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  1. 1. TOOLS OF TQM Abdulla Jassim Abdulla
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Data-Driven Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Data generated by processes </li></ul>Statistical interpretation Seasonal variations New Technology
  3. 3. THE ‘SEVEN SIMPLE TOOLS’ <ul><li>Flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect (Ishikawa / fishbone) Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Check sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Pareto Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Histograms </li></ul><ul><li>Run Charts and Control Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Scatter plots and Correlation Analysis </li></ul>
  4. 4. FLOWCHARTS <ul><li>Remember system theory: (Input, Output, customer supplier and their interactions). </li></ul><ul><li>Divide complex processes into simple sub-processes. </li></ul><ul><li>A Qualitative tools </li></ul>
  5. 5. Patient Transport Process Example Request made Log & prioritize request Dispatch transport Take patient to X-ray Doctor determines patient needs X-ray Information taken & request is logged Required equipment is found Transporter arrives on ward Ward contacts dispatcher Request prioritized Transport is dispatched Patient transferred from bed Patient taken to X-ray
  6. 6. Types of Flowcharts <ul><li>LAYOUT FLOWCHART </li></ul><ul><li>Example Staff movement </li></ul><ul><li>DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS </li></ul><ul><li>leave approval process </li></ul>
  7. 7. ISHIKAWA DIAGRAMS <ul><li>Also known as Fishbone or Cause-and-Effect Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Non-quantitative tools (Qualitative) </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called the 5M Diagram (Men, Machine, Materials, Measurements and methods) </li></ul>
  9. 9. CHECKSHEETS <ul><li>Central tool for Quality Assurance programs </li></ul><ul><li>Specially useful for operational procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Could be derived from the flowchart and fishbone diagrams </li></ul>
  10. 10. Example check sheets Patient Transport Problem Sheet Area: Ward 3b Period: June 1996 Type Tally Subtotal Equipment broken IIIII 5 Patient not ready IIIII II 7 Not enough staff III 3 Patient having another exam etc. IIIII IIIII II 12