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Haptic Communications

Förderverein Technische Fakultät
Förderverein Technische Fakultät
Förderverein Technische FakultätFörderverein Technische Fakultät

Haptic Communications

1 of 36
Technische Universität München




      Haptic Communications
Fernanda Brandi, Rahul Chaudhari, Burak Cizmeci, Julius Kammerl,
        Clemens Schuwerk, Eckehard Steinbach, Xiao Xu
                  Institute for Media Technology, TU Munich
                   Sandra Hirche, Iason Vittorias
             Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, TU Munich


F



                                                                                             t
                    Klagenfurt University, March 27, 2012
Technische Universität München




The quest for immersive communication: telepresence




                                  Network




                               audiovisual
                              communication

             Although conversational services are bidirectional,
             audiovisual data communication is 2x unidirectional


                       IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 28, no. 1, January 2011
                       Special Issue on Immersive Communication
                       Guest editors: Y. Altunbasak, J. Apostolopoulos, P. Chou, and B. H. Juang

27.03.2012                    Eckehard Steinbach et al.                                      2
Technische Universität München




Telepresence + Haptics = Teleaktion (Telemanipulation)

                         Local Control Loop                   Local Control Loop


                                                                                                Sensors
                                                                                                    &
                                              Network
                                                                                                Actuators



       Operator with                       audio-visual-haptic             Teleoperator in
   Human-System-Interface                   communication                remote environment

     Operator performance increases significantly in telemanipulation of
               remote objects when haptic feedback is provided
                 Haptic communication is by definition bidirectional
      [Cohen Loeb 1983; Hannaford et al. 1993; Hirzinger et al. 1994; Srinisavan et al. 1997;
       Dennerlein et al. 2000; Basdogan et al. 2000; Cockburn et al. 2005; Tholey et al. 2005;
                                Hokayem et al. 2006; El Saddik 2007]

                                 R. Ferrell and T. B. Sheridan, “Supervisory control of remote
                                 manipulation,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 81–88, October 1967.

27.03.2012                              Eckehard Steinbach et al.                                        3
Technische Universität München




Haptic interaction in shared (virtual) environments




   Subjective sense of togetherness in shared environments is significantly
    improved when haptic feedback is provided [C. Basdogan et al., 2000]


27.03.2012                     Eckehard Steinbach et al.                                    4
Technische Universität München




Collaborative Haptics




27.03.2012              Eckehard Steinbach et al.                                    5
Technische Universität München



Haptics
         Kinesthetic Perception                                           Tactile Perception




            Image Source: Katsunari Sato,
    Dept. of MEIP, The University of Tokyo/Japan

             Position & Forces                                    sense of touch of the skin
                         	
  

                         	
                Percep'on	
  of	
  
       form,	
  posi'on,	
  surface	
  texture,	
  s'ffness,	
  fric'on,	
  temperature,	
  etc.	
  
                         	
  
27.03.2012                                    Eckehard Steinbach et al.                                        6

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Haptic Communications

  • 1. Technische Universität München Haptic Communications Fernanda Brandi, Rahul Chaudhari, Burak Cizmeci, Julius Kammerl, Clemens Schuwerk, Eckehard Steinbach, Xiao Xu Institute for Media Technology, TU Munich Sandra Hirche, Iason Vittorias Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, TU Munich F t Klagenfurt University, March 27, 2012
  • 2. Technische Universität München The quest for immersive communication: telepresence Network audiovisual communication Although conversational services are bidirectional, audiovisual data communication is 2x unidirectional IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 28, no. 1, January 2011 Special Issue on Immersive Communication Guest editors: Y. Altunbasak, J. Apostolopoulos, P. Chou, and B. H. Juang 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 2
  • 3. Technische Universität München Telepresence + Haptics = Teleaktion (Telemanipulation) Local Control Loop Local Control Loop Sensors & Network Actuators Operator with audio-visual-haptic Teleoperator in Human-System-Interface communication remote environment Operator performance increases significantly in telemanipulation of remote objects when haptic feedback is provided Haptic communication is by definition bidirectional [Cohen Loeb 1983; Hannaford et al. 1993; Hirzinger et al. 1994; Srinisavan et al. 1997; Dennerlein et al. 2000; Basdogan et al. 2000; Cockburn et al. 2005; Tholey et al. 2005; Hokayem et al. 2006; El Saddik 2007] R. Ferrell and T. B. Sheridan, “Supervisory control of remote manipulation,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 81–88, October 1967. 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 3
  • 4. Technische Universität München Haptic interaction in shared (virtual) environments Subjective sense of togetherness in shared environments is significantly improved when haptic feedback is provided [C. Basdogan et al., 2000] 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 4
  • 5. Technische Universität München Collaborative Haptics 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 5
  • 6. Technische Universität München Haptics Kinesthetic Perception Tactile Perception Image Source: Katsunari Sato, Dept. of MEIP, The University of Tokyo/Japan Position & Forces sense of touch of the skin     Percep'on  of   form,  posi'on,  surface  texture,  s'ffness,  fric'on,  temperature,  etc.     27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 6
  • 7. Technische Universität München Haptic Communications Position/Velocity Internet Force Feedback 1000 Hz sampling rate 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 7
  • 8. Technische Universität München Properties of haptic data streams §  Data format: §  Degrees of freedom: between 1 and >20 §  Sampling frequency: up to 1000Hz §  Sampling resolution: up to 16bit §  Transmission properties: §  Very strict delay constraints (stability) §  Control loop is closed by communication system §  High packet rates (up to 1000 pkts/s) Block-based coding not feasible ! §  Bad payload/header ratio 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 8
  • 9. Technische Universität München Outline §  Early work in haptic data compression / reduction §  Perceptual online data reduction of haptic signals §  Extension to multi-DoF §  Perceptual offline coding of haptic signals §  Error-resilient haptic communication 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 9
  • 10. Technische Universität München Early work in haptic data compression / reduction §  Lossy compression of haptic payload (different sampling, quantization and entropy coding schemes) §  Hikichi et al., ICME 2001 §  Shahabi et al., ICME 2002 §  Ortega and Liu, Prentice Hall 2002 §  Borst, WorldHaptics 2005 Packet rate reduction is not addressed ! §  Packet rate reduction §  Otanez et al., American Control Conf., 2002. Human haptic perception is not exploited ! 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 10
  • 11. Technische Universität München Outline §  Early work in haptic data compression / reduction §  Perceptual online data reduction of haptic signals §  Extension to multi-DoF §  Perceptual offline coding of haptic signals §  Error-resilient haptic communication 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 11
  • 12. Technische Universität München Weber’s law Just Noticeable Difference (JND) ΔI = constant I Stimulus Intensity 10g 10g Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795-1878) 1kg 1kg+10g 100g 110g Image Source: Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin http://vlp.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/people/data?id=per154 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 12
  • 13. Technische Universität München Perceptual haptic data reduction §  Exploit limits of human haptic perception §  Only transmit packets which cause a perceivable change §  Based on Weber’s Law of Just Noticeable Differences (JND) §  Examples of JND [Jones et al. 1992, Burdea 1996] §  Arm position: 8% §  Forces at a finger: 5-14% §  Arm velocity: 8% §  Moments at a finger: 13% 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 13
  • 14. Technische Universität München Perceptual deadband coding ΔI Sender: JND (Weber) = constant I A t Signal Updates Receiver: A t P. Hinterseer et al., IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, 2008. 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 14
  • 15. Technische Universität München Predictive coding and filtering Position + Velocity LP Prediction Prediction Filter Deadband HSI TOP Prediction LP Prediction Filter Deadband Force §  Deadband applied to difference between true and predicted signal §  Low-pass filtering of input signals §  Noise reduction §  Removal of not perceivable or not displayable frequencies P. Hinterseer et al., IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, 2008. 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 15
  • 16. Technische Universität München Combination with predictive coding A A t t Predicted Signal Input Signal Only samples that differ from the predicted signal by more than the Weber JND have to be encoded 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 16
  • 17. Technische Universität München Results for 1 DoF experiment 1000 Velocity LP + LinPred 900 Force LP + LinPred 800 Velocity LinPred Mean perception threshold Force LinPred Packet rate [pkts/s] 700 of the test persons 600 500 400 300 200 ≈ 90% 100 0 ≈ 94% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Deadband [%] 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 17
  • 18. Technische Universität München Alternative prediction approach: local object model Environment OP Model Network Model HSI TOP DB Define a local model of the geometric structure and impedance properties of the currently touched surface. è Haptic rendering based on local surface model 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 18
  • 19. Technische Universität München Local surface models 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 19
  • 21. Technische Universität München Results Rate-Quality Performance X. Xu et al., IEEE HAVE 2011 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 21
  • 22. Technische Universität München Outline §  Early work in haptic data compression / reduction §  Perceptual online data reduction of haptic signals §  Extension to multi-DoF §  Perceptual offline coding of haptic signals §  Error-resilient haptic communication 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 22
  • 23. Technische Universität München Multi-DoF extension §  Independent usage of 1-DoF deadband on components of multi-DoF data? §  Packet rate is determined by lowest magnitude §  Low efficiency §  Performance decreases with increasing number of degrees of freedom §  Alternative: multi-DoF deadband 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 23
  • 24. Technische Universität München Multi-DoF isotropic deadzone y y 2-DoF: x x y y 3-DoF: x x z J. Drösler 2000 z Discard haptic sample Encode haptic sample 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 24
  • 25. Technische Universität München Direction Adaptive Perceptual Force Deadzone Based on the psychophysical findings on Force Feedback Discrimination presented in H. Tan et al., “Force-direction discrimination is not influenced by reference force direction and amplitude,” Haptics-e, 2006. H. Pongrac et al., “Limitations of human 3d force discrimination,” in Proc. Human-Centered Robotics Systems 2006. Direction-adaptive force deadzone J. Kammerl et al., IEEE HAVE 2010 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 25
  • 26. Technische Universität München Outline §  Early work in haptic data compression / reduction §  Perceptual online data reduction of haptic signals §  Extension to multi-DoF §  Perceptual offline coding of haptic signals §  Error-resilient haptic communication 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 26
  • 27. Technische Universität München Haptic recording and replay SensAble Technologies Source: DHZ/SFB 453 Position + Velocity Recorder / Player Force Feedback Video Operator with Teleoperator in Human-System Inferface Compression remote environment Data Storage 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 27
  • 28. Technische Universität München Haptic recording and replay §  Challenge: Simultaneous display of force and position/ motion §  Realization of playback §  Position guidance [Crossan et al. 2006, El Saddik et al. 2007] §  (Visual) substitution of competing haptic signals [Henmi et al. 1998, Williams 2004, Corno et al. 2006 ] §  Application scenarios §  posterior performance analysis / documentation §  training and teaching §  entertainment 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 28
  • 29. Technische Universität München 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 29
  • 30. Technische Universität München Deadband-based offline compression of recorded haptic signals 100 - no difference 75 – perceptable, but not disturbing 50 – slighly disturbing 25 – disturbing •  High transparency up to a deadband size of k=0.4 •  More than 95% of samples dropped J. Kammerl and E. Steinbach, ACM Multimedia 2008 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 30
  • 31. Technische Universität München Outline §  Early work in haptic data compression / reduction §  Perceptual online data reduction of haptic signals §  Extension to multi-DoF §  Perceptual offline coding of haptic signals §  Error-resilient haptic communication 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 31
  • 32. Technische Universität München Error-resilient haptic data communication Artifacts Bouncing Roughness Glue Effect F. Brandi, J. Kammerl, and E. Steinbach, ACM Multimedia 2010 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 32
  • 33. Technische Universität München Markov Decision Process (Binary Tree) Markov Channel Decision Predictor Model Tree ACKs Perceptual DB Position / Velocity HSI TOP Force Feedback Perceptual DB ACKs Operator with Markov Predictor Teleoperator in Channel Human-System Interface Model Decision remote Environment Tree F. Brandi, J. Kammerl, and E. Steinbach, ACM Multimedia 2010. 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 33
  • 34. Technische Universität München Summary §  Perceptual haptic data reduction §  Based on Weber’s law of just noticeable differences §  1-dof, multi-dof §  90-95% packet rate reduction §  Similar performance for recording and replay §  Error-resilient haptic data communication 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 34
  • 35. Technische Universität München Outlook: Selected open issues §  How to integrate temporal aspects in human haptic perception? §  Haptic communication for area-based haptic sensing and actuation (including tactile information) §  Objective measures for immersiveness? §  Perceptual coding of wave variables? §  Joint data reduction and multiplexing for audio/video/ haptics? §  … 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 35
  • 36. Technische Universität München Acknowledgments §  Current and former PhD students: P. Hinterseer, J. Kammerl, F. Brandi, R. Chaudhari, X. Xu, B. Cezmici, C. Schuwerk §  Collaborators §  S. Chaudhuri (IIT Bombay) §  M. Buss, S. Hirche and I. Vittorias (Institute of Control Eng. @ TUM) §  B. Färber and V. Nitsch (University of Armed Forces Munich) §  A. El Saddik and J. Cha (University of Ottawa) §  B. Hannaford and H. King (University of Washington) §  Funding §  DFG SFB 453: High-fidelity telepresence and teleaction §  DFG STE 1093/4-1 §  ERC Grant 258941 “ProHaptics” §  European-Brazilian Network for Academic Exchange EUBRANEX 27.03.2012 Eckehard Steinbach et al. 36