Introduction to Linguistic (7)
Phrases and Sentences: Grammar
Traditional Grammar (1)
• Grammar is the structure of a language and the
way in which linguistic units such as words and
phrases are combined to produce sentences in
• A word is a single unit of language which means
something and can be spoken or written.
• A phrase is a group of two or more words which
can be used as a grammatical unit within a
sentence, that is all the words in a phrase
together serve as the same part of speech in a
Traditional Grammar (2)
• A clause is a group of words which forms a grammatical
unit and has a subject and predicate, there is finite verb.
• A sentence is a group of words that makes sense
because the words are constructed and arranged
according to the grammatical rules for expressing
statements, questions and commands.
• Traditional Grammar is the term which is usually based
on earlier grammars of Latin or Greek and applied to
some other language, it analyzes the language based on
part of speech and concord or agreement
Parts of Speech (1)
• A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing,
state, or action.
• The position a noun in a sentence:
as a subject: John eats. The man runs.
as a direct object: She loves John. He writes books.
as a indirect object: He gave John a book.
as the object of preposition: According to John, you are wrong.
as the subject of complement (the word that is linked the
subject by a verb such as is, was, seem, become): That seems
to be the man.
Parts of Speech (2)
• as the object complement (the word that comes after the
object and is directly related to it): She calls him an angel.
• as an appositive (the word or phrase placed next to another
word or phrase to explain what the latter refers to): The hero,
Tarzan, is a very brave man.
• as a possessive (word that indicates ownership): John’s
project has been praised.
• to modify another noun: The shoe factory has a lady
• Types of noun:
• Common Noun is a general name, common to all the people,
all the things, all the places etc…. that are of the same type,
eg. boys, cat, zoo. It is divided into:
Parts of Speech (3)
• Concrete Noun names people, animals and things can be known
directly through the senses (they can be seen, heard, touched, smelt,
etc), eg pig, ball, book, fire, smoke, table.
• Animate Noun (nouns that refer to living things: brother, tiger).
• Inanimate Noun (nouns that refer to non-living things: sugar, apple).
• Abstract Noun is a noun that refers to intangible items (items cannot
be seen, heard, touched or smelt), eg. justice, beauty, communication.
• Proper Noun is a particular name eg. Charles Dickens, Mount
• Countable Noun is a noun which has a singular form as well
as a plural form, eg. cat and cats, bush and bushes, man and
• Uncountable Noun is a noun which has only one form and
take a singular verb, eg. rice, advice, furniture, information.
Parts of Speech (4)
• A pronoun is a word used in the place of a noun or
noun phrase to avoid repetition of the same noun or
• Types of pronouns:
• Personal pronoun is divided into:
• First person pronouns, it represents the speaker(s) or
• Singular: I, me, my, mine
Plural: we, us, our, ours
• Second person pronouns, it represents the person or people
who is/are being addressed:
• Singular: you, your, yours
Plural: you, your, yours
Parts of Speech (5)
• Third person pronouns, it represents people or things other
than the speaker /writer and the listener/reader.
• Singular: he, him, his, she, her, it, its
Plural: they, them, their, theirs
• Emphatic and reflexive pronouns
• Both of them are different from each other in the ways they
are used. However, they have the same spelling:
• myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself, ourselves, yourself,
• An emphatic pronoun is used to emphasize a particular person
or thing: Only the engineer himself can repair this machine.
• A reflexive pronoun refers back to the subject of the sentence.
It occurs in a sentence in which the subject and object are the
same person or thing: She cuts herself with the knife.
Parts of Speech (6)
• Demonstrative Pronoun
• This, these, that and those are demonstrative noun. It points to a
specific person, or a specific group of people or things.
• This is used to refer to a thing or person that is near the speaker in
terms of space or time. That is used when the thing or person is far
from the speaker in terms of space or time. These is the plural form
of this. Those is the plural of that.
• Interrogative Pronoun
• Who, whom, what, which, and whose are called interrogative
pronouns or question words when they are used to ask questions.
• Relative Pronoun
• Who, whom, whose, which and that are relative pronouns when
they are used not only as pronouns but also as conjunctions to two
sentences or clauses.
Parts of Speech (7)
• Indefinite Pronoun
• It refers to people or things generally rather than specifically.
It is divided into:
• that refer to general amounts and quantities: many, most,
some, none, any, all, both, several, much, enough, others.
• that indicate alternatives or choice: either, neither.
• that refer to unspecified person(s) or thing(s): somebody,
something, someone, nobody, none, anybody, anyone,
anything, everyone, everything, everybody, they, you.
• Reciprocal Pronoun
• Each other and another are reciprocal pronouns. They are
used when two or more subjects interchange the action
denoted by the verb.
Parts of Speech (8)
• Expletive Pronoun
• It and there are often used as expletive pronouns, they take
place of the subject of a sentence that would otherwise be
without a subject and would therefore be incomplete.
• Verbs are words which express the actions carried out by the
subject of the sentence.
• Types of verbs:
• Finite and non-finite verbs
• A finite verb has a subject and its form changes when:
• the subject is changed from singular to plural:
• Today she wants to go.
• Today they want to go.
Parts of Speech (9)
• the time of the action is changed
• Today he wants to go.
• Yesterday he wanted to go.
• Tomorrow he will want to go.
• In the above examples want, wants, wanted, will want are
finite verbs. Go is a non-finite verb. It remains the same in all
the five sentences.
• Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
• A transitive verb is a verb which takes an object, eg. The man
killed the snake.
• An intransitive verb is a verb that does not take an object, eg.
The baby sleeps.
Parts of Speech (10)
• Linking Verb
• Linking verbs are a type of intransitive verbs. They
are sometimes called intransitive verbs of incomplete
predication because they must be followed by a
completing word or phrase called a complement.
• Linking verbs are sometimes known as verbs to be. To
test whether a verb such as become, look, seem is
linking verb, substitute it with verbs to be, eg. He
became a doctor. = He was a doctor.
Parts of Speech (11)
• Verbs phrases, main verbs, auxiliary verbs
• A clause or simple sentence may have a single verb
(He sits down) or a verb phrase (He will be sitting
down). The main verb is either the only verb in the
clause or the final verb in a verb phrase. Auxiliary
verbs are helping verbs used before the main verb.
• An adjective is a word which describes a noun or
pronoun either by pointing out of its qualities (the
red dress, a long pole) or by limiting its reference (the
only desk, ten kilometers, the first road).
Parts of Speech (12)
• Descriptive Adjectives
• It points out a quality of the person, thing or idea it
describes, in other words it tells us what kind of
person, thing or idea is referred to.
• Many descriptive adjectives have no special endings:
old, young, large, short, long, safe, white, hard, soft,
bad, rich, hot.
• Limiting Adjectives or determiners have some
• Article, there are two classes of articles: indefinite
and definite articles.
Parts of Speech (13)
• A and an are known as indefinite articles because it is
normally used as mean any one. The is called the
definite article because it is normally used to mean
that particular one.
• Demonstrative Adjectives: this, that, these, those are
called demonstrative adjectives because they point
out the things, person or ideas that are referred to.
• Possessive Adjectives: my, his, her, your, our, its and
their are called possessive adjectives because they
are used to show ownership or possession.
Parts of Speech (14)
• Interrogative adjectives: whose, which, and what are
called interrogative when they are used with noun to
• Quantifiers are adjectives that either indicate definite
numerical quantities, eg. three hammers, some
students, every Sunday.
• Relative adjectives are like relative pronouns in that
they both link dependent clauses to main clauses.
The difference is that while relative pronouns link the
clauses by taking the place of nouns, relative
adjectives link the clauses by modifying nouns.
Parts of Speech (15)
• An adverb is a word that may be used to give more
a verb, eg. runs quickly
an adjective, eg. very interesting
another adverb, eg. very interestingly
a conjunction, eg. only because
a preposition, eg. only after
an entire sentence, eg. Surprisingly, she recovered.
• Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by the
addition of –ly.
Parts of Speech (16)
• Adverbs of Time shows when something happens or
happened eg. We saw it yesterday. I have seen him
• Adverbs of Frequency indicates how frequently
something happens or happened eg. I always do it this
way. The instructions were given twice.
• Adverbs of Place refers to where or in what direction an
action occurs or occurred eg. Birds were everywhere. He
has gone out.
• Adverbs of Degree shows to what extent an action
occurs or occurred eg. The equipment must be washed
thoroughly. The supervisor absolutely forbids us to be
Parts of Speech (17)
• Adverbs of Manner indicates how something is or was
done eg. The job was done professionally. Do it slowly
• Adverbs of Sequence shows in what order things occur
eg. First, the tap must be turned off. Finally, the cap must
• Adverbs of Result expresses the result of an action eg. He
won. He was therefore happy. She hates him. So she
won’t help him.
• Adverbs of Contrast expresses an idea is either in
contrast to a preceding one or different from what is
expected eg. He won. However, he was not happy. She
hates him. Nonetheless, she helps him.
Parts of Speech (18)
• A preposition is a word that links a noun or a noun
equivalent (eg. a pronoun or a gerund) to another
word by expressing such relationship as location (eg.
at, on, in, over) direction (eg. to, across, toward),
time (eg. before, after, during), or purpose (eg. to,
• Examples: Sit on the floor. (on links the noun phrase
the floor to sit), He sits on the box. He sits in front of
the box. He sits near the box.
Parts of Speech (19)
• Conjunctions are words used to; join words, eg. John
and Mary, slowly but carefully; join phrases, eg. the
plays of Shakespeare or the music of Mozart; join
clauses, eg. I like him because he is kind. It divides
• Coordinating conjunction has the same function as
the conjunction in general, eg. I had fish and chips. It
could be on the self or in the drawer. The journey was
long and tedious but it was worth the effort.
Parts of Speech (20)
• Some coordinating conjunction are used in pairs, it is
called correlative coordinating conjunctions, eg. You
should buy either the red shirt or the blue one. John
was not only a good teacher but also a well-known
artist. Both the police and the fire brigade should be
• Subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate or
dependent clause to a main or independent clause,
eg. The water boiled when the temperature reached
1000 C. If you switch on the current, the room will be
bright. John was afraid because he saw a ghost.
Parts of Speech (21)
• Correlative subordinating conjunction, eg. The poor
man was so weak that he could hardly talk. As soon
as he recovered his breath, the messenger continued
his journey. No sooner had we put him in bed than
we heard him snoring away.
• Compound subordinating conjunction, subordinating
conjunctions formed by a series of two or more
words, eg. I would have gone with you except that I
had run out of petrol. Given that he is so pathetic, I
think we should help him. We did the job in order
that we might widen our experience.
Agreement or Concord
• In grammar, agreement or concord means that
related parts of a sentence have the right form
• person (whether the word refers to: the speaker –
the first person; the person spoken to – the second
person; or the person spoken about – the third
• number (singular or plural)
• gender (male or female)