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Elements Of a
Masonry Forensic
Investigation

3

 

RYAN-BIGGS

Jamle L.  Dgswlis.  PE. 
TI‘I>y’.  NY I Si«'aII<3z—I‘I<3l<...
Summary

' Background/ Experience

I Why Consider an Investigation
I Reality vs Perception

I When to Initiate an Investig...
a little background

‘ David T.  Biggs,  P. E.
* Masonry Design

I Prestress Masonry

F Hybrid Masonry
* Masonry Restorati...
Aver (ll'1 3:1 my o'C u IE_n; I'Iea's

Looking Back at the World Trade Center Disaster

David T.  Biggs,  P.  E. 
Principa...
5th Floor

4th Floor

3rd Floor

2nd Floor
Restoration of Egyptian
Monuments

David T.  Biggs,  P. E.,  Hon.  M. 

ASCE
Ryan-Biggs Associates PC
Troy.  NY.  Skaneate...
Eclfu Temole

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XII...
Diversified Masonry Experience

P

 

RYAN-BIGGS
Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception

V 1848 Cathedral
F Brownstone

deterioration
V 190 ft North Tower

: I <| IIIr I I...
iversity Building (1870)

Un
Single Wythe Walls

(Architectural CMU)

n" '*'
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,  $5.‘:  ‘‘ g...
Prestress lviasonry
Prefab Masonry Panels
Investigations/ Testing
wk
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ltlhie
Successful
Masenry lnivestigatiicmi
but WHY? ??? ’?
how about why,  when,  who and
let’s start with ‘why’. ..
R E A l'_, lf'l; "Y

P era 6: pfi on
REALITY

P NCMA TEK 19-7

V CHARACTERISTICS
OF CONCRETE
MASONRY UNITS
WITH INTEGRAL
WATER REPELLENT
REALITY — NCMA TEK19—7

“Design of concrete masonry walls to
mitigate or control moisture migration **1—‘; ;,+‘
includes b...
REALITY ~ NCMA TEK 19-7

“Proper design and
construction of
concrete masonry, 
considering all of
these elements,  is
crit...
REALITY =  P 

“Finalli,  it is imortant to understand that
 the XYZ  greatl enhances
the ateraresistant properties of the...
REALITY RELATED TEKS

V Refer to information in (I
National Concrete 5
Masonry Association
(NCMA) TEK 19-2A, 
19-4A and 19...
Perception

MY BUILDING Is
WATERPROOF! !!
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F’ : kr. com/ mnogq in
Perception
In the World Of Perception

IF you have IWR cmu

~ THEN you have a

waterproof building

 

THEREFORE .  . .  . .  . .  .....
Expectations are higher. ..

I Architects detail the I Efflorescence ? ?
same

I Engineers design the .  Water Staining 7?...
j/ '{lE3fl.  . . .
Get in the loop

. »~ ~ *1 

O w n e 1‘    rch i te c t

Architect Engineer

Contractor
CHOICE

  

PROACTIVE REACTIVE
T 

This might get ugly . ... ... . . .

. . J-‘ , _,

II“- ": -

P‘
# . q
Time for the unbiased opinion

F To look at the big picture

I To give assessment of each party’s
responsibilities

it To ...
|dea| Scenario

I All parties agree on investigator
I All parties agree to share cost

I If not possible,  be prepared to ...
AN | l| VESTI/ lEl| T OF GOOD WILL

" Team player

V Confident in performance of product
I“ Solution oriented

F Nothing t...
$$$$$$$$$$$$$

I Split costs

I Pay upfront
/ Reimbursement
based on results

I Precedent AIA
contract wording
I" Experience: 

'01 Detailing

 

c Engineering I A I I ‘A A» «A i “III (‘I I
r Construction

F Materials/ Products
I T

IT

IT

IT

Who l! ot

Testing Labs
Limited Background

Ability to Decipher
Results

Engineering
Judgement
The Specia...
I" NO BLINDERS 

 

F No Preconceived  = .“. {
Conclusions g I. » .  

F Solution Oriented vs
Blame Game , 

F Fact Driven
HOW? 

I Each is unique

I No cookbook

approach
NDT Experience

I Why? 
I Mindset

 Thought Process

 

“ Access to multiple
tools
Flat—jack

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An....
Boresc

: -——-—-r'*''

999  

4—? —-——--3;. -—‘r—
Ultrasonics - Impact echo

' ASTM

I Flaw  . ~
detection 2% _‘; ‘:x'T

;  *§: t1  c4
I”

C1383   vv ‘  c.
Transducer and Impactor
Ultrasonics - Pulse velocity

‘ l
l l

. ..__. - _: 

‘T ASTM C597

F Flaw
detection

F Sonic
Tomography
3 I r-—'
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I ’ I - ‘ ~
. .,.  AV I I
. . VT
N. J'. Auyn¢n4~umu: 

-rnu1'. u: ~.4 V vs no . .

 -

-um. ...
Sonic Tomography

Internal
Defect areas

Marble column-
Lowest piece

Noticeable crack
on exterior

No cracks in path
T * ...
Surface Penetrating Radar
F Radar

A—_

l
{_‘i___; -.‘_ -_——
. ‘ El

A_ . ,_
‘

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p+

3D Scan

   

'51-9 '
Acoustic Emission Technolog
Volage[mV] vs Tim-. {:ec] <9)
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Infrared
Thermography

x. “
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T-‘
-
Grout verification
Infrared Thermography
The Investigation

Approach
and

Expectation
Meet the Team

Face to face with the
players

>4 .  .
y , ;:/ (> to Hear their side

. '.' /7-
 ‘ Read the mood/ tone
  / ...
the Contract Documents

o. ... _. . 

I Learn the building
I Know the details

I Look for potential
problem areas

git!  ‘...
Paper Trail

F Spec Requirements

I Submittals. ..requested and received

F Masonry Certs.  - C90/C140
I Strength/ Absorpt...
Visual Observations
Exterior clues

     

 

. ... . «$9.3.» <>‘7V_'. D

_, _,, .,. ,,. ,.. ... T.i-

fl»;  ._

. _.acy-——~—-

 

. . .  _—m~--
Know the details to read the clues
Interior clues
Look beyond the block

v
Up close and personal

 

 — A: 

I’ N» '-'

5. ‘ .  -I
L . I ‘. "

5 J

‘ 2-»- 1.
The finer details

 

I MortarJoints
I Head joints
I Construction
I Profile
Head Joints:  NCMA Tek 19-2A

Thickness no less

III VI). 

t

Figure 4—Head and Bed Joints the Full Thickness of
the Face...
T ‘in
Testing Possibilities

I Mortar/ Block
analysis
I Solvent Extraction

I Infrared
Spectrophotomery

I Gas
Chromatography
Testing Possibilities

F Replicate Preconstruction
Testing if missing
I:  ASTM C140:
absorption and density

I ASTM E514:w...
The Report
Report Expectations

I Statement of Facts
I Limitations of Investigation
I Evaluation of Testing

I “Tell them what you kn...
T

i7

Summary

Be Proactive

Meet Spec Submittal
Requirements

Compile
Records/ Paper Trail

Photos

I Attempt to solve a...
Focus on Success! 

 

 

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Diedrich Chemicals [Read Only]
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  1. 1. Elements Of a Masonry Forensic Investigation 3 RYAN-BIGGS Jamle L. Dgswlis. PE. TI‘I>y’. NY I Si«'aII<3z—I‘I<3l<: s Falls. NY
  2. 2. Summary ' Background/ Experience I Why Consider an Investigation I Reality vs Perception I When to Initiate an Investigation I Who to Choose as an Investigator I How to approach an Investigation ' NDT Tools I What to Expect from the Investigation
  3. 3. a little background ‘ David T. Biggs, P. E. * Masonry Design I Prestress Masonry F Hybrid Masonry * Masonry Restoration ‘ Masonry Investigations and Testing
  4. 4. Aver (ll'1 3:1 my o'C u IE_n; I'Iea's Looking Back at the World Trade Center Disaster David T. Biggs, P. E. Principal Ryan-Biggs Associates, P. C.
  5. 5. 5th Floor 4th Floor 3rd Floor 2nd Floor
  6. 6. Restoration of Egyptian Monuments David T. Biggs, P. E., Hon. M. ASCE Ryan-Biggs Associates PC Troy. NY. Skaneateles. NY. West Chester. PA
  7. 7. Eclfu Temole V _ _ l .3 , ..~. _I :0‘. al. . II I . : . I . v . [V F. l . .. Q on . P I. .W¢a » -I . _ It XII) . ro. ..II, ‘ 5 . l. . A. .. It a .
  8. 8. Diversified Masonry Experience P RYAN-BIGGS
  9. 9. Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception V 1848 Cathedral F Brownstone deterioration V 190 ft North Tower : I <| IIIr I I t. . 1|. I L. o . .I III . I / . 7. L , . . ~ . . . 'L. I.. .. _ . . J . .. l l. I..4.. :|lIEII. III I. .1. .5. vs. II: .I replacement
  10. 10. iversity Building (1870) Un
  11. 11. Single Wythe Walls (Architectural CMU) n" '*' I-_)“ 47'] ' '. ".‘v‘} ' ', "'fi '. ' I )"l. "' u“€d_. "¢- , $5.‘: ‘‘ gl: ~'; _ L? ’ / "'O, '§tk". ly ‘ “ 3 ’ 1' '7 41'. ‘ v «t -, iv“-i’ '- 7‘ sl , - . r.’ '7 I A'» K , X .7. - “ I I * 'y ' ‘ I 7 | A. ~
  12. 12. Prestress lviasonry
  13. 13. Prefab Masonry Panels
  14. 14. Investigations/ Testing
  15. 15. wk 4.9.» l V - 4 i l ‘. I 4 0 lg’ 4 ; .i IMI 6- NCL"/ 2i']C| .’: l r’ R i_; '1l: : Rt: -;ur'. 'n_'d
  16. 16. ltlhie Successful Masenry lnivestigatiicmi
  17. 17. but WHY? ??? ’?
  18. 18. how about why, when, who and
  19. 19. let’s start with ‘why’. .. R E A l'_, lf'l; "Y P era 6: pfi on
  20. 20. REALITY P NCMA TEK 19-7 V CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS WITH INTEGRAL WATER REPELLENT
  21. 21. REALITY — NCMA TEK19—7 “Design of concrete masonry walls to mitigate or control moisture migration **1—‘; ;,+‘ includes beyond the characteristics of the concrete masonry unit, such as flashing, weeps, workmanship, mortar or grout characteristics, vents, coatings, vapor barriers, air barriers, temperature differences, and accommodation of differential movement, plumbing and roof leaks, as well as other considerations. ”
  22. 22. REALITY ~ NCMA TEK 19-7 “Proper design and construction of concrete masonry, considering all of these elements, is critical to the water resistant performance of the wall system. ”
  23. 23. REALITY = P “Finalli, it is imortant to understand that the XYZ greatl enhances the ateraresistant properties of the mason it should not be considered as a substitute for good design practices and quality construction procedures (workmanship).
  24. 24. REALITY RELATED TEKS V Refer to information in (I National Concrete 5 Masonry Association (NCMA) TEK 19-2A, 19-4A and 19-5A for flashing details, as well as NCMA TEK 10—1A and 10—2B for crack control and control joint recommendations.
  25. 25. Perception MY BUILDING Is WATERPROOF! !!
  26. 26. oi- . - n F’ : kr. com/ mnogq in
  27. 27. Perception
  28. 28. In the World Of Perception IF you have IWR cmu ~ THEN you have a waterproof building THEREFORE . . . . . . . .. IF your building leaks i THEN it must be the block
  29. 29. Expectations are higher. .. I Architects detail the I Efflorescence ? ? same I Engineers design the . Water Staining 7? same I Contractors build the same I Leaking ? ?
  30. 30. j/ '{lE3fl. . . .
  31. 31. Get in the loop . »~ ~ *1 O w n e 1‘ rch i te c t Architect Engineer Contractor
  32. 32. CHOICE PROACTIVE REACTIVE
  33. 33. T This might get ugly . ... ... . . . . . J-‘ , _, II“- ": - P‘ # . q
  34. 34. Time for the unbiased opinion F To look at the big picture I To give assessment of each party’s responsibilities it To stop the ‘blame game’ F To redirect focus towards the solution
  35. 35. |dea| Scenario I All parties agree on investigator I All parties agree to share cost I If not possible, be prepared to be your own advocate
  36. 36. AN | l| VESTI/ lEl| T OF GOOD WILL " Team player V Confident in performance of product I“ Solution oriented F Nothing to hide BE PART OF THE SOLUTION NOT THE PROBLEM
  37. 37. $$$$$$$$$$$$$ I Split costs I Pay upfront / Reimbursement based on results I Precedent AIA contract wording
  38. 38. I" Experience: '01 Detailing c Engineering I A I I ‘A A» «A i “III (‘I I r Construction F Materials/ Products
  39. 39. I T IT IT IT Who l! ot Testing Labs Limited Background Ability to Decipher Results Engineering Judgement The Specialist
  40. 40. I" NO BLINDERS F No Preconceived = .“. { Conclusions g I. » . F Solution Oriented vs Blame Game , F Fact Driven
  41. 41. HOW? I Each is unique I No cookbook approach
  42. 42. NDT Experience I Why? I Mindset Thought Process “ Access to multiple tools
  43. 43. Flat—jack ‘T A ‘ ": ': '~. ”.. ll . IR. . _ 1 ‘I ‘ I . ’ I , ._ . <. _ - - . |.‘ I x . fl _ . ..‘I~~’ —. r)T* An. _‘ _ 3» . hi .1 -' " I ‘ 1 ' . "—' " ‘T A, T I " o.
  44. 44. Boresc : -——-—-r'*'' 999 4—? —-——--3;. -—‘r—
  45. 45. Ultrasonics - Impact echo ' ASTM I Flaw . ~ detection 2% _‘; ‘:x'T ; *§: t1 c4 I” C1383 vv ‘ c.
  46. 46. Transducer and Impactor
  47. 47. Ultrasonics - Pulse velocity ‘ l l l . ..__. - _: ‘T ASTM C597 F Flaw detection F Sonic Tomography
  48. 48. 3 I r-—' J! ’ 5 J - ‘A h_ ‘. I ’ I - ‘ ~ . .,. AV I I . . VT N. J'. Auyn¢n4~umu: -rnu1'. u: ~.4 V vs no . . - -um. — 1. r: M W , ’ ‘a m V l 7 _
  49. 49. Sonic Tomography Internal Defect areas Marble column- Lowest piece Noticeable crack on exterior No cracks in path T * “ - — "Crack in path
  50. 50. Surface Penetrating Radar
  51. 51. F Radar A—_ l {_‘i___; -.‘_ -_—— . ‘ El A_ . ,_ ‘ gé. p+ 3D Scan '51-9 '
  52. 52. Acoustic Emission Technolog Volage[mV] vs Tim-. {:ec] <9)
  53. 53. ~ I Q’? I V . . ’ I u’ ’ f . I l , 1 ‘, ‘ I . . . -. I s ‘ l . P J xt l
  54. 54. Infrared Thermography x. “ 3' ~. _, ‘)3. T-‘ -
  55. 55. Grout verification
  56. 56. Infrared Thermography
  57. 57. The Investigation Approach and Expectation
  58. 58. Meet the Team Face to face with the players >4 . . y , ;:/ (> to Hear their side . '.' /7- ‘ Read the mood/ tone / A ” Level of cooperation I" Listen for the details It Pick up the inconsistencies
  59. 59. the Contract Documents o. ... _. . I Learn the building I Know the details I Look for potential problem areas git! ‘xi ill . -.. . . —_- —-. u . .._. .-. .. . ..~. ,. --
  60. 60. Paper Trail F Spec Requirements I Submittals. ..requested and received F Masonry Certs. - C90/C140 I Strength/ Absorption/ Density/ Current Fm 2000 *’ Mortar mixes F Preconstruction Testing ‘I E514: 5 1/2" of rain/ hr with 62.5 mph wind. F Manufacturer Certs/ Product Data * Producer/ Installer Warranties I Mock-ups V Field Reports/ Construction Photos
  61. 61. Visual Observations
  62. 62. Exterior clues . ... . «$9.3.» <>‘7V_'. D _, _,, .,. ,,. ,.. ... T.i- fl»; ._ . _.acy-——~—- . . . _—m~--
  63. 63. Know the details to read the clues
  64. 64. Interior clues
  65. 65. Look beyond the block v
  66. 66. Up close and personal — A: I’ N» '-' 5. ‘ . -I L . I ‘. " 5 J ‘ 2-»- 1.
  67. 67. The finer details I MortarJoints I Head joints I Construction I Profile
  68. 68. Head Joints: NCMA Tek 19-2A Thickness no less III VI). t Figure 4—Head and Bed Joints the Full Thickness of the Face Shells are Crucial for Dry Walls
  69. 69. T ‘in
  70. 70. Testing Possibilities I Mortar/ Block analysis I Solvent Extraction I Infrared Spectrophotomery I Gas Chromatography
  71. 71. Testing Possibilities F Replicate Preconstruction Testing if missing I: ASTM C140: absorption and density I ASTM E514:water penetration V Trial Field Tests I Start simple I Water d roplet/ spray “Including ASTM E514 Tests in Field bar/ Wateruptake Evaluations of Brick Masonry”. Hoigard, Kudder. Lies
  72. 72. The Report
  73. 73. Report Expectations I Statement of Facts I Limitations of Investigation I Evaluation of Testing I “Tell them what you know, Tell them what you don’t know” I Statement of Responsibilities
  74. 74. T i7 Summary Be Proactive Meet Spec Submittal Requirements Compile Records/ Paper Trail Photos I Attempt to solve as part of the team It Be prepared to be your own advocate F Research options for investigators; look for experience/ background F Demand factual/ unbiased report
  75. 75. Focus on Success! . ' ‘ V, "-. :.i5*. :v'“-' I -trw ‘I . _ . rff" . ’ “ ‘ mi . 4' _ I- . ’ ’. V _ -7». L 9- _ _ : .‘-. .*; i‘ 1‘ L“ . “‘l‘I‘ / "I 5 : — I I «*1? - _ , - _i '3 ‘ I " N ‘Z -Tr-o>, —_. ~_. :77' u r . ‘ Lew‘ ’ - ‘ "~39: T 3 . » L‘ A - “ . ~ - ‘ , . "“‘I~ ‘ 5.‘: “ I - ' ili ‘ 7 7’. . ‘ . .= Li - 1 L; " 7.7”‘ . l'_. ' 1‘ I m. - . -' -. — _. I -o~ ‘ — , I _ I ’ ‘ , - V i

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