The potential of Energy Efficiency through motors and transformers in Europe

1,882 views

Published on

Potential of energy savings using high efficiency motors, efficient transformers and economic cable sizing.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,882
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
105
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The potential of Energy Efficiency through motors and transformers in Europe

  1. 1. Copper Contribution to Renewables and Energy Efficiency Fernando Nuño European Copper Institute fng@eurocopper.org ICREPQ March 2010 Granada, Spain
  2. 2. The European Copper Institute (ECI) Non profit Non profit Network of Network of Mission Mission organisation organisation Associations Associations Representing the Brussels based Communicate world's mining headquarters with copper's companies and a network of 11 essentiality for the European Copper health, copper industry Development technology and Associations quality of life. www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  3. 3. Energy Efficiency and Renewables vs CO2 abatement cost http://lightbucket.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/carbonabatement800.jpg www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  4. 4. Index Electric Motors Transformers Renewables PV case study www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  5. 5. ELECTRIC MOTORS www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  6. 6. Electric motors : key figures 65% of EU industrial 65% of EU industrial electricity use electricity use 202 TWh //year savings potential 202 TWh year savings potential by switching to energy efficient motor driven by switching to energy efficient motor driven systems systems http://www.leonardo-energy.org/high-efficiency-motor-systems-0 www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  7. 7. Electric motors : electricity savings potential 202 TWh annual savings potential 202 TWh annual savings potential by switching to energy efficient motor by switching to energy efficient motor driven systems driven systems Total 7% of total Electricity amount of electricity System EU network consumption electricity of EU impact losses 35 nuclear power 130 fossil fuel power 1.5 times the EU’s total plants (1000 MW) plants (350 MW) 2008 wind capacity (142 70% load factor 50% load factor TWh generated in 2008) www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  8. 8. Electric motors : GHG savings potential 202 TWh annual savings potential 202 TWh annual savings potential by switching to energy efficient motor by switching to energy efficient motor driven systems driven systems 100 Million About 20% of the GHG emission Tonnes GHG reduction in EU annually impact between 1990 and CO2 saved 2010 (400 - 500 MT)* Significant reductions in NOx, SO2, heavy metal, and dust emissions *Source : Report of the review of the initial report of the European Community, FCCC/IRR/2007/EC. UNFCCC, 15 February 2008. 2008 GHG inventories 1990-2006 (submissions to UNFCCC) www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  9. 9. Electric motors : economic savings potential 202 TWh annual savings potential 202 TWh annual savings potential by switching to energy efficient motor by switching to energy efficient motor driven systems driven systems € 10 Billion € 50 Billion investment annual Economic saved for new operating impact generation costs saved capacity Lower Life Cycle 6% reduction on Cost — a typical fossil fuel imports reduction of 35% www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  10. 10. Electric motors : barriers to be removed High efficiency motors (Eff1) represent only 12% of the market in the EU. If High efficiency motors (Eff1) represent only 12% of the market in the EU. If energy efficient motor systems have in the large majority of the cases the lowest energy efficient motor systems have in the large majority of the cases the lowest Life Cycle Cost (LCC), why is the adoption rate so slow? Life Cycle Cost (LCC), why is the adoption rate so slow? Split Budgets : purchase Existing stocks : back- department and operating up spares of the same type costs managers need to and efficiency in the make a common approach warehouses, even if LCC is on Life Cycle Cost basis higher Lack of Information : Long Life Cycle : 20 years. A poorly-reasoned education is needed in purchasing decision will terms of definitions and Life have a negative impact Cycle Cost lasting for 20 years. www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  11. 11. How Copper saves CO2 emissions in motors Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Materials Aluminium Kg 3,5 3,5 4 Increasing 22 kW Copper Copper Kg 8,8 12,9 13,9 Electrical steel Kg 108 108 108 Parameters +1 kg Cu -> - 3 Tons CO2 Increasing Rating Kw 22 22 22 Efficiency Efficiency % 89.5 91.8 92.6 Lifetime Years 20 20 20 Load % 50 50 50 Eco-design analysis Eco-design analysis Annual Hours 4380 4380 4380 operation Environmental balance Manufacturing Utilisation End of Life Primary Energy GJ 1233 940 841 Decreasing CO2 CO2 Tons 56 43 38 Given that one kg of copper takes 3 kg of CO2e emissions in production the environmental payback is more than a factor 1000, while at the end of life, the kg copper can be recycled for the next application. http://www.leonardo-energy.org/webfm_send/359 www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  12. 12. The European Copper Institute : a long tradition in promoting efficient motor systems European Motor European Motor Challenge Challenge Program Program ECI supports this program launched in 2003 Voluntary program of European Commission focused on improving the efficiency of motor driven systems www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  13. 13. The European Copper Institute : removing barriers through education Leonardo Leonardo ENERGY blog ENERGY blog Reports the latest developments in motor efficiency standards, case studies, etc. www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  14. 14. The European Copper Institute : removing barriers through education Policy Seminars Technology Eco-design Briefings on the Web Diffusion www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  15. 15. Removing barriers for motors EDUCATION Lack of Long Life information Cycle Split Existing Budgets stocks www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  16. 16. Index Electric Motors Transformers Renewables Proposals for local actions www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  17. 17. TRANSFORMERS www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  18. 18. Distribution transformers : key figures 222 TWh EU electricity 222 TWh EU electricity network losses network losses 19 TWh //year savings potential 19 TWh year savings potential by switching to energy efficient distribution by switching to energy efficient distribution transformers transformers http://www.leonardo-energy.org/seedt-highlights-european-distribution-transformers www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  19. 19. Distribution transformers : electricity savings potential 19 TWh annual savings potential 19 TWh annual savings potential by switching to energy efficient by switching to energy efficient distribution transformers distribution transformers 9% of total 0,7% of total Electricity amount of electricity System EU network consumption electricity of EU impact losses 3 nuclear power 13 fossil fuel power 13% of EU’s total 2008 plants (1000 MW) plants (350 MW) wind capacity (142 TWh 70% load factor 50% load factor generated in 2008) www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  20. 20. Distribution transformers : GHG savings potential 19 TWh annual savings potential 19 TWh annual savings potential by switching to energy efficient by switching to energy efficient distribution transformers distribution transformers 10 Million About 2% of the GHG emission Tonnes GHG reduction in EU annually impact between 1990 and CO2 saved 2010 (400 - 500 MT)* Significant reductions in NOx, SO2, heavy metal, and dust emissions *Source : Report of the review of the initial report of the European Community, FCCC/IRR/2007/EC. UNFCCC, 15 February 2008. 2008 GHG inventories 1990-2006 (submissions to UNFCCC) www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  21. 21. Distribution transformers : economic savings potential 19 TWh annual savings potential 19 TWh annual savings potential by switching to energy efficient by switching to energy efficient distribution transformers distribution transformers € 1 Billion € 5 Billion investment annual Economic saved for new operating impact generation costs saved capacity Lower Life Cycle A reduced Cost — IRR from dependency on 10% to 70% fossil fuel imports www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  22. 22. Transformers : barriers to be removed 80% of EU distribution Regulatory Models to integrate Life transformers population Regulatory Models to integrate Life belong to electricity Cycle Cost analysis Cycle Cost analysis distribution companies, whose activity is regulated Life Cycle Cost Analysis Current Regulatory Practice Regulatory Model Proposal The higher efficiency, Discourages investments in Do not remove benefits the higher benefit efficient transformers before a period long enough yr 0 yr 2 yr 4 yr 6 yr 8 yr 0 yr 2 yr 4 yr 6 yr 8 yr 0 yr 2 yr 4 yr 6 yr 8 yr 10 yr 12 yr 14 yr 16 yr 18 yr 20 yr 10 yr 12 yr 14 yr 16 yr 18 yr 20 yr 10 yr 12 yr 14 yr 16 yr 18 yr 20 NPV NPV NPV 2, 3 or more regulatory periods Investment premium is Benefits removed at before benefit removal recovered and generates regulatory review avoid encourages renovation using positive NPV positive NPV efficient equipment Legend: Investment premium (green), energy savings (yellow), net present value (red) 400 kVA C-C’ vs. A-A’; 5% discount rate (real); energy valued at 35 €/MWh Source : Endesa Distribución www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  23. 23. How Copper saves CO2 emissions in transformers AA’ CC’ C-Amorphous Materials Mech steel Kg 850 725 887 Increasing 1.6 MVA Copper Copper Kg 505 725 1225 Electrical steel Kg 1100 1200 1550 Parameters +1 kg Cu -> - 0.5 Ton CO2 Increasing Rating MVA 1.6 1.6 1.6 Efficiency Load Losses kW 17 14 14 No-Load Losses kW 2.6 1.7 0.4 Lifetime Years 30 30 30 Eco-design analysis Eco-design analysis Load % 50 50 50 Annual operation Hours 8760 8760 8760 Environmental balance Manufacturing Utilisation End of Life Primary Energy GJ 19750 15061 11439 Decreasing CO2 CO2 Tons 897 683 522 One kg of copper takes 3 kg of CO2e emissions in production, while at the end of life, the kg copper can be recycled for the next application. http://www.leonardo-energy.org/webfm_send/361 www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  24. 24. The European Copper Institute : a long tradition in promoting efficient distribution transformers Strategies for Development and Strategies for Development and Diffusion of Energy Efficient Diffusion of Energy Efficient Distribution Transformers Distribution Transformers ECI participates in this program. SEEDT builds the business case for development and diffusion of energy efficient distribution transformers. A project within the framework of the Intelligent Energy program of the European Union. For the SEEDT project, ECI works in collaboration with the NTUA (Greece), Wuppertal Institute (Germany), and ENDESA (Spain). www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  25. 25. The European Copper Institute : removing barriers through education Leonardo Leonardo ENERGY blog ENERGY blog Reports the latest developments in transformer efficiency standards, regulation, and technology. www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  26. 26. Removing barriers by active regulatory actions EU Regulators Group-ERGEG REPORT WEBINAR Treatment of Electricity Insuficient Regulatory Regulatory Incentives for Losses - CONSULTATION Incentives for Investments Energy Efficiency in Networks in Electricity Networks Active contribution to Pointing at the savings Spreading the promote regulatory potential and the regulatory proposals to reform regulatory proposals the professionals REGULATORY REGULATORY MODEL MODEL http://www.leonardo-energy.org/huge-potential-energy-savings-improved-regulatory-models-efficient-investment-and-loss-reduction www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  27. 27. Index Electric Motors Transformers Renewables Proposals for local actions www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  28. 28. RENEWABLES www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  29. 29. Renewables : key figures EU to reach 20% renewables in EU to reach 20% renewables in final energy consumption by 2020 final energy consumption by 2020 40% 2005 2020 35% 30% Electricity : :from 15% to 35% Electricity from 15% to 35% 25% 20% Heating : :from 10% to 25% Heating from 10% to 25% 15% Fuels : :from 1% to 10% Fuels from 1% to 10% 10% 5% 0% Electricity Heating Fuel www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  30. 30. Renewables : key figures EU to reach 20% renewables in EU to reach 20% renewables in final energy consumption by 2020 final energy consumption by 2020 Malta Luxembourg Hungary 2005 Cyprus ch Republic 2020 Belgium ak Republic Netherlands 8.5% 20% ed Kingdom Poland Ireland Bulgaria Italy Greece Germany Spain Lithuania France Romania Slovenia Estonia Denmark Portugal Austria Finland Latvia Sweden 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  31. 31. Support policy as the main driver for renewables www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  32. 32. Support policy as the main driver for renewables Fiscal / Feed In Quota + Tendering Financial Tariff TGC / Bidding Incentives Cost allocation To consumers To Generators To Generators To Generators Cost allocation Administrative Depends on Depends on Administrative YES, complex YES, complex burden the form the form burden Long term Long term Depends on NO, terms can confidence for YES NO confidence for the form easily change investors investors http://www.leonardo-energy.org/webfm_send/2757 www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  33. 33. Support policy as the main driver for renewables Fiscal / Feed In Quota + Tendering Financial Tariff TGC / Bidding Incentives Encourages Encourages YES, possible YES, possible YES, possible YES, possible specific technology specific technology Takes technology Depends on the Takes technology Depends on Depends on Depends on learning into form (Germany learning into the form the form the form account degression tariff) account Suitable for YES, Suitable for NO, as market NO, as market immature RE YES stimulates new immature RE oriented oriented market market tech projects http://www.leonardo-energy.org/webfm_send/2757 www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  34. 34. Barriers to renewables development Legal / Technology / Grid Administrative Research Integration National, Regional and Development of technical Grid infrastructure Local coordination. specifications development Responsibilities definition European Standards Interconnections and share (eco-label, energy-label…) between countries Precise deadlines for Needed more EU Rules for bearing and planning approval Research interaction and sharing the costs of grid Lighter process for smaller cooperation development and projects Improve spreading the reinforcement Administrative charges quickly evolving technology Provide physical access to transparent and cost- of renewables grid related Dispatching priority As indicated in the proposal for Directive by EC : Dealing with variability http://ec.europa.eu/energy/climate_actions/doc/2008_res_directive_en.pdf and forecast ability www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  35. 35. Special accent by the European Commission: INFORMATION AND TRAINING Information on Information on CERTIFICATION Guidance for BENEFITS, COSTS SUPPORT schemes PLANNERS and and ENERGY MEASURES ARCHITECTS EFFICIENCY To be made Of equipment and For installers of small- Objective : consider available to the systems for the scale RE: the use of RE and broad public use of electricity, Biomass boilers district heating & (consumers, heating and and stoves cooling when builders, installers, cooling from Solar Photovoltaic planning, designing, architects…) renewable and Thermal building and sources systems renovating industrial or residential areas Heat pumps As indicated in the proposal for Directive by EC : http://ec.europa.eu/energy/climate_actions/doc/2008_res_directive_en.pdf www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  36. 36. The European Copper Institute : removing barriers for renewables Leonardo Leonardo ENERGY blog ENERGY blog Technology introduction, project assessment, engineering practice, support mechanisms, addressing barriers, case studies, how to manuals for small scale… www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  37. 37. Removing barriers for renewables: Leonardo Energy PARTNERSHIP Program Partnership with RETSCreen Partnership with European Partnership with ESTELA / Addressing LEGAL issues and RENEWABLE ENERGY PROTERMOSOLAR PROJECT assessment RESEARCH Centres Agency European Solar Thermal Electricity Association L e g a l A s p e c t s o f C le a n E n e r g y P r o j e c t s C le a n E n e r g y P r o je c t A n a ly s is C o u r s e B io m a s s F ir e d P o w e r P l a n t, U S A Supporting and spreading 43 P h o to C r e d it : A n d r e w C a r lin , T r a c y O p e r a t o r s / N R E L P I X Clean Energy Project PROMINENT RESEARCH GROUPS Spreading the technology, Analysis Tools from all over Europe in congress contributions, Intensive WEBINAR strengthening and rationalizing relevance of CSP as a PROGRAM European Research dispatchable technology LEGAL / / TECHNOLOGY / / GRID LEGAL TECHNOLOGY GRID ADMINISTRATIVE RESEARCH INTEGRATION ADMINISTRATIVE RESEARCH INTEGRATION Other relevant partners for renewables : REEEP / Reegle, Green Power Labs, CSP Today, Deuman Climate Change Consulting… www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  38. 38. Removing barriers for renewables IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS WEBINAR PROGRAM TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION Grid Integration, Support Generation of a wide and Concentrating Photovoltaics Mechanisms INTERACTIVE COMMUNITY of Concentrated Solar Power PROFESSIONALS Documentaries, Webinars, Partnership with ISFOC, Weekly : Renewables, Clean Estela Solar, 1400+ Development Mechanism… professionals community LEGAL / / GRID TECHNOLOGY / / LEGAL GRID TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATIVE INTEGRATION RESEARCH ADMINISTRATIVE INTEGRATION RESEARCH www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  39. 39. Concrete contribution to European Commission objectives on INFORMATION and TRAINING Briefing WEBINARS and Partnership with REEGLE SMALL SCALE RENEWABLES WEBCASTS introducing the How To Manuals EU Directive and Support Measures 100% 90% Indicative Trajectory 80% 2020 Target 70% 65% 65% 60% 50% 45% 45% 40% 35% 35% 30% 25% 25% 20% 10% 0% 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Valuable resource center for project developers Renewables and Energy Photovoltaics, Wind, Heat Efficiency dedicated SEARCH Pumps ENGINE Information on CERTIFICATION Guidance for Information on BENEFITS, COSTS and schemes PLANNERS and SUPPORT MEASURES ENERGY EFFICIENCY ARCHITECTS www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  40. 40. Copper presence in renewables Copper as a fundamental component Copper as a fundamental component of Balance Of Plant / /System of Balance Of Plant System for Distributed Generation for Distributed Generation 2-3 Tonnes Cu / MW 4 Tonnes Cu / MW www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  41. 41. Index Electric Motors Transformers Renewables PV case study www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  42. 42. Optimization of PV balance of plant : cables and transformer Fix structure Optimal slope Optimal slope Location : :South Location South Fix structure South oriented South oriented Spain Spain Slope 33º Latitude 37,38º www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  43. 43. Technical – Economic Model Economic / / Economic Inputs Inputs Computing Computing Financial Financial Results Results METEO PV BEHAVIOUR FINANCIAL Solar Radiation Modules Temp NPV of entire Ambient Hourly current, power plant Temperature voltage, power Wind speed CABLE SIZING CABLE BEHAVIOUR PV MODULES Minimizing the Cables Temp Total Cost of Performance Hourly current, Cables Sensitivity to power loss radiation and temperature BOP DESIGN BOP BEHAVIOUR Optimal Trafo Trafo Class and PLANT LAYOUT operation mode Earthing Length of cables www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  44. 44. Inputs – PV modules and Plant layout PV modules PV modules Plant layout Plant layout 88Sub-Fields 88Arrays per Arrays per Sub-Fields Sub-Field Sub-Field 4m 20Wmod Array 1 Array 2 Array 3 Array 4 SF1 SF2 SF1 d JB1 JB2 Array 5 Array 6 Array 7 Array 8 a RADIATION CURVES 230 W nominal power TEMPERATURE CURVES 130 W nominal power SF3 SF4 Radiation (W/m2) Current (A) Voltage (V) Power (W) Module T (ºC) Current (A) Voltage (V) Power (W) JB1 0 0,0 25,0 0,0 25 7,9 29,0 230,0 200 1,7 26,0 45,0 40 8,2 27,0 221,4 JB3 JB4 400 3,1 27,0 85,0 55 8,6 25,0 215,0 600 4,6 28,0 130,0 70 8,9 23,0 204,7 800 1000 6,3 7,9 28,5 29,0 180,0 230,0 14% - Voltage= V0 * (1- Vf * (Tmodule - 25)) Voltage= A*Rad^2+B*Rad+C A -2,00E-06 Current= I0 * (1+ If * (Tmodule-25)) Vf -0,46% If 0,27% SF5 SF6 B 0,0061 Power = P0 *(1 - Pf * (Tmodule - 25)) Pf -0,24% C 24,946 Current = D*Rad + E JB5 JB6 D 0,0078 E 0,0397 35,0 250,0 30,0 Radiation Curves SF7 SF8 200,0 25,0 2 y = -2E-06x + 0,0061x + 24,946 JB7 JB8 R2 = 0,9974 150,0 20,0 V, A 15,0 100,0 Cable Field + 10,0 Lmod 1,64 m 50,0 Wmod 0,99 m 1,6236 m2 5,0 y = 0,0078x + 0,0397 2 R = 0,9993 Lcable 1m 0,0 0,0 Scable 4 mm2 Cable module 0 200 400 600 800 1000 W/m2 Max Peak Power Voltage 29,5 V Max Peak Power Current 7,79 A Max Peak Power 230 W Tmodule = Tair + 45*Rad/1000 * [1 - 10%*(Wind_speed - 1)] Current (A) Voltage (V) Power (W) Rad (W/m2) Polinómica (Voltage (V)) Lineal (Current (A)) Wind_speed (m/s) 4314 www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  45. 45. Inputs - Investment 3 €/W 3 €/W Administrative tasks (grid €/W connection, municipal permits…) Project and site management PV modules Inverter Support Structure Security systems Work force (days) www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  46. 46. Inputs – Business model along 25 years Years 0 1 2 3 … 25 Annual generation MWh 373 370 367 … 308 Feed In Tariff €/MWh 280 284 288 … 400 Gross Income k€ 104 105 106 … 123 Operation costs k€ -8 -8 -8 … -10 EBITDA k€ 96 97 97 … 113 Plant Amortization years 1 1 1 … 0 Plant Amortization k€ -58 -58 -58 … 0 EBIT k€ 38 39 39 … 113 Loan Interests k€ -24 -23 -21 … 0 EBT k€ 14 16 18 … 113 Taxes k€ -4 -5 -5 … -34 Net Income k€ 10 11 13 … 79 Cash Flow (Net Income + Amortization) k€ 68 69 71 … 79 Equity k€ -209 … Loan amortization k€ -31 -32 -34 … 0 Project Cash Flow k€ -209 37 37 37 … 79 Cumulated Project Cashflow k€ -209 -172 -135 -98 … 1221 www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  47. 47. Outputs: maximizing NPV Nominal Power 220,8 kWpeak Investment 694 k€ Modules - cable 4 mm2 Arrays - cable 6 mm2 Field - Cable 70 mm2 Voltage drop 1,2% IRR 19,46% NPV 536,1 k€ Cables : Life Cycle Cost 18,81 k€ Trafo : Total Cost of Ownership 22,6 k€ Trafo Rated Power 240 kVA Trafo Type Amorphous Trafo Operation Connected at night Total Copper (cable, earthing, trafo) 898 kg Copper intensity 4,07 Tonnes / MW www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  48. 48. Outputs: minimizing Life Cycle Cost of Cables Nominal Power 220,8 kWpeak Investment 694 k€ Modules - cable 4 mm2 Arrays - cable 6 mm2 Field - Cable 70 mm2 Voltage drop 1,2% IRR 19,46% NPV 536,1 k€ Cables : Life Cycle Cost 18,81 k€ Trafo : Total Cost of Ownership 22,6 k€ Trafo Rated Power 240 kVA Trafo Type Amorphous Trafo Operation Connected at night Total Copper (cable, earthing, trafo) 898 kg Copper intensity 4,07 Tonnes / MW www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  49. 49. Outputs: minimizing other BOP (Trafo TCO) Nominal Power 220,8 kWpeak Investment 694 k€ Modules - cable 4 mm2 Arrays - cable 6 mm2 Field - Cable 70 mm2 Voltage drop 1,2% IRR 19,46% NPV 536,1 k€ Cables : Life Cycle Cost 18,81 k€ Trafo : Total Cost of Ownership 22,6 k€ Trafo Rated Power 240 kVA Trafo Type Amorphous Trafo Operation Connected at night Total Copper (cable, earthing, trafo) 898 kg Copper intensity 4,07 Tonnes / MW www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  50. 50. Impact of economic cable sizing PV module cable PV module cable Array Cable Array Cable Field Cable Field Cable - SF1 SF2 Array 1 Array 2 Array 3 Array 4 JB1 JB2 SF3 SF4 Array 5 Array 6 Array 7 Array 8 JB3 JB4 + JB1 SF5 SF6 5Wmod Cable module JB5 JB6 SF7 SF8 JB7 JB8 Cable Field www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  51. 51. Design codes Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Allowed Voltage Allowed Voltage Allowed Current Allowed Current Drop Drop Cable Cable position position Maximum Voltage Drop between PV generator and Cable grid connection : 1,5% Cable type type Total Voltage Drop : modules + arrays + field L .I ΔV = γ .S Cable Maximum Cable Maximum Diameter Current Diameter Current Standard UNE 20460-5-523 (2004) Low Voltage Code - REBT (2002) - ITC-BT 40 (Low Voltage Generators) www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  52. 52. Design codes Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Allowed Voltage Allowed Voltage Allowed Current Allowed Current Drop Drop MODULES MODULES Maximum current 7,79 A Maximum current 7,79 A Cable Section 4,00 mm2 Correction factor for LV generators 25% Lenght 30 m Correction factor for Temperature 0,9 Voltage Drop 1,25 V Correction factor for direct exposure to sunrays 1 Corrected current 10,82 A ARRAYS Table1 (air tray) - XLPE2 & "F" configuration 1,5 mm2 Maximum current 7,79 A Cable Section 6,00 mm2 ARRAYS Lenght 47 m Maximum current 7,79 A Voltage Drop 1,31 V Correction factor for LV generators 25% Correction factor for Temperature 0,9 FIELD Correction factor for direct exposure to sunrays 0,9 Maximum current 62,32 A Corrected current 12,02 A Cable Section 50,00 mm2 Table1 (air tray) - XLPE2 & "F" configuration 1,5 mm2 Lenght 138 m Voltage Drop 3,66 V FIELD Maximum current 62,32 A Correction factor for LV generators 25% System Voltage 443 V Corrected current 77,90 A Total Voltage Drop 6,2 V Table 2 (underground) XLPE2 16 mm2 Relative Voltage Drop 1,4% < 1,5 % www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  53. 53. Design codes – Results Section Current Voltage Drop (mm2) Modules 1.5 4 Arrays 1.5 6 Field 16 50 Nominal Power kWpeak 220,8 Investment k€ 694 Modules - cable mm2 4 Arrays - cable mm2 6 Field - Cable mm2 50 Voltage drop 1,4% NPV k€ 535,4 Cables : Life Cycle Cost k€ 22,00 Total Copper (cable, earthing, trafo) kg 769 Copper intensity Tonnes / MW 3,48 www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  54. 54. Going beyond design codes: economic sizing Investment 7796 € 11500 €€ +3704 €€ (+48%) Investment 7796 € 11500 +3704 (+48%) Section Economic Current Voltage Drop (mm2) Sizing Modules 1.5 4 10 Arrays 1.5 6 10 Field 16 50 70 Nominal Power kWpeak 220,8 220,8 Investment k€ 694 697 Modules - cable mm2 4 10 Arrays - cable mm2 6 10 Field - Cable mm2 50 70 Voltage drop 1,4% 0,9% ++ 0,4 k€ (0,08%) 0,4 k€ (0,08%) NPV k€ 535,4 535,8 Cables : Life Cycle Cost k€ 22,00 20,11 - - 1,8 k€ (8,2%) 1,8 k€ (8,2%) Total Copper (cable, earthing, trafo) kg 769 1060 Copper intensity Tonnes / MW 3,48 4,80 www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org
  55. 55. Thank you! Sergio Ferreira Fernando Nuño Energy & Electricity Energy & Electricity Project Manager Project Manager Area of Energy Efficiency, Area of Renewables Motors, Ecodesign fng@eurocopper.org saf@eurocopper.org www.leonardo-energy.org www.eurocopper.org

×