Successfully reported this slideshow.

Mapping the transition of the Catalan Health system to Network Society. A work in progress. How was research developed?

1,518 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Mapping the transition of the Catalan Health system to Network Society. A work in progress. How was research developed?

  1. 1. Analysis of Internet Use related with Health in Catalonia How was research developed? Mapping the transition of the Catalan Healthcare System to Network Society -work in progress- Visiting Researcher at SATSU Researcher at i2TIC – Internet Interdisciplinary Institute IN3 Lecturer Information and Communication Science at Open University of Catalonia Exemplary Empirical Studies in Social Informatics Course MSc Social Informatics and Management University of York Department of Sociology http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/soci/degrees/mscsim.htm Dr . Francisco Lupiáñez-Villanueva [email_address] [email_address] http://ictconsequences.net
  2. 2. <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Objective, Research questions and Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results: some examples </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>Structure
  3. 3. 1. Background
  4. 4. The country displays a notable geographical diversity on a relatively reduced area of about 32.000 km² and about some 580 km of coastal strip. Catalonia http://www.gencat.cat/catalunya/eng/ Nowadays, Catalonia has more than seven million inhabitants. Catalan Health Service ---> National Health Service UK http://www10.gencat.cat/catsalut/eng/coneix.htm The Catalan Government has earmarked €9,412,900,000 for Catalan health care in 2009 (7% GDP) Background
  5. 5. Technological Modernisation, Organizational Change and Service Delivery in the Catalan Public Healthcare System directed by Prof. Castells and funded by Government of Catalonia (May 2005 – June 2007) Citizens, Health and the Internet directed by Prof. Castells and funded by Government of Catalonia (September 2007 – October 2008) Background Research Projects - IN3
  6. 6. Castells, M. (2004). Informationalism, Networks, and the Network Society: A theoretical blueprint. In The Network Society: a cross-cultural perspective. MA: Edward Elgar. Nettleton, S., & Burrows, R. (2003). E-scaped medicine? Information, reflexivity and health. Critical Social Policy, 23(2), 165–185. Pickstone, J. V. (2003). Production, Community and Consumption: The Political Economy of Twentieth-Century Medicine. In Companion to Medicine in the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge. Webster, A. (2002). Innovative Health Technologies and the Social: Redefining Health, Medicine and the Body. Current Sociology, 50(3), 443–457. Rice, R. E. (2001). The Internet and Health Communication: A framework of Experience. In E. R. Rice, & J. E. Katz (Eds.), The Internet and Health Communication. Experiences and Expectations. (pp. 1–46). California: Sage Publications. Hardey, M. (2001). “E-Health”: the Internet and the transformation of patients into consumers and producers of health knowledge. Information, Communication & Society, 4(3), 388–405. Pickstone, J. V. (2001). Ways of Knowing. A New History of Science Technology and Medicine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Background Multidisciplinary approach All references available at: http://www.ictconsequences.net/2008/12/06/the-definitive-references-collection-of-my-thesis/
  7. 7. Background 5/43 Framework of analysis
  8. 8. Stakeholders - Actors Background Citizens Internet users interested in Health websites Patient support groups Webmaster of health websites Physicians Nurses Pharmacist
  9. 9. Infrastructure - Systems Background Internet Hospital Information Systems Telemedicine Computers ....
  10. 10. 2. Objectives, Hypothesis and Research questions
  11. 11. Objectives <ul><li>Identify and characterise the presence of the actors of the Catalonian healthcare system in the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Identify , characterise and explain the determinants of the use and social practices that the principal actors of the healthcare system carry out through ICT, specifically that of the Internet </li></ul>Objetives 6/43
  12. 12. General hypothesis The interaction between social structure, the increase of information flow and ICT use causes a transformation in social practices and in the behaviour of the actors of the healthcare system Hypothesis
  13. 13. Sub Hypothesis – The Internet Hypothesis The Internet is basically an information space on Health and not an interaction space between the actors of the healthcare system; therefore health webs are characterized by the offer of information resources, by the lack of applications related with communication or services and by levels of quality associated with the actor who provides the resource
  14. 14. Sub Hypothesis - Citizens Hypothesis The interrelation between access, use and assessment of ICT, healthcare services demand and the capacity of the individuals to take decisions over their own health or those closest to them determines the use of the Internet to access to the health system, a new patient profile called the e-patient
  15. 15. Sub Hypothesis - Healthcare professionals Hypothesis The interrelation between the intensive use of ICT, specially the Internet, the positive assessment by healthcare professionals of these technologies in relation with their work activities and their patients, the intensive use of the information and professional work oriented towards research determines a new professional profile called the Networked healthcare professional .
  16. 16. Research questions What type of quality information and applications related with Health are offered on the Internet? How can the presence of the healthcare system’s actors on the Internet be characterized? Research questions – The Internet
  17. 17. Research questions Which are the main barriers and incentives of patient support groups for Internet use? What are the ICT uses of the citizens with regard to health and how can they be characterized? What are the consequences of citizen ICT use, specifically that of the Internet, regarding the management of their health and the relationship with their healthcare professionals? What are the determinants (technological and non-technological) of the demand of healthcare services by citizens via the Internet? Research questions – Citizens
  18. 18. Research questions What are the uses of ICT, especially the Internet, by healthcare professionals and how can they be characterized? What are the determinants (technological and non-technological) of the uses of the Internet by health care professionals (Physicians, Nurses and Pharmacist)? Research questions – Healthcare professionals
  19. 19. 3. Methodology
  20. 20. Research design FIRST Background, Objective, Research questions and Hypothesis..... Methodology
  21. 21. Research design SECOND Design tools Send and Gather data Statistical analysis Methodology
  22. 22. Research design Design tools Static web content analysis -> Matrix criteria Questionnaire -> Online surveys through email Questionnaire -> Online survey through websites Questionnaire -> Telephone survey Methodology
  23. 23. Static web content analysis -> Matrix criteria Methodology Criteria Content Interaction Quality Communication Services Content Interaction Web resource
  24. 24. Static web content analysis -> Matrix criteria Methodology Content Health content YES / NO Postal Address YES / NO Telephone number YES / NO Advertising YES / NO Interaction Communication email YES / NO Email list YES / NO Electronic forums YES / NO Chat YES / NO Online surveys YES / NO Services Electronic Commerce YES / NO Electronic formulary YES / NO Login - password YES / NO Other YES / NO
  25. 25. Static web content analysis -> Matrix criteria Methodology Quality Contents Author YES / NO Professional profile YES / NO Date YES / NO Communication and services Privacy – Legal advices YES / NO Web resources Web Map YES / NO Languages YES / NO Search YES / NO FAQ: Frequent Asked Question YES / NO Help YES / NO Technological Standards YES / NO Accreditation YES / NO Aim of the web YES / NO Actors Personal Web Patient Support Groups Healthcare providers Professional Associations Public Administration Healthcare professionals Research Centres Other providers Teaching Centres NGO Media
  26. 26. Static web content analysis -> Matrix criteria Methodology Quality Contents Author YES / NO Professional profile YES / NO Date YES / NO Communication and services Privacy – Legal advices YES / NO Web resources Web Map YES / NO Languages YES / NO Search YES / NO FAQ: Frequent Asked Question YES / NO Help YES / NO Technological Standards YES / NO Accreditation YES / NO Aim of the web YES / NO Actors Personal Web Patient Support Groups Healthcare providers Professional Associations Public Administration Healthcare professionals Research Centres Other providers Teaching Centres NGO Media
  27. 27. Questionnaire -> Online surveys through email to Physicians, Nurses and Pharmacist Methodology Surveys to physicians, nurses and pharmacists involved five blocks of questions on: (1) socio demographic and key labour issues; (2) Internet access, frequency, utility, experience and expertise; (3) the Internet as a space - for the consumption and production of information and the interaction with patients, - social and health outcome consequences, and - the healthcare professional – patient relationship; (4) health information systems and telemedicine use; and, (5) the healthcare professional assessment of ICT
  28. 28. Questionnaire -> Telephone survey to citizens Methodology Surveys to representative sample of Catalan population involved seven blocks of questions on: (1) State of health and health services use; (2) Attitude regarding health (3) ICT and Internet: access, uses and attitudes (4) Communication systems related to health services (5) Health and the Internet (6) Internet no-users (7) S ocio demographic
  29. 29. Research design Send and Gather data Online Surveys This type of survey offers an alternative to the postal, telephone or face-to-face surveys as long as technical, methodological, ethical and legal considerations are taken into account Methodology
  30. 30. Online surveys Methodology The Physicians, Nurses and Pharmacists Associations of Barcelona collaborated in the launch of the online surveys to all their members. These professional associations gave access to the e-mails -through id- of their members considering questions of privacy, confidentiality and legality. To ensure that the survey was easy to complete and no questions were ambiguous, the questionnaires were pre tested and usability and accessibility issues were tackled during the design processes. The subject of the e-mails was an invitation to collaborate in a non-profit making research project. The body of the e-mails included one paragraph describing the project and another paragraph on legal and confidentiality issues. There was not any reward for answering the questionnaire.
  31. 31. Content analysis / Online survey / Telephone survey 2. Methodology Healthcare actor Tools Universe / Population Sample / Rates Date Webs about Health in Catalonia Matrix Criteria 1,240 URLs September – December 2005 Health webmasters Identified online survey 388 emails 112 (28.8%) March 2006 Patient support groups Identified online survey 215 groups 52 (24.1%) October 2005 Internet users No-identified online survey 435 June 2006 Citizens Telephone survey Catalonian population 2.000 (M.E. 2.5% - C.I. 95%) October – December 2007 Physicians Identified online survey 16,531 Barcelona (COMB Professional Association) 2,199 (13.3%) June - July 2006 Nurses Identified online survey 13,583 Barcelona (COIB Professional Association) 1,170 (8.6%) October - November 2006 Pharmacists Identified online survey 7,648 Barcelona (COFB Professional Association) 898 (11.7%) November - February 2007
  32. 32. Research design Statistical analysis Methodology Variables -> New variables Frequencies Factor Analysis Cluster Analysis Cross Tabulation Regression Analysis: Logit model To identify through synthesise To characterise To determinate
  33. 33. Factor Analysis - To identify The main goal of factor analysis is data reduction to represent a number of questions with a smaller number of factor Cluster Analysis – To identify An explanatory data analysis technique design to reveal groups Cross tab – To characterise Regression analysis: Logit model – To determinate Prediction of the probability of occurrence of an event by fitting data to a logistic curve. It is a generalized linear model used for binomial regression. Like many forms of regression analysis, it makes use of several predictor variables that may be either numerical or categorical
  34. 34. 4. Results http://ictconsequences.net/uoc/internetsaludsociedad (Spanish version)
  35. 35. 5. Conclusions
  36. 36. READ – WRITE AND ALWAYS THINK CONSTRAINS DESING – MIX - POWER OF TOOLS ANALYSE READ – WRITE
  37. 37. JUST DO IT! AND ALWAYS HAVE FUN

×