Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0

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PRESENTATION TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 5-6 SEPTEMBER 2007 NATIONAL SCIENCE LEARNING CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF YORK

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Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0

  1. 1. Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 Francisco Lupiáñez-Villanueva Lecturer Information and Communication Science Open University of Catalonia http://www.uoc.edu TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 5-6 SEPTEMBER 2007 NATIONAL SCIENCE LEARNING CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF YORK
  2. 2. <ul><li>2 / 33 </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0
  3. 3. <ul><li>3 / 33 </li></ul>Introduction Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0
  4. 4. <ul><li>4 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Research Programme Project Internet Catalonia directed by Prof. Castells and Prof. Tubella and supported by Catalonia Government. http://www. uoc .edu/in3/pic/cat/index.html Internet and the Catalan Public Health System . Technological Modernisation, Organizational Change and Service Delivery in the Catalan Public Health System directed by Prof. Castells and supported by Catalonia Government http://www. uoc .edu/in3/pic/cat/salut.html Health and Technology - IN3 Research Programme
  5. 5. <ul><li>5 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Wikipedia definition Web 2.0 Informationalims: theoretical blueprint by Prof. Castells Interactive communication – W.W.W browser and editor Flexibility, that allows the distribution of processing power in various contexts and applications The three major, distinctive features of the technologies that are at the heart of the system are: 1. Their self-expanding processing and communicating capacity in terms of volume, complexity, and speed. 2. Their recombining ability on the basis of digitization and recurrent communication. 3. Their distributing flexibility through interactive, digitized networking.
  6. 6. <ul><li>6 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 But…due to the dynamic of these technologies, those actors are in front of another challenge related to Web 2.0. Health field is also involved by the informationalim paradigm.
  7. 7. <ul><li>7 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of this paper is to analyze the Internet use made by physicians, nurses, pharmacists, patient support groups and Internet users. </li></ul><ul><li>In this analysis, we put specially emphasis on two objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify the possible interactive communication processes allowed by the applications available on the Net. </li></ul><ul><li>To study in depth the social consequences of the change on the information and communication dimension caused by the Internet. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>8 / 33 </li></ul>Methodology Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0
  9. 9. <ul><li>9 / 33 </li></ul>Web Content Analysis Online surveys Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0
  10. 10. <ul><li>10 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 <ul><li>Web content analysis </li></ul><ul><li>In order to approach the analysis of webs of health in Catalonia we have to delimit the object of study of our investigation, in two scopes: </li></ul><ul><li>The thematic approach: &quot;health&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The geographic approach &quot;Catalonia&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1240 web resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 2005 – January 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online survey to webmaster – March 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>388 emails – 112 answer (28,86%) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>11 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Web content analysis Criteria Content Interaction Quality Communication Services Content Interaction Web resource
  12. 12. <ul><li>12 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Web content analysis YES / NO Advertising YES / NO Telephone number YES / NO Postal Address YES / NO Health content Content YES / NO Other YES / NO Login - password YES / NO Electronic formulary YES / NO Electronic Commerce Services YES / NO Online surveys YES / NO Chat YES / NO Electronic forums YES / NO Email list YES / NO email Communication Interaction
  13. 13. <ul><li>13 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Web content analysis YES / NO Aim of the web YES / NO Accreditation YES / NO Technological Standards YES / NO Help YES / NO FAQ: Frequent Asked Question YES / NO Search YES / NO Languages YES / NO Web Map Web resources YES / NO Privacy – Legal advices Communication and services YES / NO Date YES / NO Professional profile YES / NO Author Contents Quality Media NGO Teaching Centres Other providers Research Centres Healthcare professionals Public Administration Professional Associations Healthcare providers Patient Support Groups Personal Web Agents
  14. 14. <ul><li>14 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Online surveys – Healthcare actors This type of surveys offers an alternative to the postal, telephone or face to face surveys as long as technical and methodological considerations are taking into account The main obstacles of this type of surveys are associate to the representation of the sample and the suitable rates of answer
  15. 15. <ul><li>15 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Online surveys – Rates 898 (11,74%) 1170 (8,61%) 2199 (13,3%) 112 (28,86%) 52 (24,18%) Rate 30 questions 234 variables 7.648 Barcelona (COFB) November 2006 Pharmacist 42 questions 278 variables 13583 Barcelona (COIB) October 2006 Nurses 435 16531 Barcelona (COMB) 388 contact email 215 Groups Population 48 questions 279 variables June 2006 Internet users 272 variables 38 questions June 2006 Physicians 3 questions 34 variables March 2006 Webmaster 32 questions 237 variables October 2005 Patient Support Groups Questions - Variables Date Healthcare Actors
  16. 16. <ul><li>16 / 33 </li></ul>Results Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0
  17. 17. <ul><li>17 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Web content analysis 55.9 % Health content 13.7 % Advertising 70.6 % Postal Address 72.6 % Telephone number Content 0.4% Online learning 1.4% Healthcare services 3.5% Library services 4.8% Other 4.8 % Physicians appointments 9.2 % Electronic forums 0,5% Payments 4.1 % Electronic Commerce 10.1 % Login - password 14.6 % Electronic formulary Services 2.3 % Chat 6.4 % Online surveys 8.8 % Email list 78.9 % email Communication Interaction
  18. 18. <ul><li>18 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Web content analysis 37,6% More than one language 1,2% Technological Standards 4,3% FAQ: Frequent Asked Question 4,9% Help 11,5% Accreditation 12,6% Web Map 16,9% Search 35,9% Aim of the web Web resources 20,8% Privacy – Legal advices Communication and services 50,2% Date 60,6% Professional profile 66,3% Author Contents Quality 2.3 % Other providers Media Research Centres NGO Teaching Centres Public Administration Personal Web Healthcare providers Patient Support Groups Healthcare professionals Professional Associations Agents 1 % 2.3 % 2.4 % 4 % 5 % 5.9 % 12.8 % 17.1 % 22.2 % 25%
  19. 19. <ul><li>19 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Online surveys – Webmasters 18,8% To obtain economic benefits 33,9% To offer online services 63,4% To offer face to face services 63,4% To offer a new communication channel 64,3% To obtain non economic benefits (prestige, recognition…) 75,9% To offer health information 81,3% To offer contact data details What are the main objectives of your website? 2,7% Lack of interest 14,3% Lack of ideas about what I can do on the Internet. 21,4% Enough knowledge about the Internet potential 21,4% Support from your own organization 28,6% Private sponsorship 31,8% Technological infrastructure 34,8% Enough knowledge about Internet applications 38,4% Human resources 47,3% Lack of money 70,5% Lack of time What are the main barriers to the development of your website?:
  20. 20. <ul><li>20 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Online surveys – Internet users 5,7% Look for the support of no health professional 34,5% calm down with the medical advice received 43,9% keep searching for more advice or information on the health question 27,4% look for a health professional 12,2% try to diagnose a health problem 10,8% Try to treat a health problem 11% worry about the medical advice received % As a result of your Internet search do you… 50,8 NO % Have you sought Patient Support Groups information on the Internet 47,6 YES 100,0 Total 17,6 Weekly 4,1% Other 30,1 Never or almost never 45,0 Monthly 7,5 Daily % Internet Health information seek frequency 8.9 Online consultation with your physician 2.9 Online appointments with your physician 5,6 Online prescription 15.2 Online monitoring % Which of the following health services will you never use? 88,9 NO % Do you have the email of your physician? 11,1 YES 81,2% NO 18,8% YES % Have you talked with your physician about the health information you found on the Internet?
  21. 21. <ul><li>21 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Online surveys – Patient support groups 25% NO 34,6% YES, they give it although we do not ask for it 40,4% YES, we ask them for the email % Do you have the email of the group members 69,2% NO 30,8% YES % Do you have any electronic forum? 7,7% YES, it is just for our patient support group 75% NO 17,3% YES, it is opened for anyone % Do you have any electronic newsletter? 23,1% NO % Do you have a website? 76,9% YES 7,7% NO 92,3% YES % Do you have Internet connection?
  22. 22. <ul><li>22 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Online surveys – Physicians 49,1% A collective website 38,1% Sometimes 2,7% Spread no scientific work 5,5% Share information with my patients 6,8% Discussion about clinical issues related with my medical speciality 5,1% A blog 19,1% A personal website % What are the main reasons? 15,4% Share information with people 11,1% Spread my own scientific work 12,5% Share information with my friends and families % Do you have… 543% Never % Do you recommend to your patients the consult of health information on the Internet? 7,7% Frequently 6,7% NO 93,3% YES % Do you use the Internet for professional purpose? 91% Rarely - Never 54,5% Rarely - Never 9% Very Frequently - Frequently % Do you participate in Internet sites as an advisor of patients? 2,5% Very Frequently - Frequently 97,5% Rarely - Never % Do you participate in Internet sites explaining or clarifying doubts? % When you have doubts on treatments or diagnoses, do you use any electronic discussion list or look for information on the Internet? 45,5% Very Frequently - Frequently 21,9% With your patients 89,1% With other healthcare professionals % Do you use the email to contact or communicate…
  23. 23. <ul><li>23 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Online surveys – Nurses 21.4% Share information with my friends and families 40,7% A collective website 9% A blog 36,8% Sometimes 2.9% Share information with my patients 6.2% Spread no scientific work 30,9% A personal website % What are the main reasons? 10.7% Share information with people 7.6% Discussion about clinical issues related with my speciality 9.3% Spread my own scientific work % Do you have… 52,2% Never % Do you recommend to your patients the consult of health information on the Internet? 7% Frequently 25,7% NO 74,3% YES % Do you use the Internet for professional purpose? 89,1% Rarely - Never 42,4% Rarely - Never 10,9% Very Frequently - Frequently % Do you participate in Internet sites as an advisor of patients? 2,5% Very Frequently - Frequently 97,5% Rarely - Never % Do you participate in Internet sites explaining or clarifying doubts? % When you have doubts on treatments or diagnoses, do you use any electronic discussion list or look for information on the Internet? 57,6% Very Frequently - Frequently 7,7% With your patients 74% With other healthcare professionals % Do you use the email to contact or communicate…
  24. 24. <ul><li>24 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Online surveys – Pharmacist 46.7% Share information with people 38.0% Share information with my friends and families 47.5% A collective website 15,5% A blog 40,2% Sometimes 7.4% Discussion about clinical issues related with my speciality 8.7% Spread no scientific work 20.5% A personal website % What are the main reasons? 18.8% Share information with my clients 9.2% Spread my own scientific work % Do you have… 51,2% Never % Do you recommend to your patients the consult of health information on the Internet? 8,4% Frequently 7,1% NO 92,9% YES % Do you use the Internet for professional purpose? 73,4% Rarely - Never 67% Rarely - Never 26,6% Very Frequently - Frequently % Do you participate in Internet sites as an advisor of patients? 36% Very Frequently - Frequently 64% Rarely - Never % Do you participate in Internet sites explaining or clarifying doubts? % When you have doubts on treatments or diagnoses, do you use any electronic discussion list or look for information on the Internet? 33% Very Frequently - Frequently 38% With your clients 73% With other healthcare professionals % Do you use the email to contact or communicate…
  25. 25. <ul><li>25 / 33 </li></ul>Discussion Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0
  26. 26. <ul><li>26 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Discussion - Web content analysis The presence in the Internet of the Catalan health care system is led by the professionals who offer mainly different information and contents on health and few applications related to communication processes and/or services. Quality is still a challenge The Network is constituted mainly as a space of contents with little presence of applications of communication and services, therefore with a little degree of interaction. The little presence of the healthcare providers and of the Government (in comparison with the rest of identified agents) added to the little number of applications of communication and services available do not allow the attention or the management of the users demand
  27. 27. <ul><li>27 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Discussion - Internet users Internet users are characterized by: the high proportion of women, a high education level, facility of access to Internet from its own home, and a high frequency of use. These users of Internet integrate the use of different sources of information in their activities related to the health. But physicians are the key source. Women have a more active role than the men with all the sources, including Internet The problem of the use of the Internet for the people with more age and the consequences that the use of the consulted information can have on the health, since a smaller level of education could suppose an irregular use of the information. The frequency of use of the Internet for questions related to the health is far away from of the levels that would allow us to call to &quot;the cibercondriacs&quot;. The interest of the individuals by the associations of patients like a source of information remind us the importance of the no expert knowledge, since the utility and the confidence in this source is very high. The main consequence of the use of Internet for questions related to the health is the increase of information available. Just a minority percentage of individuals makes decisions relative to the diagnosis or the treatment of the health problem. These data support the hypothesis of the conscience of the individuals when they manage the inherent tension to the use of Internet. emphasize the need of physicians as an expert.
  28. 28. <ul><li>28 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Discussion - Patient support groups Internet is used by these organizations like a space of contents that allows then to spread information relative to the organization and the health thematic. The electronic mail is used like unidirectional communication channel producing a little interaction. There are just a very few applications related to interactive processes of communication and a lack of professional working online
  29. 29. <ul><li>29 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 Discussion - Health care professionals Professionals are connected to Internet and make an intensive use of the Net, mainly for questions related to the search and consultation of information. The use of Internet as communication media with other professionals of the sector are extended between all the professionals, but the levels of use of Internet or the electronic mail to communicate or interact with its patients or users is scarce. The increase of the information flows available in Internet has not come accompanied by an increase of the communication flows. However, we have to emphasize a tendency that indicates that those professionals who develop their professional practice in competitive markets make more intensive use of the Internet and the electronic mail to interact with their patients or users. Most of the professionals positively values the relevance of the contents available in the Internet and they do not consider that the patient search of information is negative neither for the professional - patient relationship or for the management the patients make of their disease. However just a minority percentage of professionals recommend to their patients the consultation of health information on the Internet or talk about the Internet. Probably because on the lack of time during their face to face meetings Nevertheless, the behavior of the phamacists shows us a new case where the factors related to the market oriented context are the key. These professionals do not have time barriers and are more accessible that the rest of professionals, given the physical distribution of the pharmacies by the territory.
  30. 30. <ul><li>30 / 33 </li></ul>Conclusions Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0
  31. 31. <ul><li>31 / 33 </li></ul>The Internet as a content platform Not as an interaction space Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 The Internet reproduces the social organization of the healthcare system
  32. 32. <ul><li>32 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0 http://wisdom.blogs.com/health/2007/06/why_web_20_matt.html
  33. 33. Thank you for your attention Francisco Lupiáñez-Villanueva [email_address] http://www.ictconsequences.net Lecturer Information and Communication Science Open University of Catalonia http://www.uoc.edu <ul><li>33 / 33 </li></ul>Health and the Internet: still Web 1.0 - TOWARDS A SOCIAL SCIENCE OF WEB 2.0

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