Assessment 072


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  • Assessment 072

    1. 1. How Can I Assess What My Students Know? (Before it’s too late.) <ul><li>How will you know if students are meeting your learning goals? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you tell if students understand? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you assess and evaluate students? </li></ul>
    2. 2. Warmup <ul><li>Work in pairs or individually </li></ul><ul><li>Create an assessment for a lesson that either your or your partner has already written. </li></ul><ul><li>Write down the concept, idea, or skill that you are trying to assess. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Key Ideas in Assessment (I) <ul><li>Assessment – collecting, synthesizing and interpreting information to help in decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation – making a judgment (regarding someone’s performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Testing -- a type of assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded assessment--integrate within instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyday assessment to promote learning </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Key Ideas in Assessment (II) <ul><li>Formative assessment (everyday assessment) -- carried out during instruction in order to assess student progress and learning. Both teachers and students receive information on how the student is progressing. </li></ul><ul><li>Summative assessment -- final phase of and assessment program. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summative assessment can still be used to give feedback and improve learning. Don’t think of summative feedback as bringing closure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides students, teachers and other interested stake holders useful feedback about the students' performance/understanding </li></ul>
    5. 5. Question to Think About <ul><li>What are some ways that the teachers you have observed use assessment? Evaluation? Grading? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Embedded/Everyday Assessment <ul><li>Integrated within everyday science activities </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing rather than a culminating activity </li></ul><ul><li>Provides feedback to students </li></ul><ul><li>Guides instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction becomes a mode of inquiry. Teachers observe students learning while students engage in learning science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What science practices are students using? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What concepts are students learning from these experiences? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What have I learned about what students know and are able to do? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product/artifact – external representation of a student understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artifacts can take many forms: writing samples, daily journal entries, physical products, drawings, music, videotapes, and multimedia documents. The artifacts students create during a project give evidence of what they understand. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artifacts can be presented to a real audience (peers, parents, community members) to help make project work meaningful . </li></ul>
    7. 7. Key Ideas in Assessment (III) <ul><li>Aligned with the learning goals you specify!! </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to express what they learned in response at different levels of performances -- low, medium and high cognitive demand levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to make multiple connections among ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides opportunity for students to apply. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides students opportunities to express their understanding in different formats/modes. </li></ul><ul><li>Is at an appropriate level of difficulty. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Creating Assessment Tasks <ul><li>Step #1 Identify and unpack the content standard </li></ul><ul><li>Step #2 Identify and unpack the practice </li></ul><ul><li>Step #3 Create learning performance </li></ul><ul><li>Step #4 Write the assessment task </li></ul><ul><li>Step #5 Review the assessment task </li></ul>
    9. 9. A Range of Practices (simpler to more complex) <ul><li>Identify, describe, … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students identify the type system, open versus closed, for a process and describe that in a closed system no material (atoms and molecules) can enter or leave the system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measuring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students measure important physical magnitudes such as volume, weight, density, and temperature using standard or nonstandard units. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Representing data and interpreting representations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students using tables and graphs to organize and display information both qualitatively and quantitatively. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predicting/Inferring. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting/inferring involves using knowledge of a principle or relationship to make an inference about something that has not been directly observed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give an example of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student produce an example </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posing questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students identify and ask questions about phenomena that can be answered through scientific investigations. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Practices (continued) <ul><li>Designing and conducting investigations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing investigation includes: identifying and specifying what variables need to be manipulated, measured (independent and dependent variables) and controlled; constructing hypotheses; specifying the relationship between variables; constructing/developing procedures that allow them to explore their hypotheses; and determining what observations will be made, how often the data will be collected, and what type of observations will be made. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructing evidence-based explanations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students use scientific theories, models and principles along with evidence to build explanations of phenomena; it also entails ruling out alternative hypotheses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applying Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using concepts to solve problems and make relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyzing and interpreting data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students make sense of data by answering the questions: “What does the data we collected mean?” “How does this data help me answer my question?” Interpreting and analyzing can include transforming the data and finding patterns in the data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>11. Evaluating/Reflecting / Making an Argument . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students ask: Do these data support this claim? Are these data reliable? Evaluate measurement: Is the following an example of good or bad measurement? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Review Assessment Item <ul><li>Does the task match the learning goal I hoped students would learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the knowledge necessary to correctly respond to the task? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the knowledge sufficient to correctly respond to the task or is additional knowledge needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the assessment task and context likely to be comprehensible to students? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the task written at a level of difficulty that matches how students were encouraged to perform in class? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the task written at a reading level that my students can understand? Is language a barrier to answering task? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the task fair to students from various cultural backgrounds? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Synthesize, Grasshopper <ul><li>Summarize the steps for creating an assessment. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Synthesize, Grasshopper <ul><li>Summarize the steps for creating an assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare your steps with your neighbor’s, and add stuff you forgot if you need to. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Guidelines in writing assessment tasks <ul><li>Write tasks clearly at the level of the students’ reading level. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to avoid statements that are vague. </li></ul><ul><li>Use language that students in your class will understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate vocabulary. Be mindful of your students and their reading level. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop rubrics for open-ended items </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the tasks match the instruction students experienced. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that the tasks match the level of difficulty students were prepared for. </li></ul><ul><li>When writing multiple choice items, write distracters that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students might have misconceptions on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>point out areas of students misunderstanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seem plausible . </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Rubric – an established set of criteria for scoring students performance, products, tests, portfolios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of criteria -- written description of different levels of quality for student performance that allow one to rank or rate a level of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Rubrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic Rubric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measures the overall quality of an artifact, performance, or portfolio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytic Rubric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measures artifacts or performance in a quantitative manner by assigning points for specific traits, dimensions or criteria that are present (or missing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See McNeill & Krajcik 2006 for examples for Scientific Explanations </li></ul></ul></ul>Creating Rubrics
    16. 16. Measuring Different Levels of Cognitive Understanding <ul><li>Low cognitive task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recall, recognize, identify, or retrieve information. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium cognitive task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interpret, clarify, translate, exemplify, classify, summarize, generalize, infer, compare, contrast. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High cognitive task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>apply, analyze, draw conclusion, create, write scientific explanation, or evaluate </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Example of a Low Level Task <ul><li>Test/Quiz Item: The movement of soil from the side of a river bank is an example of which process? </li></ul><ul><li>a. Run-off </li></ul><ul><li>b. Deposition </li></ul><ul><li>c. Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>d. Absorption </li></ul>
    18. 18. Example -- Medium Level Cognitive Task <ul><li>Test/quiz Item: While riding your bike, you drop a quarter out of your hand. Someone watching you would see the quarter hit the ground __________ </li></ul><ul><li>a. in front of you </li></ul><ul><li>b. beside you </li></ul><ul><li>c. behind you </li></ul><ul><li>d. there’s no way to tell. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Example - High Level cognitive Task <ul><li>Assessment Task: Design an experiment to show the relationship between plant growth and the amount of sunlight a plant receives. </li></ul>