T ECHNOLOGY

USE , INNOVATIVE WORKPLACE PRACTICES

&
EMPLOYEES ’ PERFORMANCE AND WELL BEING

	
  
DR. LUDIVINE MARTIN
RESE...
2

“You want to know the difference information and
communication technologies make? Try to live
without them”

Internatio...
3

C ON T E XT
•  Advent of the knowledge society:
Large diffusion of ICT within firms (computer, Internet,
e-mail, ERP, ....
4

S TYLIZED

FACTS I N TH E

E CON OMIC

LITERATURE

•  At the firm level:
•  Technologies and innovative work practices ...
5

R E PORTS

ON THE TOPIC

•  EUROFOUND – European level
December 2008:
•  “Use of technology and working conditions in t...
6

MAI N CON CLUS ION S F ROM T HOS E REP ORTS

•  Diffusion of ICT strengthens:
•  the acquisition of new competencies
• ...
7

MY

RES EARCH ES

1.  Technology use, innovative workplace practices
and employee’s performance
2.  Technology use, inn...
8

1. Technology use, innovative
workplace practices and employee’s
performance

16 European countries – EWCS 2005 - 2010
9

R E SE A RCH

ARTICLE

"The complementarities between ICT use, new
organizational practices and employees’ contextual
p...
10

TECHNOLOGY

USE AND EMPLOYEE’ PERFORMANCE

Technology	
  use	
  
(computer	
  and	
  Internet)	
  

New	
  organiza=on...
11

S OME

F IG URES

Internet use
4,0
Average

3,5
3,0

Non users

2,5

Almost never

2,0

Around 1/4 of time

1,5

Aroun...
12

USE

OF AN ECON OMETR I C MOD E L

•  To highlight significant links between two
variables…
•  Here computer, Internet...
13

M AIN

E CON OMETRI C RES ULTS

•  The frequency of Internet use is positively associated
with all facets of contextua...
14

M AIN

E CON OMETRI C RES ULTS

•  HRM: formal assessment, telework, team work
are positively associated with all face...
15

2. Technology use, innovative
workplace practices and employee’s
well being
France – EPCV 2005
IFMA – WORKPLACES

R E SE A RCH

GETTING SMARTER

16

ARTICLE

•  "Usage des TIC, conditions de travail et satisfaction de...
17

TECHNOLOGY
STRESS?

U S E A N D W O R K I N G C O N D I T I O N S : S AT I S FA C T I O N A N D / O R

Enriching	
  
w...
18

S OME

F IG URES

100%

80%
Average
60%

Computer non users
Computer users
Internet non users

40%

Internet users
Mob...
19

USE

OF AN ECON OMETR I C MOD E L

•  To highlight significant links between two
variables…
•  Here ICT use (computer,...
20

M AIN

E CON OMETRI C RES ULTS , IN

2005:

•  Intensive use of a computer:

•  + satisfaction
•  + autonomy
•  - stre...
21

3. Main conclusions
22

M AIN

CURREN T RES ULTS ON

C o m p u t e r during
working time:
+ sa tis f acti on a nd
- s tre ss
Internet use:
+ s...
23

4. New preliminary results on
Luxembourg
24

TWAIN (2012-2015)
New research project supported by
TWAIN: Technology use at Work And INnovative work
practices: Asses...
25

S OME

F IG URES ON

IT

AN D

S AT I S FACT I ON

8,0	
  

Internet

Email Pro

7,0	
  

smartphone

IT failure

Aver...
26

S OME

F IG URES ON

IT

AN D

S T R E SS

3,4	
  

Internet

Email pro

3,3	
  

smartphone

IT failure

Average	
  
...
27

USE

OF AN ECON OMETR I C MOD E L

•  To highlight significant links between two variables…
•  Here 3 ICT uses and IT ...
28

M AIN PRELIMINARY

E C ON OME T R IC RES ULTS

•  Internet use:
•  + satisfaction
•  - stress

•  Email pro:
•  No lin...
29

M AIN PRELIMINARY

E C ON OME T R IC RES ULTS

Innovative work practices:
•  Norms: + satisfaction ; + stress
•  Hiera...
Dr. Ludivine Martin
	
  
ludivine.martin@ceps.lu
https://sites.google.com/site/ludivinemartinceps/
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Journée Thématique FLUPA "Technostress" - Ludivine Martin : Usage d’Internet, pratiques managériales innovantes et performance des salariés

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Dans le contexte de l’avènement de la société de la connaissance, la diffusion des technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) associée aux nouveaux modèles de travail (tels que la décentralisation de la prise de décision ou le travail en équipe) permettent d’accroître la performance des entreprises. Le problème économique majeur pour les entreprises, dans ce contexte, est de fournir un environnement de travail motivant favorisant le bien être et la performance de leurs salariés. La présentation visera à donner un éclairage récent sur le thème des TIC, pratiques managériales innovantes en lien avec le bien-être au travail et la performance des salariés. Pour cela, le Dr. Ludivine Martin nous présentera les principaux résultats mis en évidence par ses travaux de recherche.

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Journée Thématique FLUPA "Technostress" - Ludivine Martin : Usage d’Internet, pratiques managériales innovantes et performance des salariés

  1. 1. T ECHNOLOGY USE , INNOVATIVE WORKPLACE PRACTICES & EMPLOYEES ’ PERFORMANCE AND WELL BEING   DR. LUDIVINE MARTIN RESEARCH FELLOW IN ECONOMICS   TECHNOLOGIES ET BIEN-ÊTRE AU TRAVAIL LUXEMBOURG, JEUDI 14 NOVEMBRE 2013
  2. 2. 2 “You want to know the difference information and communication technologies make? Try to live without them” International Telecommunication Union – 2006
  3. 3. 3 C ON T E XT •  Advent of the knowledge society: Large diffusion of ICT within firms (computer, Internet, e-mail, ERP, ... ) à Strengthen the acquisition and the transfer of information and knowledge between employees •  Associated with innovative work practices: Tayloristic organization Holistic organization
  4. 4. 4 S TYLIZED FACTS I N TH E E CON OMIC LITERATURE •  At the firm level: •  Technologies and innovative work practices increase firms' productivity •  At the employee level: •  Technologies and innovative work practices influence working conditions quality
  5. 5. 5 R E PORTS ON THE TOPIC •  EUROFOUND – European level December 2008: •  “Use of technology and working conditions in the European Union” www.eurofound.europa.eu •  Centre d’analyse stratégique (CAS) – France February 2012: •  “ L’impact des TIC sur les conditions de travail” www.strategie.gouv.fr
  6. 6. 6 MAI N CON CLUS ION S F ROM T HOS E REP ORTS •  Diffusion of ICT strengthens: •  the acquisition of new competencies •  the transfer of information and knowledge inside firms •  ICT play a central role in workplaces: •  enabling a faster production of goods and services •  facilitating innovation processes
  7. 7. 7 MY RES EARCH ES 1.  Technology use, innovative workplace practices and employee’s performance 2.  Technology use, innovative workplace practices and employee’s well being 3.  Main current conclusions 4.  New preliminary results on Luxembourg
  8. 8. 8 1. Technology use, innovative workplace practices and employee’s performance 16 European countries – EWCS 2005 - 2010
  9. 9. 9 R E SE A RCH ARTICLE "The complementarities between ICT use, new organizational practices and employees’ contextual performance: Evidence from Europe in 2005 and 2010" with A. Ben Youssef (University of Nice Sophia Antipolis) and N. Omrani (Ecole Polytechnique) •  Work in progress presented at the 62th Annual Meeting of French Economic Association (AFSE) •  Data: Eurofound Europe (EWCS) 2005 and 2010 à 11 100 observations in 2005 and 16 400 in 2010 in 16 European countries
  10. 10. 10 TECHNOLOGY USE AND EMPLOYEE’ PERFORMANCE Technology  use   (computer  and  Internet)   New  organiza=onal   prac=ces  (HRM,  quality   management,  Just-­‐in-­‐ =me)   Contextual   performance   3 measures of contextual performance: •  Interpersonal Citizenship Performance (ICP): behaviours to assist, support and cooperate with co-workers •  Organizational Citizenship Performance (OCP): citizenship behaviours that demonstrate commitment to the organization •  Job/Task Conscientiousness (JTC): extra efforts demonstrating dedication to the job
  11. 11. 11 S OME F IG URES Internet use 4,0 Average 3,5 3,0 Non users 2,5 Almost never 2,0 Around 1/4 of time 1,5 Around 1/2 or 3/4 of time 1,0 Interpersonal Organizational Job/Task Citizenship Citizenship Conscientiousness Performance (1-5) Performance (1-5) (1-4) Almost all of the time or all of the time Source: EWCS 2005
  12. 12. 12 USE OF AN ECON OMETR I C MOD E L •  To highlight significant links between two variables… •  Here computer, Internet use and employee’s contextual performance •  … when controlling for several other variables: •  •  •  •  Employees’ characteristics (gender, age, etc.) Jobs characteristics (occupation, tenure, etc.) Firms characteristics (size, business sector, etc.) Work practices (HRM, quality management, just-in-time)
  13. 13. 13 M AIN E CON OMETRI C RES ULTS •  The frequency of Internet use is positively associated with all facets of contextual performance •  Asymmetric effects between Internet and computer use: •  The recent generation of ICT (Internet) is more likely to induce changes in workers’ behaviour than the previous one (computers)
  14. 14. 14 M AIN E CON OMETRI C RES ULTS •  HRM: formal assessment, telework, team work are positively associated with all facets of contextual performance •  To t a l q u a l i t y m a n a g e m e n t e n h a n c e s t h e commitment to organizational rules •  Contraints on work rythm (Just-in-time) is negatively associated with almost all facets of contextual performance
  15. 15. 15 2. Technology use, innovative workplace practices and employee’s well being France – EPCV 2005
  16. 16. IFMA – WORKPLACES R E SE A RCH GETTING SMARTER 16 ARTICLE •  "Usage des TIC, conditions de travail et satisfaction des salariés" (ICT usage, working conditions and employees' job satisfaction) with N. Colombier and T. Pénard (University of Rennes 1) •  Published in 2007 in Vol. 25, No. 143, pp. 115-146 http://reseaux.revuesonline.com/ •  Data: INSEE France (EPCV) 2005 2 400 employees
  17. 17. 17 TECHNOLOGY STRESS? U S E A N D W O R K I N G C O N D I T I O N S : S AT I S FA C T I O N A N D / O R Enriching   work   Promo=on   opportuni=es   Need  to  rush   Technologies:   Computer,  Internet   and  mobile  phone   Conflict     delay/quality   Must   handling   incidents   alone   Autonomy  
  18. 18. 18 S OME F IG URES 100% 80% Average 60% Computer non users Computer users Internet non users 40% Internet users Mobile phone non users 20% Mobile phone users 0% Enriching work Promotion opportunities Satisfaction Must handling incidents alone Autonomy Conflict delay/ quality Need to rush Stress Source: EPCV 2005
  19. 19. 19 USE OF AN ECON OMETR I C MOD E L •  To highlight significant links between two variables… •  Here ICT use (computer, Internet, mobile phone) and employee’s well being •  … when controlling for several other variables: •  •  •  •  Employees’ characteristics (gender, age, etc.) Jobs characteristics (occupation, tenure, etc.) Firms characteristics (size, business sector, etc.) Work practices (work schedule flexibility, repetitive work)
  20. 20. 20 M AIN E CON OMETRI C RES ULTS , IN 2005: •  Intensive use of a computer: •  + satisfaction •  + autonomy •  - stress Use of Internet: •  + satisfaction •  autonomy and stress: no additional link Intensive use of mobile phone after working hours: •  + satisfaction •  + autonomy •  + stress
  21. 21. 21 3. Main conclusions
  22. 22. 22 M AIN CURREN T RES ULTS ON C o m p u t e r during working time: + sa tis f acti on a nd - s tre ss Internet use: + sa tis f acti on E - c ont act a f t e r working hours : + sa tis f acti on b ut + stre ss ICT USE B Y E MP LOYE E S Internet use: C o n t e x t u a l performance improved + behaviours to assist, support and cooperate with co-workers + behaviours that demonstrate commitment to the organization + extra efforts demonstrating dedication to the job
  23. 23. 23 4. New preliminary results on Luxembourg
  24. 24. 24 TWAIN (2012-2015) New research project supported by TWAIN: Technology use at Work And INnovative work practices: Assessing the impact on work environment, employees’ motivations and effort in Luxembourg •  3 research questions: •  What are the impacts of ICT use and new work models on employees' work environment, motivations and performance? •  How do ICT affect the decentralization of the decision making and its consequences on work motivation and effort? •  How does the virtualization of contacts affect the outcome of a team?
  25. 25. 25 S OME F IG URES ON IT AN D S AT I S FACT I ON 8,0   Internet Email Pro 7,0   smartphone IT failure Average   Internet  non  users   Internet  users   6,0   Email  pro  non  users   <30'   5,0   30'-­‐1h   1-­‐2h   4,0    >2h   Smartphone  non  users   3,0   Smartphone  users   2,0   No  IT   Never  IT  failure   1,0   Some=mes   Oen   0,0   Sa=sfac=on  (0-­‐10)   Source: QVT 2013
  26. 26. 26 S OME F IG URES ON IT AN D S T R E SS 3,4   Internet Email pro 3,3   smartphone IT failure Average   Internet  non  users   3,2   Internet  users   Email  pro  non  users   3,1   <30'   30'-­‐1h   3,0   1-­‐2h   2,9    >2h   Smartphone  non  users   2,8   Smartphone  users   No  IT   2,7   Never  IT  failure   Some=mes   2,6   Oen   2,5   Stress  (1-­‐4)  
  27. 27. 27 USE OF AN ECON OMETR I C MOD E L •  To highlight significant links between two variables… •  Here 3 ICT uses and IT failure and employee’s well being •  … when controlling for several other variables: •  •  •  •  •  Employees’ characteristics (gender, age, nationality, education) Jobs characteristics (occupation, tenure, income, full time, CDI) Firms characteristics (size, business sector, etc.) Incentives (monitoring and pay-for-performance) Work practices (norms, hierarchical constraint on work schedule, teamwork, telework, job rotation, assessment)
  28. 28. 28 M AIN PRELIMINARY E C ON OME T R IC RES ULTS •  Internet use: •  + satisfaction •  - stress •  Email pro: •  No link with satisfaction •  + stress •  Smartphone: •  + satisfaction •  + stress •  IT failure: •  - satisfaction •  + stress
  29. 29. 29 M AIN PRELIMINARY E C ON OME T R IC RES ULTS Innovative work practices: •  Norms: + satisfaction ; + stress •  Hierarchical constraint on work schedule: - satisfaction ; + stress •  Teamwork: No link with satisfaction ; + stress •  Job rotation: +satisfaction ; - stress •  Job assessment: + satisfaction ; No link with stress •  Telework: + satisfaction ; - stress Incentives: •  Monitoring: - satisfaction; + stress •  pay-for-performance: + satisfaction ; + stress
  30. 30. Dr. Ludivine Martin   ludivine.martin@ceps.lu https://sites.google.com/site/ludivinemartinceps/

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