process is assumed to transform themessage of an internal representation to another, preserving the relevant linguisticinformation (Bailey, 1983).Therefore, not only the teaching of grammar what to look for Spanish programs orCorporate Communication Arts in educational establishments, but, with the participation ofAudiology professional, welfare-oriented students communicative and wider educationcommunity, which according to Crow (1999, p. 45) is experienced when a person is ableto develop an optimal capacity in the use of language and communication.ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOL SPEECH LANGUAGE THERAPIST The Colombian Association of Speech Language Therapy (Alvarez and Sepulveda,2002), quoted by Florez (2004, p. 140 to 142) indicates the main roles and responsibilitiesof School Speech Language Therapist, which are transcribed below:PLANNING • Organize a Speech Language Therapy Service at school. • Write annual School Speech Language Therapy offering services in the institution. • Plan the time devoted to evaluation - diagnosis, direct services to students, parents counseling and consultation to faculty members, meetings with district staff and other responsibilities.ASSISTANCE • Direct services to students with eating disorders, delays or changes in communication, whether or not other disabling conditions such as cognitive impairment, autism, cerebral palsy, visual and hearing impairments, among others. • Organising, accepting and processing referrals of students to the service of School Speech Language Therapy by teachers, psychologists, parents, administrators and other professionals. • Perform or manage hearing screenings, speech and language to all students. • Select, administer and interpret diagnostic tests to identify students needs in language, speech and hearing. • Refer students to other services. • Monitor cases of students in Speech Language Therapy services outside the institution. • Write diagnostic reports and make recommendations for parents, teachers and other professionals.
  6. 6. • Participate in the development of Custom Projects for students with disabilities communicate. • Intervention in disorders, delays, and / or variations of school communication, using collaborative consultation, classroom intervention, intervention outside the classroom, community-based intervention, or others as deemed necessary. • Coordinate the selection and adaptation of technological aids for students with communicative disabilities (eg FM systems, communication boards, computerized augmentative communication systems / alternative). • Advise on the creation of educational programs for students with special educational needs. • Record information on the effects of the services provided. • Carry statistical reports of the specialized care offered by the service and provide this information upon request. • Monitor and facilitate progress of students and reassessed once a year. • Inform the Director of the schools need for programs, services and special resources for the institution. • Evaluate the effectiveness of all programs undertaken by the service. • Participate in meetings and projects undertaken by national education authorities.PREVENTION AND PROMOTION • Train and educate parents, teachers, administrators and other experts on the needs of language, speech and hearing with students, attitudes towards disability, and other matters it deems appropriate. • Plan and provide in-service teacher training on communication skills optimization of all students, the prevention of language disorders, speech and hearing, and the mechanisms used for managing students with these disorders in the classroom, among others. • Perform actions to help students develop communication skills necessary to participate in democratic life, the media and the world of work.LANGUAGE CONSULTANCY • Leading positions on the use of language and communication in school. • Identify and communicate the need for continuing education in certain areas. • Participate in the development and / or modification of Institutional Educational Project.RESEARCH • Conduct research as critical areas identified in the service. • Expand the knowledge base of their actions. • Offer services based on evidence.
  7. 7. CONCLUSIONS The constitution of the human occurs primarily through the language, because both areinextricably linked as two sides of a coin ... Thus, the human is only possible in the field ofculture and cannot exist without language. This concept for our reflections lies in theparticular relationship with these approaches to the field of education. Education, inwhatever form, including schooling obviously, is an act of communication that is mediatedby language. Education in a country depends on the possibility of generating a communicationprocess, mediated by culture through the school, organized according to the integraldevelopment of each student and the development of knowledge, in order to enable theachievement of autonomy and with it the active link to their changing environment.For its part, the school, like any social institution, is a communication system. Therefore,all schools should benefit from Speech Language Therapy Services because languageand communication skills are the foundation of all learning and an essential prerequisitefor academic success, to develop social skills to become responsible citizens andproductive performance in the world of work.The school audiologist will optimize the skills of all students, prevent the development ofcommunication disorders, serving students whose educational progress, social and / orpersonnel is adversely affected by communication difficulties (disorders, delays orvariations); investigate the relationships between human communication processes,normal and altered, and educational processes, and offer counseling to all members ofthe educational community. All this highlights the importance of the professional in Speech Language Therapy insideany educational institution.REFERENCESALDANA, Eduardo y otros. Colombia: Al filo de la oportunidad. Informe Conjunto. Misión Ciencia, Educación yDesarrollo. Ministerio de Educación Nacional, Bogotá, 1994.BRAVO, Luis. Lenguaje y dislexias. Alfaomega Grupo Editor, México, 1999.BUSTAMANTE, Borys y GUEVARA, Carlos. Comunidad de aprendizaje como comunidad de lenguaje. UniversidadFrancisco José de Caldas, Bogotá, 2003.CUERVO, Clemencia. La profesión de fonoaudiología: Colombia en perspectiva internacional. Universidad Nacional deColombia, Bogotá, 1999.DIMATÉ, Cecilia y ARCILA, Myriam. Repitencia escolar. Universidad Externado de Colombia, Bogotá, 2003DOWNING, John y THACKRAY, Derek. Madurez para la lectura. Editorial Kapelusz, Buenos Aires, 1974.FAJARDO, Luz y MOYA, Constanza. Fundamentos neuropsicológicos del lenguaje. Ediciones Universidad deSalamanca e Instituto Caro y Cuervo, Salamanca, 1999.FLÓREZ, Rita. Editora. El lenguaje en la educación: una perspectiva fonoaudiológica. Universidad Nacional deColombia, Bogotá, 2004
  8. 8. HABERMAS, Jürgen. Teoría de la acción comunicativa. Taurus Ediciones, Barcelona, 1984.LURIA, Aleksandr. Lenguaje y pensamiento. Editorial Fontanella, Barcelona, 1980MILLER, George. Lenguaje y comunicación. Amorrortu Editores, Buenos Aires, 1979.MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN NACIONAL. Lineamientos generales de procesos curriculares. Bogotá, 1994.MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN NACIONAL. Reflexión sobre los proyectos educativos institucionales y guía para laconstrucción de planes operativos por parte de las comunidades educativas. Bogotá, 1994.OSPINA, Humberto. Compilador. Normas legales para establecimientos educativos de naturaleza oficial y privada. Año1998 y anteriores. Eduguías Editor, Bogotá, 1998.PEÑAFIEL, Fernando y TORRES, José. Indicadores de calidad en la educación especial. Grupo Editorial Universitario.Granada, 2002.PUYUELO, Miguel y RONDAL, Jean-Adolphe. Manual de desarrollo y alteraciones del lenguaje. Masson, Barcelona,2003.REPÚBLICA DE COLOMBIA. Ley General de Educación. El Pensador Editores, Bogotá, 1996.RINCÓN, Cecilia y otros. Deserción y retención escolar. Universidad Distrital Francisco de Paula Santander, Bogotá,2004.ROJAS, Jaime. La psicolingüística. Editorial El Propio Bolsillo, Medellín, 1989.ROSSI-LANDI, Ferruccio. El lenguaje como trabajo y como mercado. Monte Avila Editores, Caracas, 1970.SAUSSURE, Ferdinand de. Curso de lingüística general. Losada, Buenos Aires, 1982. p. 53TORO, José. En: SECRETARIADO PARA LA MISION EDUCATIVA. Los códigos de la modernidad. Trascripción dela conferencia “El proyecto del ciudadano docente y la formación de docentes, Medellín, 1994.ZUBIRIA, Miguel de. Tratado de Pedagogía Conceptual 1. Pensamiento y Aprehendizaje: Los instrumentos delconocimiento. Fundación Alberto Merani para el Desarrollo de la Inteligencia, Bogotá, D. C., 1994.