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Introduction to
R & M Management

Fred Schenkelberg
FMS Reliability
Reliability Engineering and Management Consultant

Car...
Reliability Engineering & Management Consultant

Fred Schenkelberg

Carl S. Carlson

Reliability Engineering
& Management ...
Tutorial Objectives
To introduce an outline to
guide management of an
effective reliability
program.
To make you think abo...
First Challenge as Reliability Engineer
New heating cable design
How long will it last?

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenke...
What did I need to know?
Timeline
Budget
Samples

What else?

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

5
How long1 or 5 year
Is this a should it last?

problem?
What is the goal?

How does your organization
state
reliability go...
First Assignment as Reliability Engineer

Put together a reliability plan for new vehicle program
Lesson learned: select t...
Outline of topics






Requirements Tasks
Risk Reduction Tasks
Assurance Tasks
Organizational Tasks
Primary Steps to...
Requirements Tasks
Set Reliability Targets
Function
Environment

Duration
Probability

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelb...
2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

10
Balance with other objectives
Features or functions of

the product

Cost of the product
Time to market
Reliability
2014 R...
Cable, sensor, power supply,
Cable part of a larger system
controller, and connectors

•

•

Materials, processes, assembl...
Story of 50% field failure rate

All elements met
reliability goal.
Field data agreed
2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelbe...
Apportion the goal

Sys
Sub 1

Sub 2

Sub 3

Sub 4

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

Sub 5

14
Apportion the goal

Sys
Sub 1

Sub 2

Sub 3

Sub 4

Sub 5

With series system,
product of sub system reliability
is system...
Apportion complete goal
Function
Environment

Duration
Probability

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

16
NoStory of “you need to improve reliability”
goal
No field data
No Pareto of issues

Just make it better,
2014 RAMS Tutori...
Where should
they reside?

Communication
of Reliability
Goals

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

18
Requirements Tasks
Identify Reliability Data Needs
 Reliability data supports measuring and assuring
reliability requirem...
Two basic questions

What will fail?
When will it fail?
Information to permit appropriate
product development decisions
20...
Testing to Pass

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

21
Outline of topics






Requirements Tasks
Risk Reduction Tasks
Assurance Tasks
Organizational Tasks
Primary Steps to...
Risk Reduction Tasks
Design-in reliability






This step involves selecting the “Design for
Reliability” tools that c...
• Understand stress
• Understand strength
• Separate stress from strength

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

24
Henry Petroski
Design Paradigms

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

25
Discovery

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

26
Discovery Tools
Discovery Tools

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

27
Prediction of early life failures
Not commonly possibly for unknown variation

Design in some margin
Derating
Safety facto...
Risk Reduction Tasks
Achieve supplier reliability







Incorporate reliability specifications and tasks into
supplie...
Extra tasks for critical suppliers
Due care tasks for all other suppliers

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

30
Risk Reduction Tasks
Implement reliable manufacturing




Manufacturing Reliability is essential to ensuring the
manufac...
Outline of topics






Requirements Tasks
Risk Reduction Tasks
Assurance Tasks
Organizational Tasks
Primary Steps to...
Assurance Tasks
Verify Reliability Requirements Met






Develop and use reliability tests that use physical
testing m...
When will it fail?

Everything Fails at some point.
2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

34
Typical early life failures
Product does not meet
design specifications
Material or component
characterization
Process cha...
Hit by a big hammer
Some stress is too large to accommodate
Lightening
Vehicle accident
Meteor strike
Hurricane

Possibly ...
Prediction of overstress
Not commonly possibly

Design errors
Environment
Unexpected use

When significant adverse consequ...
Wear out and related
Everything fails –
eventually
Understand failure
mechanisms and
environment
The race to cause a failu...
Prediction of wear out
Guesses
Estimates
Predictions
Previous products
Models
Testing
2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelbe...
Life testing
Standards
Set levels
Environmental extremes
Single stress and model for acceleration factor
Determine the mod...
Is it good enough?

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

41
Is it good enough?

How do we know?

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

42
Is it good enough?

How do we know?
We understand the
failure mechanisms
& business objectives
2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - S...
Assurance Tasks
Continuously Improve Reliability






The value of physical testing should be enhanced
through use of ...
FRACAS
A method to keep it all together
Triage
Prioritization
Closure

Grey area of when to stop fixing and ship
2014 RAMS...
Assurance Tasks
Maintain High Reliability Throughout Life




Establishing and implementing proper service and
maintenan...
Maintenance Considerations

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

47
Value

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

48
Outline of topics






Requirements Tasks
Risk Reduction Tasks
Assurance Tasks
Organizational Tasks
Primary Steps to...
Organizational Tasks
Establish organizational resources
 Organizational resources include personnel,
training, procedures...
Organizational Tasks
Institutionalize Reliability Tasks
 It is the responsibility of engineering to achieve
reliability o...
Achieving reliability objectives
is an organization-wide
endeavor.

2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg

52
Organizational Tasks
Advance up the Maturity Matrix


Maturity Matrix represents stages of “maturity” of
a company with r...
Primary Steps to Achieving High
Reliability
Step 1: Develop Reliability Strategic Vision
Step 2: Perform Reliability Gap A...
Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability
(High Level)
Step 1:
Develop
Reliability
Strategic
Vision

Step 2:
Perform
Rel...
Step 1: Develop Reliability Strategic
Vision






In the words of American educator Steven Covey,
“begin with the end ...
Step 2: Perform Reliability Gap Assessment
A Reliability “Gap” Assessment is:
 A comprehensive analysis of the specific “...
Step 3: Develop Reliability Program Plan






A Reliability Program Plan (RPP) is a document that
defines the entire s...
Step 4: Execute Reliability Program Plan








Reliability Program Plan execution requires
management buy-in and sup...
Step 5: Assess Program Lessons Learned






No reliability program is flawless
Maintain record of issues with developm...
Conclusions
 Developing and executing an effective Reliability
Program Plan is essential to achieving high reliability
fo...
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Introduction to Reliability and Maintenance Management

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Published on

The slides that Carl and Fred present at the 2014 RAMS conference (www.rams.org).

An overview of tasks, approaches, and structure to creating a proactive and effective reliability program in your organization.

Published in: Technology, Business
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Introduction to Reliability and Maintenance Management

  1. 1. Introduction to R & M Management Fred Schenkelberg FMS Reliability Reliability Engineering and Management Consultant Carl S. Carlson ReliaSoft Corporation Senior Reliability Consultant
  2. 2. Reliability Engineering & Management Consultant Fred Schenkelberg Carl S. Carlson Reliability Engineering & Management Consultant Senior Reliability Consultant FMS Reliability (408) 710-8248 fms@fmsreliability.com ReliaSoft Corporation carl.carlson@reliasoft.com carl.carlson@effectivefmeas.com 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 2
  3. 3. Tutorial Objectives To introduce an outline to guide management of an effective reliability program. To make you think about how to integrate reliability engineering within an organization. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 3
  4. 4. First Challenge as Reliability Engineer New heating cable design How long will it last? 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 4
  5. 5. What did I need to know? Timeline Budget Samples What else? 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 5
  6. 6. How long1 or 5 year Is this a should it last? problem? What is the goal? How does your organization state reliability goals? 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 6
  7. 7. First Assignment as Reliability Engineer Put together a reliability plan for new vehicle program Lesson learned: select the vital few tasks 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 7
  8. 8. Outline of topics      Requirements Tasks Risk Reduction Tasks Assurance Tasks Organizational Tasks Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 8
  9. 9. Requirements Tasks Set Reliability Targets Function Environment Duration Probability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 9
  10. 10. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 10
  11. 11. Balance with other objectives Features or functions of the product Cost of the product Time to market Reliability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 11
  12. 12. Cable, sensor, power supply, Cable part of a larger system controller, and connectors • • Materials, processes, assembly, design, transportation, and installation 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 12
  13. 13. Story of 50% field failure rate All elements met reliability goal. Field data agreed 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 13
  14. 14. Apportion the goal Sys Sub 1 Sub 2 Sub 3 Sub 4 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg Sub 5 14
  15. 15. Apportion the goal Sys Sub 1 Sub 2 Sub 3 Sub 4 Sub 5 With series system, product of sub system reliability is system reliability. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 15
  16. 16. Apportion complete goal Function Environment Duration Probability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 16
  17. 17. NoStory of “you need to improve reliability” goal No field data No Pareto of issues Just make it better, 2014 RAMS Tutorial as warranty expenses too –high2A - Schenkelberg 17
  18. 18. Where should they reside? Communication of Reliability Goals 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 18
  19. 19. Requirements Tasks Identify Reliability Data Needs  Reliability data supports measuring and assuring reliability requirements are attained.  Data can take the form of test failures, field failures, degradation measurements, test or analysis successes, and other forms.  Focus on data integrity and correct measurements. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 19
  20. 20. Two basic questions What will fail? When will it fail? Information to permit appropriate product development decisions 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 20
  21. 21. Testing to Pass 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 21
  22. 22. Outline of topics      Requirements Tasks Risk Reduction Tasks Assurance Tasks Organizational Tasks Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 22
  23. 23. Risk Reduction Tasks Design-in reliability    This step involves selecting the “Design for Reliability” tools that can be executed in the design and manufacturing stages of product development process Such as Failure Mode & Effects Analysis, Derating, Design Margin Analysis, Highly Accelerated Life Testing, etc. The focus of the DFR tools should be on high risk areas, such as new technology and new applications 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 23
  24. 24. • Understand stress • Understand strength • Separate stress from strength 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 24
  25. 25. Henry Petroski Design Paradigms 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 25
  26. 26. Discovery 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 26
  27. 27. Discovery Tools Discovery Tools 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 27
  28. 28. Prediction of early life failures Not commonly possibly for unknown variation Design in some margin Derating Safety factor Determine margin If variation is known, determine probability of failures – still difficult to know when though. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 28
  29. 29. Risk Reduction Tasks Achieve supplier reliability     Incorporate reliability specifications and tasks into supplier bid packages Select suppliers who are capable of achieving reliability objectives Identify critical supplier parts Review and approve supplier tasks for critical parts before shipment 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 29
  30. 30. Extra tasks for critical suppliers Due care tasks for all other suppliers 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 30
  31. 31. Risk Reduction Tasks Implement reliable manufacturing   Manufacturing Reliability is essential to ensuring the manufacturing and assembly operations do not reduce the inherent design reliability of products. Steps must be taken to control manufacturing processes so they are both stable and capable. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 31
  32. 32. Outline of topics      Requirements Tasks Risk Reduction Tasks Assurance Tasks Organizational Tasks Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 32
  33. 33. Assurance Tasks Verify Reliability Requirements Met    Develop and use reliability tests that use physical testing methods, as well as analytical modeling techniques. Focus needs to be on proper analysis and accelerated life testing. Supplier reliability requirements for critical parts must be verified before shipment. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 33
  34. 34. When will it fail? Everything Fails at some point. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 34
  35. 35. Typical early life failures Product does not meet design specifications Material or component characterization Process characterization Assembly characterization 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 35
  36. 36. Hit by a big hammer Some stress is too large to accommodate Lightening Vehicle accident Meteor strike Hurricane Possibly foreseen or expected, and not economical to design the ability to withstand 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 36
  37. 37. Prediction of overstress Not commonly possibly Design errors Environment Unexpected use When significant adverse consequence may occur explore mitigation or fail safe approaches 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 37
  38. 38. Wear out and related Everything fails – eventually Understand failure mechanisms and environment The race to cause a failure 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 38
  39. 39. Prediction of wear out Guesses Estimates Predictions Previous products Models Testing 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 39
  40. 40. Life testing Standards Set levels Environmental extremes Single stress and model for acceleration factor Determine the model and acceleration factor Physics of failure modeling/testing Pick one that fits risk, resources, and time 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 40
  41. 41. Is it good enough? 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 41
  42. 42. Is it good enough? How do we know? 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 42
  43. 43. Is it good enough? How do we know? We understand the failure mechanisms & business objectives 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 43
  44. 44. Assurance Tasks Continuously Improve Reliability    The value of physical testing should be enhanced through use of appropriate Reliability Growth Models and Life Data Analysis. A Failure Review system (FRACAS) should be instituted. Reliability improvement methods throughout product life cycle must be maintained. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 44
  45. 45. FRACAS A method to keep it all together Triage Prioritization Closure Grey area of when to stop fixing and ship 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 45
  46. 46. Assurance Tasks Maintain High Reliability Throughout Life   Establishing and implementing proper service and maintenance procedures will extend product life and help ensure safe and trouble-free usage. Understanding and addressing customer issues during field usage is important. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 46
  47. 47. Maintenance Considerations 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 47
  48. 48. Value 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 48
  49. 49. Outline of topics      Requirements Tasks Risk Reduction Tasks Assurance Tasks Organizational Tasks Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 49
  50. 50. Organizational Tasks Establish organizational resources  Organizational resources include personnel, training, procedures, and business processes.  Will help move the organization to higher stages in the Maturity Matrix 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 50
  51. 51. Organizational Tasks Institutionalize Reliability Tasks  It is the responsibility of engineering to achieve reliability objectives.  Reliability methods must be integrated into ongoing engineering procedures and tasks, including design reviews, supplier selection, work instructions, design procedures, etc. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 51
  52. 52. Achieving reliability objectives is an organization-wide endeavor. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 52
  53. 53. Organizational Tasks Advance up the Maturity Matrix  Maturity Matrix represents stages of “maturity” of a company with respect to      Product Requirements Engineering Feedback Process Management There are 5 stages of maturity that represent increasing levels of organizational and engineering capability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 53
  54. 54. Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability Step 1: Develop Reliability Strategic Vision Step 2: Perform Reliability Gap Assessment Step 3: Develop Reliability Program Plan Step 4: Execute Reliability Program Plan Step 5: Assess Program Lessons Learned 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 54
  55. 55. Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability (High Level) Step 1: Develop Reliability Strategic Vision Step 2: Perform Reliability Gap Assessment Step 3: Develop Reliability Program Plan Requirements Tasks Step A: Set reliability targets Step B: Identify reliability data needs Assurance Tasks Step F: Verify reliability reqmts met Step G: Continuously improve reliability Step 4: Execute Reliability Program Plan Step 5: Assess Prgm Lessons Learned Risk Reduction Tasks Step C: Design-in Reliability Step D: Achieve supplier reliability Step E: Implement reliable manufacturing Organizational Tasks Step I: Step H: Establish Maintain organizational high resources reliability 2014 RAMS – thru-out life Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg Step J: Institutionalize reliability tasks Step K: Advance Up Maturity Matrix 55
  56. 56. Step 1: Develop Reliability Strategic Vision    In the words of American educator Steven Covey, “begin with the end in mind.” The Reliability Strategic Vision outlines the overall vision for Reliability for the organization or program. It should be developed with full management support, understood by all employees, and integrated into work activities. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 56
  57. 57. Step 2: Perform Reliability Gap Assessment A Reliability “Gap” Assessment is:  A comprehensive analysis of the specific “gaps” between a company’s vision for reliability and current reliability capability  It begins with developing or understanding the company’s reliability vision, and then analyzes the specific shortcomings to achieving that vision.  The “gaps” are those issues or shortcomings that if closed or resolved would move the company in the direction of achieving its reliability vision. It is input to the Reliability Program Plan.  “Gaps” include both organizational capability and application of reliability methods. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 57
  58. 58. Step 3: Develop Reliability Program Plan    A Reliability Program Plan (RPP) is a document that defines the entire set of tasks that need to be accomplished on a project or program, including responsibility for execution, timing and resources, in order to achieve the program reliability objectives. The objective is to design and manufacture a highly reliable product, on time, and in a cost effective manner. Includes Steps A thru K 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 58
  59. 59. Step 4: Execute Reliability Program Plan     Reliability Program Plan execution requires management buy-in and support Reliability plan tasks should be integrated into company project planning and execution mechanisms Provide a Work Break-Down Structure and schedule for the RPP (who, what, when, where, etc.) Empower reliability to raise the red flag when needed 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 59
  60. 60. Step 5: Assess Program Lessons Learned    No reliability program is flawless Maintain record of issues with development and execution of reliability plan Move the organization up the maturity matrix 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 60
  61. 61. Conclusions  Developing and executing an effective Reliability Program Plan is essential to achieving high reliability for products and processes  By following the information in this tutorial, companies can develop effective Reliability Program Plans that achieve reliability objectives, while staying within budget and timing constraints. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 61

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