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My Portfolio
in
Educational Technology
2
By: Florence April L. Fernandez
And
Elbie U. Urdelas
A Third year student of Bachelor
of Elementary Education at Palawan
State University, Brookyue’s Point
Campus, Pangobilian Brooke’s Point,
Palawan. I am 27 years old, a
married woman. Live happily with
my loving husband and sweet only
son. Some of my friends call me..
Flo or BB..
Florence April L. Fernandez
Elbie U.
Urdelas I was born thirty tree
years ago in Rio tuba,
Bataraza, Palawan. I have
a very large family I am
single mommy I have two
daughter for now I'm
studying at Palawan State
University Brooke’s point
Palawan taking up
Batchelor Education third
year student.
 Educational technology, sometimes
shortened to EduTech or EdTech, is a wide
field. Therefore, one can find many
definitions, some of which are conflicting.
Educational technology as an academic field
can be considered either as a design
science or as a collection of different
research interests addressing fundamental
issues of learning, teaching and social
organization. Educational technology as
practice refers to any form of teaching and
learning that makes use of technology.
 1. Use of technology is principled:
Technology means the systematic
application of scientific knowledge to
practical tasks. Therefore, educational
technology is based on theoretical
knowledge drawn from different
disciplines (communication, education,
psychology, sociology, philosophy,
artificial intelligence, computer
science, etc.) plus experiential
knowledge drawn from educational
practice.
 2. Educational technology aims to
EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY:
Educational Technology, for me
is very much appreciated. Though,
we knew that everything in this
world have an advantages and
disadvantages. But we as a human
we have to follow or go to the flow
of civilizations.
Even farmers or carpenters
needs to be educated to use
modern facilities and changes to
make more products, to make the
 How can we imagine a career women
who don't even know how to use a
semi auto washing machine? At my
stage, as a Mommy and a student, its
very important for me using a new
households technology like washing
machine, stoves, refrigerator, etc.
Very important to me to manage my
time to my kids responsibilities while
studying and helping to my husband
for the sake of our family future. So,
for me, Educational Technology, is
very important and helpful, it is like a
gadgets or computers that needs to
We knew that Filipino workers are highly in
demand globally, (whatever skills, aspect or
whatever degree they've finished), having a
knowledge or being educated technologically is
an advantage and are very competitive, so
learning and education about technologies give
us a big help not only to ourselves but also to
country.
We need to be frank that as a citizen we
have to moving on about the old one, but we
don't need to just keep it away to our mind,
what I mean is we took ideas from old times
practiced, we just need to enhance, develop and
improve the new style, new technology
Systematic
approach to
teaching
As depicted in the chart, the focus of systematic
instructional planning is the student. Instruction
begins with the definition of instructional objectives
that consider the students’ needs, interest, and
readiness. On the basis of this objective, the teacher
selects the appropriate teaching methods to be used
and, in turn, based on the teaching method selected,
the appropriate learning experiences and appropriate
materials, equipment and facilities will also be
selected.
 The use of learning materials, equipment and facilities necessitates
assigning the personnel to assist the teacher and defining the role of
any personnel involved in the preparation, setting and returning of
this learning resources. (in some school settings , there is a custodian/
librarian who takes care of the learning resources and / or technician
who operates the equipment while teacher facilitates.) the effective use
of learning resources is dependent in the expertise of the teacher,
motivation of level or responsiveness, and the involvement of the
students in the learning process. With the instructional objectives in
mind, the teacher implements planned instructions with the use of the
selective teaching method, learning activities, and learning materials
with the help of other personnel whose role has been defined by the
teacher.
Will the teacher use direct instruction or
indirect instruction? Will he /she teach
using the deductive or inductive approach?
It depends on his / her instructional
objectives, nature of the subject matter,
and readiness of student and the expertise
of the teacher himself or herself.
Examples of learning activities that the
teacher can choose from, depending on
his/her instructional objectives, nature
of the lesson content, readiness of the
student are :
Reading
Writing
Interviewing
reporting or doing
presentation
Discussing
Thinking
Reflecting
Dramatizing
Visualizing
creating judging and evaluating.
Some examples of learning
resources for instructional use are :
Textbooks
Workbooks
programmed materials
Computer
television programs
 flat pictures
 slides and transparencies
 maps
Charts
Cartoons
Posters
Models
mock ups
Flannel
board materials
chalk boards
real objects and the like.
After instructions, teacher evaluates the
outcome of instruction. From the evaluation
results, teacher comes to know if the
instructional objective was attained. If the
instructional objective was attained, teacher
proceeds to the next lesson going through
the same cycle once more. If instructional
objectives was not attained ,
then teacher diagnoses was not
learned and finds out why it was
not learned in order to introduced a
remedial measure for improved
student performance and
attainment of instructional
 Educational Technology has absolutely revolutionized the entire
education system. Until recently, the teachers used to be the sole
interpreter of knowledge to the learners and the textbooks the
sole resource. Educational technology has affected the
conventional roles and it has opened up the new areas of teacher
functions such as management of resources and management of
learning. Today, teachers have a range of media to assist and
supplement the instructional work.
 Teachers can even specify the learning intentions, select the
topic, identify the stimulus situation, determine media, manage
teaching and finally conduct evaluation and modify the
instructions in the light of evaluation results.
 Educational process can’t proceed systematically without the
help of educational technology. Every aspect of educational
system is fully enlightened with educational technology.
1. Educational technology has provided
a scientific base to the educational
theory and practice. It has transformed
a passive classroom to an active and
interactive classroom, with audio-
visuals, charts and models, smart
classrooms and e-learning room which
has drastically motivated and increased
the attention level of the students.
2. The introduction of educational
technology has modernised the
teaching-learning climate of the
educational institutions. The
learners to be exposed to
professionally designed programmes
on video or computers.
3. Educational technology has helped and
supplemented the teachers in their
instructional programmes through the
structured lessons for remedial, enrichment
or drill purposes. The learners get training
for self instruction and teachers are
relieved of the burden of routine repetition
for exercise and revision purposes.
4. Through a systematic organisation
of content and instructional
materials, educational technology
has provided well-integrated
structured materials for teachers
thus saving a lot of their time which
in turn may be utilized for creative
work and quality improvement.
5. The training and use of educational
technology contributes towards the
professional growth of teachers. It
equips them in the use of scientific
methods for solving educational and
administrative problems. It adds to the
teaching competence of teachers and
inculcates a scientific outlook and
scientific temper in teachers and
students.
6. Educational technology has
improved the teaching-learning
process and made it more effective
and process oriented. Television,
Radio, V.C.R, Computers and LCD
projectors etc. have enriched and
facilitated effective transmission of
knowledge.
7. Educational technology has
not only maintained the
standards of education but
also improved the ways of
teaching by giving it Teaching
Aids and Programmed
Instructional Material.
8. Mechanism of feedback
devices for modification of
teaching-learning
behaviour have produced
effective teachers in the
teacher-training institutes.
9. Students who appear for
higher or competitive
examinations have been
benefitted by educational
programmes on T.V, Radio
and Internet.
10. Educational technology
has opened up new fields
of educational researches
in the field of examination
process, evaluation and
classroom-teaching.
11. Educational technology
has provided practices and
strategies that help
teachers to teach
according to individual
differences of learners.
12. Educational
technology has provided
scientific foundation to
education through the
theories of learning and
intelligence.
Thus educational technology is required in
each and every aspect of teaching learning
process. Educational technology serves all
the purposes for modern education.
Education today can’t go far without the help
of educational technology. The innovations of
technology in the field of education have
done wonders to educational process. It has
not only maintained the structure but also
improved the nature of the educational
process.
Roles of technology in
education
Methods used within the classroom not only need to keep
evolving, but also harness the effects of the digital revolution
in a positive and constructive manner. Creating a curriculum
that appreciates the power of technology in the learning
process can serve to increase engagement in the classroom
and make learning easier and more efficient.
 A common misperception surrounding the impact of technology on
learning is that the Internet, with all its factual data, has served to
render our long-term memory as useless. Why commit to learning
something if a simple press of a button will give you the answers you
are looking for? Proponents of this argument therefore believe that
the need to remember facts is no longer essential to our education.
However, these arguments often ignore the dynamic between long-
term memory and working memory.
A person’s long-term memory has much more capacity than
their working memory that can only remember between 4-7
items before it becomes overloaded. Therefore, working
memory space is premium, in order for it to be free on a
regular basis we have to commit certain facts to our long-term
memory. This is perhaps why researchers label long-term
memory as ‘the seat of human intellectual skill.’
 Laptops, tabletsaddictive nature of technology, such as video games, can be
harnessed in positive ways. An innovation in education is underway. Is it
possible to design educational video games and software tools that hold
children’s attention in the same way that computer games do? An example of
such efforts comes in the form of the Essa Academy in Bolton, the United
Kingdom. , and smartphones are facing sharp criticism for their ability to
distract the student in the classroom and lecture theatre. This is not surprising,
with studies showing that university students who frequently engage with
laptops during lectures understand less than those who do not. However, the
 The story of the Essa Academy encapsulates the transformative
impact of technology on the learning process. In 2009, the school was
‘failing’ according to OFSTED inspectors, but now the school has
drastically improved pupils’ results and satisfaction. The school gave
every pupil a new iPod with software configured to teachers’
computers. Additional iPads are found in every classroom, and pupils
in Biology class use these to create stop-start movies reflecting the
dynamic aspect of Nature.
Much criticism was levelled at the plan to give a ‘failing’
school, where 80% of pupils come from ‘deprived areas’, so
much funding. The local media implied that, due to the
economic status of the pupils, most of the new iPods would
be sold on eBay, but this has not happened. Students seem to
treasure them, with only 1-2% of the gadgets reported lost,
stolen, or damaged.
“There’s something like a sense of belonging in
having your own device. You have access to
everything at the touch of your hand, literally”
– Aadil Pariejwala.
The mastermind behind the plan, which has now been
mirrored by the neighbouring private school, is director
Abdul Chohan. Chohan took a risk that seems to be paying
off, he was actually told he would be fired if the plan did not
work! Before the scheme, only 25% of Essa’s students attained
5 good GCSEs, but now that number has more than doubled,
reaching higher than the national average.
 Further innovative steps to complement the plan can be seen
throughout the School campus with no designated ‘staff room’ (pupils
can enter when they like to ask for advice), and an internal Email
system. These examples foster a sense of cooperation between
teachers and pupils, relieving the School of the ‘them versus us’
attitude that can come to undermine the learning process. By
incorporating a collegiate atmosphere, a tailor-made curriculum, and
engaging technology, pupils are adequately prepared for any future
job.
Cone
of
Experience
Conceptual
Model of
learning
 1 - Adaptive Learning
This is an educational method which uses computers as interactive teaching
devices. Computers adapt the presentation of educational material according to
students' learning needs, as indicated by their responses to questions and tasks. The
motivation is to allow electronic education to incorporate the value of the
interactivity afforded to a student by an actual human teacher or tutor. The
technology encompasses aspects derived from various fields of study including
computer science, education, and psychology (1)
 2 - Virtual Classroom
"A virtual classroom is an online learning environment. The environment can be
web-based and accessed through a portal or software-based and require a
downloadable executable file. Just like in a real-world classroom, a student in a
virtual classroom participates in synchronous instruction, which means that the
teacher and students are logged into the virtual learning environment at the same
time."(2)
 3 - MOOCS
"Mooc is an acronym for “massive open online course”. It refers to a web-based
class designed to support a large number of participants.Typically, students
enrolled in a mooc watch video lectures – often sliced into digestible 10 or 15-
minute segments – and interact with instructors and fellow participants in online
forums. Some moocs require students to take online tests or quizzes with multiple
choice answers that can be graded automatically, while others require students to
complete peer-reviewed assignments. Some moocs use a combination of these
assessments."(3)
 4 - Synchronous Vs Asynchronous Learning
"Synchronous online classes are those that require students and instructors to be
online at the same time. Lectures, discussions, and presentations occur at a specific
hour. All students must be online at that specific hour in order to participate.
Asynchronous classes are just the opposite. Instructors provide materials, lectures,
tests, and assignments that can be accessed at any time. Students may be given a
timeframe – usually a one week window – during which they need to connect at
least once or twice. But overall, students are free to contribute whenever they
choose.
 5 - Blended Learning
" A blended learning approach combines face to face classroom methods with
computer-mediated activities to form an integrated instructional approach. In the
past, digital materials have served in a supplementary role, helping to support face
to face instruction. For example, a blended approach to a traditional, face to face
course might mean that the class meets once per week instead of the usual three-
session format. Learning activities that otherwise would have taken place during
classroom time can be moved online...."
6 - Flipped Classroom
Flipped Classroom is an inverted method of instruction where
teaching and learning take place outside of the class while
homework is done in the classroom.
 7 - Self-directed Learning
’self-directed learning’ describes a process by which individuals take the
initiative, with our without the assistance of others, in diagnosing their
learning needs, formulating learning goals, identify human and material
resources for learning, choosing and implement appropriate learning
strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes.” (Knowels 1975 cited in 6).
 8 - Learning Management Systems
"A learning management system (LMS) is a software application or Web-based
technology used to plan, implement, and assess a specific learning process.
Typically, a learning management system provides an instructor with a way to
create and deliver content, monitor student participation, and assess student
performance. A learning management system may also provide students with the
ability to use interactive features such as threaded discussions, video conferencing,
and discussion forums.'(7)
 9 - Cloud Based Learning
"Essentially, the Cloud is a notion of a group of computers acting as one – and all connected to
a network (and usually, the World Wide Web). Further, the Cloud is a model of computing that
allows for scaling of resources based upon real-time needs. So, if there are many users utilizing
the system, a larger number of resources will be called upon to help distribute the load.
Cloud based learning takes the notion of a perpetual, universally accessible, scalable network of
computers and applies it to electronic learning – everything from online classrooms at accredited
universities, to smaller training modules to be used within companies or other private
enterprises."(8)
 10 - Mobile Learning
"Mobile learning is the ability to obtain or provide educational
content on personal pocket devices such as PDAs, smartphones and
mobile phones. Educational content refers to digital learning assets
which includes any form of content or media made available on a
personal device."(9)
 11 - Course Management System ( CMS )
"A course management system is a set of tools that enables the
instructor to create online course content and post it on the Web
without having to handle HTML or other programming languages."(10)
 12 - E-learning
E-Learning means "electronic learning" — it refers to a wide range
of applications and processes designed to deliver instruction through
electronic means. Usually this means over the Web, however it also can
include CD-ROM or video-conferencing through satellite transmission.
The definition of E-learning is broader than, but includes, "online
learning," "Web-based training," and "computer-based training."(11)
 13 - 1:1 Technology
"Providing every student with a laptop or tablet to make learning
more individualized, increase independence, and extend academics
beyond the classroom"(12)
 14- Gamification
"Gamification typically involves applying game design thinking to
non-game applications to make them more fun and engaging."(13)
Learning
through
Ed Tech 2
“Integrating Technology into Teaching and
Learning”
 The meaning of which is putting together technology into teaching and
learning so that these will become one in learner’s education. To specify-
focused on introducing, reinforcing, supplementing, and extending the
knowledge and skills to learners so that they can become exemplary users of
educational technology.
 ET-2 will involve a deeper understanding of the computer as well as hands-on-
application of computer skills. To infuse technology in the student-teacher
training, helping learners to adapt and meet rapid and continuing technology
changes in information and communication technology (ICT) environment.
The course objectives are:
 To provide education in the use of technology in instruction;
 To impart learning experiences in instructional technology supported
instructional planning;
 To acquaint students on information technology;
 To learn to use and evaluate computer-based educational resources;
 To engage learners on practical technology; and
 To inculcate higher-level thinking and creativity among students.
“IT ENTERS A NEW LEARNING
ENVIRONMENT”
 The four conceptual models namely Meaning
Learning, Discovery Learning, Generative Learning
and Constructivism are useful in achieving
instructional goals through preferred application
of educational technology. With these conceptual
models, we shall see how effective teachers best
interact with their students in innovative learning
activities while integrating technology to the
teaching-learning process.
Meaningful Learning
 This gives focus to new experience that is related
to what the learner already knows. A new
experience departs from the learning of a
sequence of words or memorization through rote
memory but gives attention to meaning. It
assumes that:
 Students already have some knowledge that is
relevant to new learning
 Students are willing to perform class work to find
connections between what they already know and
what they can learn.
 In the learning process, the learner is encouraged
to recognize relevant personal experiences. A
reward structure is set so that the learner will
have both interest and confidence, and this
incentive system gives positive reinforcement to
learning.
Discovery Learning
 This kind of learning is differentiated from reception
learning in which ideas are presented directly to students
in a well-organized way, such as through a detailed set of
instructions to complete an experiment or task. To make a
contrast, in discovery learning students perform tasks to
uncover what is to be learned. New ideas and new
decisions are generated in the learning process, regardless
of the need to move on and depart from organized set-off
activities. In discovery learning, it is important that the
student become personally involved and not subjected by
the teacher to procedures he/she is not allowed to depart
from.
 In applying technology, the computer can present
a tutorial process by which the learner is given
key concepts and the rules learning are directly
presented for receptive type of learning. But
aside from that, the computer has other uses. In a
computer simulation process, for example, the
learner himself is made to identify key concepts
by interacting with a responsive virtual
environment. The learner thus discovers the
concepts from the experience the virtual
environment provides.
Generative Learning
 In generative learning we have active learners
who attend to learning events and generate
drawing from this experience and draw inferences
thereby creating a personal model or explanation
to the new experience in the context of existing
knowledge.
 Generative learning is viewed as different from
the simple process of storing information for
motivation and responsibility is said to be crucial
to this domain of learning. Examples of this in the
area of language comprehension are activities
such as writing paragraph, summaries, developing
answers and questions, drawing pictures, creating
paragraph titles, organizing ideas/concepts, and
others. In sum, generative learning gives emphasis
to what can be done with the pieces of
information not only just an access to them.
Constructivism
 In constructivism, the learner builds a personal
understanding through appropriate learning
activities and a good learning environment. The
two accepted principles are:
 Learning consists of what a person can actively
assemble for himself and not what he can receive
passively.
 The role of learning is to help the individual
live/adapt to his personal world.
 With these two principles in turn lead to three practical
implications:
 The learner is directly responsible for learning. He creates
personal understanding and transforms information into
knowledge. The teacher plays an indirect role by modeling
effective learning, assisting, facilitating, and encouraging
learners.
 The context of meaningful learning consists in the learner
“connecting” his school activity with real life.
 The purpose of education is acquisition of practical and
personal knowledge, not abstract or universal truths.
The Four Types of IT-Based
Projects
Resource-based Projects
 In these projects, the teacher steps out of the
traditional role of being a content expert and
information provider, and instead lets the
students find their own facts and information.
Only when necessary for the active learning
process does the teacher step in to supply data or
information. The general flow of events in
resource-based projects are:
 1. The teacher determines the topic for the
examination of the class (e.g. the definition of
“man”)
 2. The teacher presents the problem to the class.
 3. The students find information on the
problem/questions.
 4. Students organize their information in response
to the problems/questions.
Students can also be assigned to create their
software materials. Of course, there are available
software materials such as Creative Writer (by
Microsoft) on writing, KidWork Deluxe (by Davidson)
on drawing and painting, and Media Weave (by
Humanities software) on multimedia).
In developing software, creativity as an outcome
should not be equated with ingenuity or high
intelligence. Creating is more consonant with
planning, making, assembling, designing, or
building. Creativity is said to combine three kind of
skills/abilities:
Analyzing
 distinguishing similarities and differences/ seeing
the project as a problem to be solved.
Synthesizing
 making spontaneous connections among ideas,
thus generating interesting or new ideas.
Promoting
 selling of new ideas to allow the public to test the
ideas themselves.
“COMPUTER AS INFORMATION AND
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY”
 Through computer technology, educators saw the
amplification of learning along with computer
literacy. Much Like reading, the modern student
can now interact with computer messages; even
respond to questions or to computer commands.
Again like writing, the learner can form messages
using computer language or program.
 Some computer-assisted instruction (CAI) was
introduced using the principle of individualized
learning through a positive climate that includes
realism and appeal with drill, exercises that uses
color, music and animation. The novelty of CAI
has not waned to this day especially in the basic
education level as this is offered by computer-
equipped private schools. But the evolving pace
of innovation in today’s Information Age is so
dynamic that within the first decade of the 21st
century, computer technology in education has
matured to transform into an educative
information and communication technology (ICT)
in education.
The Personal Computer (PC) as ICT
 Until the nineties, it was still possible to
distinguish between instructional media and the
educational communication media.
 Instructional media consist of audio-visual aids
that served to enhanced and enrich the teaching-
learning process. Examples are the blackboard,
photo, film and video.
 On the other hand, educational communication
media comprise the media of communication. For
example, the distance learning was implemented
using correspondence, radio, television, or the
computer satellite system.
 Close to the turn of the 21st century, however,
such a distinction merged owing to the advent of
the microprocessor, also known as the office and
school has before him a tool for both audio-visual
creations and media communication.
“THE COMPUTER AS A TUTOR”
 The computer is one of the wonders of human
ingenuity, even in its original design in the 1950s
to carry out complicated mathematical and
logical operations. With the invention of the
microcomputer (now also commonly referred to
PCs or personal computers), the PC has become
the tool for programmed instruction.
 Educators saw much use of the PC. It has become
affordable to small business, industries and
homes. They saw its potential for
individualization in learning, especially as
individualized learning is a problem since
teachers usually with a class of forty or more
learners. They therefore devised strategies to use
the computer to break the barriers to
individualized instruction.
Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
 The computer can be a tutor in effect relieving
the teacher of many activities in his personal role
as a classroom tutor. It should be made clear,
however, that the computer cannot totally
replace the teacher since the teacher shall
continue to play major roles of information
deliverer and learning environment controller.
Even with the available computer and CAI
software, the teacher must:
 Decide the appropriate learning objectives
 Plan the sequential and structured activities to
achieve objectives.
 Evaluate the students’ achievement by ways
of tests of the specific expected outcomes.
THE COMPUTER AS THE TEACHER’S TOOL
 Constructivism was introduced by Jean Piaget
(1981) and Bruner (1990). They gave stress to
knowledge discovery of new
meaning/concepts/principles in the learning
process. Various strategies have been suggested
to foster knowledge discovery, among these, is
making students engaged in gathering
unorganized information from which they can
induce ideas and principles. Students are also
asked to apply discovered knowledge to new
situations, a process for making their knowledge
applicable to real life situations.
 While knowledge is constructed by the individual
learner in constructivism, knowledge can also be
socially constructed. Social Constructivism is the
effort to show that the construction of knowledge
is governed by social, historical and cultural
contexts. In effect, this is to say that the learner
who interprets knowledge has a predetermined
point of view according to the social perspectives
of the community or society he lives in.
 The psychologist Vygotsky stressed that learning is
affected by social influences. He suggested the
interactive process in learning. A more capable
adult (teacher or parent) can aid or complement
what the learner sees in a given tasks or project.
In addition, John Dewey sees language as medium
for social coordination and adaptation. For
Dewey, human learning is really human languaging
that occurs when students socially share, build
and agree upon meanings and knowledge.
Informative Tool
 The computer can provide vast amounts of
information in various forms, such as text,
graphics, sound, and video. Even multimedia
encyclopedia are today available on the internet.
Communication Tool
 The computer has been used in communication as
evident by social networking sites as to facebook,
twitter and friendster. We can even chat/talk
friends and families anywhere in the globe
through yahoo messenger or the one in facebook
or view them through the webcam. We can send
messages and information through the internet in
just seconds or minutes.
Constructive Tool
 The computer itself can be used for manipulating
information, visualizing one’s understanding, and
building new knowledge. The Microsoft Word
computer program itself is a desktop publishing
software that allows users to organize and
present their ideas in attractive formats.
Co-constructive Tool
 Students can use constructive tools to work
cooperatively and construct a shared
understanding of new knowledge. One way of co-
construction is the use of the electronic
whiteboard where students may post notices to a
shared document/whiteboard. Students may also
co-edit the same document from their homes.
Situating Tool
 By means of virtual reality (RS) extension
systems, the computer can create 3-D images on
display to give the user the feeling that are
situated in a virtual environment. A flight
simulation program is an example of a situating
tool which places the user in simulated flying
environment.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN SUPPORT
OF STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING
 The idea of student-centered learning is not a
recent idea. In fact, as early as the 20th century,
educational educators such as John Dewey argued
for highly active and individualized pedagogical
methods which place the student at the center of
the teaching-learning process.
The Traditional Classroom
 It may be observed that classrooms are usually arranged
with neat columns and rows of student chairs or desks,
while the teacher stands in front of the classroom or sits
behind his table. This situation is necessitated by the
need to maintain classroom discipline, also allows the
teacher to control classroom activities through lecture
presentation and teacher-led discussions.
 Noticeably, however, after spending so many minutes in
lesson presentation and class management, students can
get restless and fidgety. Often enough, the teacher has to
also manage misbehaviour in class as students start to talk
among themselves or simply stare away in lack of
attention.
The SCL Classroom
 John Dewey has described traditional learning as a process in
which the teacher pours information to student learners, much
like pouring water from a jug into cups. This is based on the long
accepted belief that the teacher must perform his role of
teaching so that learning can occur. This learning approach is
generally known as direct instruction, and it has worked well for
obtaining many kinds of learning outcomes. The problem with it
is that the approach in learning, however, is the fact that the
world’s societies have began to change. It may not be felt
strongly to countries in which on countries who depends mostly
their economy to factory workers. Traditional and direct
instruction is very useful in these countries.
 In contrast, industrialized societies we find
knowledge-based economies in which workers
depend on information that can be accessed
through information and communication
technologies (ICTs). Desiring to gain effectiveness,
efficiency and economy in administration, schools
in these developed economies have also adopted
the support of ICTs. Their students have now
become active not passive learners,
demonstrating independence and self-awareness
in the learning process.
THE INTERNET AND EDUCATION
 The internet, also simply called the NET is the
largest and far flung-network system-of-all-
systems. Surprisingly, the internet is not really a
network but a loosely organize collection of about
25,000 networks accessed by computer on the
planet. It is astonishing to know that no one owns
the internet. It has no central headquarters, no
centrally offered services, and no comprehensive
online index to tell users what information is
available in the system.
 Educational technology is indeed very helpful for me. But it should not be
abused be used in a wrong way. Computer should not just be used in a playing
games, posting photos and etc. rather it used in a correct way instead playing
online games why don’t we Google our assignment over the internet for me
educational technology is a big help for me because I could Gin more and also
educational technology gives us a better comprehension. From the technology
 In this lesson we are being aware the importance of computer to our learning and to our life, it helps us
to be computer literate and aside from that it enhances our knowledge about the use of computer.
Teachers also become an effective teacher where she/he teaches us effectively.
 This lesson teaches us to be aware with the use of different use of computer software including the
Microsoft, power point and micro excel. As a future teacher we are given a chance to become an
effective teacher someday we are being thought for a better teaching which is also helpful for both
teacher and students.
 With the use of the new technologies we can easily use materials and acquire higher thinking skills through IT-Based
Projects. Moreover, in enhancing our mind to think logically. As a future teacher, it is a challenge for us to create learning
environment that focus on learning inquiry/guest/discovery to make learner think creatively, critically and logically.
 In this lesson we know that there is a big difference between the traditional classroom and student-centered learning
because the traditional classroom the teacher are really focused are really the who one who teaches, she engage herself to
teach herself knowing the fact that nowadays students has a total of 50-60 numbers it is really hard for them to
accommodate them while in the SCL the students are participating in the discussion
 Education is really important to us as well as the Internet, Internet is really helpful in our education because it helps us to
gain lots of information where we cannot answer by our self and by our teacher. We cannot deny the fact that there are
times that we have inquiry that really plats in our mind and it is just answerable with the use of internet and our teacher.

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My Portfolio in EdTech 2

  • 1. My Portfolio in Educational Technology 2 By: Florence April L. Fernandez And Elbie U. Urdelas
  • 2. A Third year student of Bachelor of Elementary Education at Palawan State University, Brookyue’s Point Campus, Pangobilian Brooke’s Point, Palawan. I am 27 years old, a married woman. Live happily with my loving husband and sweet only son. Some of my friends call me.. Flo or BB.. Florence April L. Fernandez
  • 3. Elbie U. Urdelas I was born thirty tree years ago in Rio tuba, Bataraza, Palawan. I have a very large family I am single mommy I have two daughter for now I'm studying at Palawan State University Brooke’s point Palawan taking up Batchelor Education third year student.
  • 4.
  • 5.  Educational technology, sometimes shortened to EduTech or EdTech, is a wide field. Therefore, one can find many definitions, some of which are conflicting. Educational technology as an academic field can be considered either as a design science or as a collection of different research interests addressing fundamental issues of learning, teaching and social organization. Educational technology as practice refers to any form of teaching and learning that makes use of technology.
  • 6.  1. Use of technology is principled: Technology means the systematic application of scientific knowledge to practical tasks. Therefore, educational technology is based on theoretical knowledge drawn from different disciplines (communication, education, psychology, sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, etc.) plus experiential knowledge drawn from educational practice.  2. Educational technology aims to
  • 8. Educational Technology, for me is very much appreciated. Though, we knew that everything in this world have an advantages and disadvantages. But we as a human we have to follow or go to the flow of civilizations. Even farmers or carpenters needs to be educated to use modern facilities and changes to make more products, to make the
  • 9.  How can we imagine a career women who don't even know how to use a semi auto washing machine? At my stage, as a Mommy and a student, its very important for me using a new households technology like washing machine, stoves, refrigerator, etc. Very important to me to manage my time to my kids responsibilities while studying and helping to my husband for the sake of our family future. So, for me, Educational Technology, is very important and helpful, it is like a gadgets or computers that needs to
  • 10. We knew that Filipino workers are highly in demand globally, (whatever skills, aspect or whatever degree they've finished), having a knowledge or being educated technologically is an advantage and are very competitive, so learning and education about technologies give us a big help not only to ourselves but also to country. We need to be frank that as a citizen we have to moving on about the old one, but we don't need to just keep it away to our mind, what I mean is we took ideas from old times practiced, we just need to enhance, develop and improve the new style, new technology
  • 12. As depicted in the chart, the focus of systematic instructional planning is the student. Instruction begins with the definition of instructional objectives that consider the students’ needs, interest, and readiness. On the basis of this objective, the teacher selects the appropriate teaching methods to be used and, in turn, based on the teaching method selected, the appropriate learning experiences and appropriate materials, equipment and facilities will also be selected.
  • 13.  The use of learning materials, equipment and facilities necessitates assigning the personnel to assist the teacher and defining the role of any personnel involved in the preparation, setting and returning of this learning resources. (in some school settings , there is a custodian/ librarian who takes care of the learning resources and / or technician who operates the equipment while teacher facilitates.) the effective use of learning resources is dependent in the expertise of the teacher, motivation of level or responsiveness, and the involvement of the students in the learning process. With the instructional objectives in mind, the teacher implements planned instructions with the use of the selective teaching method, learning activities, and learning materials with the help of other personnel whose role has been defined by the teacher.
  • 14. Will the teacher use direct instruction or indirect instruction? Will he /she teach using the deductive or inductive approach? It depends on his / her instructional objectives, nature of the subject matter, and readiness of student and the expertise of the teacher himself or herself.
  • 15. Examples of learning activities that the teacher can choose from, depending on his/her instructional objectives, nature of the lesson content, readiness of the student are :
  • 18. Some examples of learning resources for instructional use are :
  • 21. After instructions, teacher evaluates the outcome of instruction. From the evaluation results, teacher comes to know if the instructional objective was attained. If the instructional objective was attained, teacher proceeds to the next lesson going through the same cycle once more. If instructional objectives was not attained ,
  • 22. then teacher diagnoses was not learned and finds out why it was not learned in order to introduced a remedial measure for improved student performance and attainment of instructional
  • 23.
  • 24.  Educational Technology has absolutely revolutionized the entire education system. Until recently, the teachers used to be the sole interpreter of knowledge to the learners and the textbooks the sole resource. Educational technology has affected the conventional roles and it has opened up the new areas of teacher functions such as management of resources and management of learning. Today, teachers have a range of media to assist and supplement the instructional work.
  • 25.  Teachers can even specify the learning intentions, select the topic, identify the stimulus situation, determine media, manage teaching and finally conduct evaluation and modify the instructions in the light of evaluation results.  Educational process can’t proceed systematically without the help of educational technology. Every aspect of educational system is fully enlightened with educational technology.
  • 26. 1. Educational technology has provided a scientific base to the educational theory and practice. It has transformed a passive classroom to an active and interactive classroom, with audio- visuals, charts and models, smart classrooms and e-learning room which has drastically motivated and increased the attention level of the students.
  • 27. 2. The introduction of educational technology has modernised the teaching-learning climate of the educational institutions. The learners to be exposed to professionally designed programmes on video or computers.
  • 28. 3. Educational technology has helped and supplemented the teachers in their instructional programmes through the structured lessons for remedial, enrichment or drill purposes. The learners get training for self instruction and teachers are relieved of the burden of routine repetition for exercise and revision purposes.
  • 29. 4. Through a systematic organisation of content and instructional materials, educational technology has provided well-integrated structured materials for teachers thus saving a lot of their time which in turn may be utilized for creative work and quality improvement.
  • 30. 5. The training and use of educational technology contributes towards the professional growth of teachers. It equips them in the use of scientific methods for solving educational and administrative problems. It adds to the teaching competence of teachers and inculcates a scientific outlook and scientific temper in teachers and students.
  • 31. 6. Educational technology has improved the teaching-learning process and made it more effective and process oriented. Television, Radio, V.C.R, Computers and LCD projectors etc. have enriched and facilitated effective transmission of knowledge.
  • 32. 7. Educational technology has not only maintained the standards of education but also improved the ways of teaching by giving it Teaching Aids and Programmed Instructional Material.
  • 33. 8. Mechanism of feedback devices for modification of teaching-learning behaviour have produced effective teachers in the teacher-training institutes.
  • 34. 9. Students who appear for higher or competitive examinations have been benefitted by educational programmes on T.V, Radio and Internet.
  • 35. 10. Educational technology has opened up new fields of educational researches in the field of examination process, evaluation and classroom-teaching.
  • 36. 11. Educational technology has provided practices and strategies that help teachers to teach according to individual differences of learners.
  • 37. 12. Educational technology has provided scientific foundation to education through the theories of learning and intelligence.
  • 38. Thus educational technology is required in each and every aspect of teaching learning process. Educational technology serves all the purposes for modern education. Education today can’t go far without the help of educational technology. The innovations of technology in the field of education have done wonders to educational process. It has not only maintained the structure but also improved the nature of the educational process.
  • 39. Roles of technology in education
  • 40. Methods used within the classroom not only need to keep evolving, but also harness the effects of the digital revolution in a positive and constructive manner. Creating a curriculum that appreciates the power of technology in the learning process can serve to increase engagement in the classroom and make learning easier and more efficient.
  • 41.  A common misperception surrounding the impact of technology on learning is that the Internet, with all its factual data, has served to render our long-term memory as useless. Why commit to learning something if a simple press of a button will give you the answers you are looking for? Proponents of this argument therefore believe that the need to remember facts is no longer essential to our education. However, these arguments often ignore the dynamic between long- term memory and working memory.
  • 42. A person’s long-term memory has much more capacity than their working memory that can only remember between 4-7 items before it becomes overloaded. Therefore, working memory space is premium, in order for it to be free on a regular basis we have to commit certain facts to our long-term memory. This is perhaps why researchers label long-term memory as ‘the seat of human intellectual skill.’
  • 43.  Laptops, tabletsaddictive nature of technology, such as video games, can be harnessed in positive ways. An innovation in education is underway. Is it possible to design educational video games and software tools that hold children’s attention in the same way that computer games do? An example of such efforts comes in the form of the Essa Academy in Bolton, the United Kingdom. , and smartphones are facing sharp criticism for their ability to distract the student in the classroom and lecture theatre. This is not surprising, with studies showing that university students who frequently engage with laptops during lectures understand less than those who do not. However, the
  • 44.  The story of the Essa Academy encapsulates the transformative impact of technology on the learning process. In 2009, the school was ‘failing’ according to OFSTED inspectors, but now the school has drastically improved pupils’ results and satisfaction. The school gave every pupil a new iPod with software configured to teachers’ computers. Additional iPads are found in every classroom, and pupils in Biology class use these to create stop-start movies reflecting the dynamic aspect of Nature.
  • 45. Much criticism was levelled at the plan to give a ‘failing’ school, where 80% of pupils come from ‘deprived areas’, so much funding. The local media implied that, due to the economic status of the pupils, most of the new iPods would be sold on eBay, but this has not happened. Students seem to treasure them, with only 1-2% of the gadgets reported lost, stolen, or damaged.
  • 46. “There’s something like a sense of belonging in having your own device. You have access to everything at the touch of your hand, literally” – Aadil Pariejwala.
  • 47. The mastermind behind the plan, which has now been mirrored by the neighbouring private school, is director Abdul Chohan. Chohan took a risk that seems to be paying off, he was actually told he would be fired if the plan did not work! Before the scheme, only 25% of Essa’s students attained 5 good GCSEs, but now that number has more than doubled, reaching higher than the national average.
  • 48.  Further innovative steps to complement the plan can be seen throughout the School campus with no designated ‘staff room’ (pupils can enter when they like to ask for advice), and an internal Email system. These examples foster a sense of cooperation between teachers and pupils, relieving the School of the ‘them versus us’ attitude that can come to undermine the learning process. By incorporating a collegiate atmosphere, a tailor-made curriculum, and engaging technology, pupils are adequately prepared for any future job.
  • 49.
  • 51.
  • 53.  1 - Adaptive Learning This is an educational method which uses computers as interactive teaching devices. Computers adapt the presentation of educational material according to students' learning needs, as indicated by their responses to questions and tasks. The motivation is to allow electronic education to incorporate the value of the interactivity afforded to a student by an actual human teacher or tutor. The technology encompasses aspects derived from various fields of study including computer science, education, and psychology (1)
  • 54.  2 - Virtual Classroom "A virtual classroom is an online learning environment. The environment can be web-based and accessed through a portal or software-based and require a downloadable executable file. Just like in a real-world classroom, a student in a virtual classroom participates in synchronous instruction, which means that the teacher and students are logged into the virtual learning environment at the same time."(2)
  • 55.  3 - MOOCS "Mooc is an acronym for “massive open online course”. It refers to a web-based class designed to support a large number of participants.Typically, students enrolled in a mooc watch video lectures – often sliced into digestible 10 or 15- minute segments – and interact with instructors and fellow participants in online forums. Some moocs require students to take online tests or quizzes with multiple choice answers that can be graded automatically, while others require students to complete peer-reviewed assignments. Some moocs use a combination of these assessments."(3)
  • 56.  4 - Synchronous Vs Asynchronous Learning "Synchronous online classes are those that require students and instructors to be online at the same time. Lectures, discussions, and presentations occur at a specific hour. All students must be online at that specific hour in order to participate. Asynchronous classes are just the opposite. Instructors provide materials, lectures, tests, and assignments that can be accessed at any time. Students may be given a timeframe – usually a one week window – during which they need to connect at least once or twice. But overall, students are free to contribute whenever they choose.
  • 57.  5 - Blended Learning " A blended learning approach combines face to face classroom methods with computer-mediated activities to form an integrated instructional approach. In the past, digital materials have served in a supplementary role, helping to support face to face instruction. For example, a blended approach to a traditional, face to face course might mean that the class meets once per week instead of the usual three- session format. Learning activities that otherwise would have taken place during classroom time can be moved online...."
  • 58. 6 - Flipped Classroom Flipped Classroom is an inverted method of instruction where teaching and learning take place outside of the class while homework is done in the classroom.
  • 59.  7 - Self-directed Learning ’self-directed learning’ describes a process by which individuals take the initiative, with our without the assistance of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identify human and material resources for learning, choosing and implement appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes.” (Knowels 1975 cited in 6).
  • 60.  8 - Learning Management Systems "A learning management system (LMS) is a software application or Web-based technology used to plan, implement, and assess a specific learning process. Typically, a learning management system provides an instructor with a way to create and deliver content, monitor student participation, and assess student performance. A learning management system may also provide students with the ability to use interactive features such as threaded discussions, video conferencing, and discussion forums.'(7)
  • 61.  9 - Cloud Based Learning "Essentially, the Cloud is a notion of a group of computers acting as one – and all connected to a network (and usually, the World Wide Web). Further, the Cloud is a model of computing that allows for scaling of resources based upon real-time needs. So, if there are many users utilizing the system, a larger number of resources will be called upon to help distribute the load. Cloud based learning takes the notion of a perpetual, universally accessible, scalable network of computers and applies it to electronic learning – everything from online classrooms at accredited universities, to smaller training modules to be used within companies or other private enterprises."(8)
  • 62.  10 - Mobile Learning "Mobile learning is the ability to obtain or provide educational content on personal pocket devices such as PDAs, smartphones and mobile phones. Educational content refers to digital learning assets which includes any form of content or media made available on a personal device."(9)
  • 63.  11 - Course Management System ( CMS ) "A course management system is a set of tools that enables the instructor to create online course content and post it on the Web without having to handle HTML or other programming languages."(10)
  • 64.  12 - E-learning E-Learning means "electronic learning" — it refers to a wide range of applications and processes designed to deliver instruction through electronic means. Usually this means over the Web, however it also can include CD-ROM or video-conferencing through satellite transmission. The definition of E-learning is broader than, but includes, "online learning," "Web-based training," and "computer-based training."(11)
  • 65.  13 - 1:1 Technology "Providing every student with a laptop or tablet to make learning more individualized, increase independence, and extend academics beyond the classroom"(12)
  • 66.  14- Gamification "Gamification typically involves applying game design thinking to non-game applications to make them more fun and engaging."(13)
  • 68. “Integrating Technology into Teaching and Learning”  The meaning of which is putting together technology into teaching and learning so that these will become one in learner’s education. To specify- focused on introducing, reinforcing, supplementing, and extending the knowledge and skills to learners so that they can become exemplary users of educational technology.
  • 69.  ET-2 will involve a deeper understanding of the computer as well as hands-on- application of computer skills. To infuse technology in the student-teacher training, helping learners to adapt and meet rapid and continuing technology changes in information and communication technology (ICT) environment.
  • 70. The course objectives are:  To provide education in the use of technology in instruction;  To impart learning experiences in instructional technology supported instructional planning;  To acquaint students on information technology;  To learn to use and evaluate computer-based educational resources;  To engage learners on practical technology; and  To inculcate higher-level thinking and creativity among students.
  • 71. “IT ENTERS A NEW LEARNING ENVIRONMENT”  The four conceptual models namely Meaning Learning, Discovery Learning, Generative Learning and Constructivism are useful in achieving instructional goals through preferred application of educational technology. With these conceptual models, we shall see how effective teachers best interact with their students in innovative learning activities while integrating technology to the teaching-learning process.
  • 72. Meaningful Learning  This gives focus to new experience that is related to what the learner already knows. A new experience departs from the learning of a sequence of words or memorization through rote memory but gives attention to meaning. It assumes that:  Students already have some knowledge that is relevant to new learning
  • 73.  Students are willing to perform class work to find connections between what they already know and what they can learn.  In the learning process, the learner is encouraged to recognize relevant personal experiences. A reward structure is set so that the learner will have both interest and confidence, and this incentive system gives positive reinforcement to learning.
  • 74. Discovery Learning  This kind of learning is differentiated from reception learning in which ideas are presented directly to students in a well-organized way, such as through a detailed set of instructions to complete an experiment or task. To make a contrast, in discovery learning students perform tasks to uncover what is to be learned. New ideas and new decisions are generated in the learning process, regardless of the need to move on and depart from organized set-off activities. In discovery learning, it is important that the student become personally involved and not subjected by the teacher to procedures he/she is not allowed to depart from.
  • 75.  In applying technology, the computer can present a tutorial process by which the learner is given key concepts and the rules learning are directly presented for receptive type of learning. But aside from that, the computer has other uses. In a computer simulation process, for example, the learner himself is made to identify key concepts by interacting with a responsive virtual environment. The learner thus discovers the concepts from the experience the virtual environment provides.
  • 76. Generative Learning  In generative learning we have active learners who attend to learning events and generate drawing from this experience and draw inferences thereby creating a personal model or explanation to the new experience in the context of existing knowledge.
  • 77.  Generative learning is viewed as different from the simple process of storing information for motivation and responsibility is said to be crucial to this domain of learning. Examples of this in the area of language comprehension are activities such as writing paragraph, summaries, developing answers and questions, drawing pictures, creating paragraph titles, organizing ideas/concepts, and others. In sum, generative learning gives emphasis to what can be done with the pieces of information not only just an access to them.
  • 78. Constructivism  In constructivism, the learner builds a personal understanding through appropriate learning activities and a good learning environment. The two accepted principles are:  Learning consists of what a person can actively assemble for himself and not what he can receive passively.  The role of learning is to help the individual live/adapt to his personal world.
  • 79.  With these two principles in turn lead to three practical implications:  The learner is directly responsible for learning. He creates personal understanding and transforms information into knowledge. The teacher plays an indirect role by modeling effective learning, assisting, facilitating, and encouraging learners.  The context of meaningful learning consists in the learner “connecting” his school activity with real life.  The purpose of education is acquisition of practical and personal knowledge, not abstract or universal truths.
  • 80. The Four Types of IT-Based Projects
  • 81. Resource-based Projects  In these projects, the teacher steps out of the traditional role of being a content expert and information provider, and instead lets the students find their own facts and information. Only when necessary for the active learning process does the teacher step in to supply data or information. The general flow of events in resource-based projects are:
  • 82.  1. The teacher determines the topic for the examination of the class (e.g. the definition of “man”)  2. The teacher presents the problem to the class.  3. The students find information on the problem/questions.  4. Students organize their information in response to the problems/questions.
  • 83. Students can also be assigned to create their software materials. Of course, there are available software materials such as Creative Writer (by Microsoft) on writing, KidWork Deluxe (by Davidson) on drawing and painting, and Media Weave (by Humanities software) on multimedia). In developing software, creativity as an outcome should not be equated with ingenuity or high intelligence. Creating is more consonant with planning, making, assembling, designing, or building. Creativity is said to combine three kind of skills/abilities:
  • 84. Analyzing  distinguishing similarities and differences/ seeing the project as a problem to be solved.
  • 85. Synthesizing  making spontaneous connections among ideas, thus generating interesting or new ideas.
  • 86. Promoting  selling of new ideas to allow the public to test the ideas themselves.
  • 87. “COMPUTER AS INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY”  Through computer technology, educators saw the amplification of learning along with computer literacy. Much Like reading, the modern student can now interact with computer messages; even respond to questions or to computer commands. Again like writing, the learner can form messages using computer language or program.
  • 88.  Some computer-assisted instruction (CAI) was introduced using the principle of individualized learning through a positive climate that includes realism and appeal with drill, exercises that uses color, music and animation. The novelty of CAI has not waned to this day especially in the basic education level as this is offered by computer- equipped private schools. But the evolving pace of innovation in today’s Information Age is so dynamic that within the first decade of the 21st century, computer technology in education has matured to transform into an educative information and communication technology (ICT) in education.
  • 89. The Personal Computer (PC) as ICT  Until the nineties, it was still possible to distinguish between instructional media and the educational communication media.  Instructional media consist of audio-visual aids that served to enhanced and enrich the teaching- learning process. Examples are the blackboard, photo, film and video.
  • 90.  On the other hand, educational communication media comprise the media of communication. For example, the distance learning was implemented using correspondence, radio, television, or the computer satellite system.  Close to the turn of the 21st century, however, such a distinction merged owing to the advent of the microprocessor, also known as the office and school has before him a tool for both audio-visual creations and media communication.
  • 91. “THE COMPUTER AS A TUTOR”  The computer is one of the wonders of human ingenuity, even in its original design in the 1950s to carry out complicated mathematical and logical operations. With the invention of the microcomputer (now also commonly referred to PCs or personal computers), the PC has become the tool for programmed instruction.
  • 92.  Educators saw much use of the PC. It has become affordable to small business, industries and homes. They saw its potential for individualization in learning, especially as individualized learning is a problem since teachers usually with a class of forty or more learners. They therefore devised strategies to use the computer to break the barriers to individualized instruction.
  • 93. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)  The computer can be a tutor in effect relieving the teacher of many activities in his personal role as a classroom tutor. It should be made clear, however, that the computer cannot totally replace the teacher since the teacher shall continue to play major roles of information deliverer and learning environment controller. Even with the available computer and CAI software, the teacher must:
  • 94.  Decide the appropriate learning objectives  Plan the sequential and structured activities to achieve objectives.  Evaluate the students’ achievement by ways of tests of the specific expected outcomes.
  • 95. THE COMPUTER AS THE TEACHER’S TOOL  Constructivism was introduced by Jean Piaget (1981) and Bruner (1990). They gave stress to knowledge discovery of new meaning/concepts/principles in the learning process. Various strategies have been suggested to foster knowledge discovery, among these, is making students engaged in gathering unorganized information from which they can induce ideas and principles. Students are also asked to apply discovered knowledge to new situations, a process for making their knowledge applicable to real life situations.
  • 96.  While knowledge is constructed by the individual learner in constructivism, knowledge can also be socially constructed. Social Constructivism is the effort to show that the construction of knowledge is governed by social, historical and cultural contexts. In effect, this is to say that the learner who interprets knowledge has a predetermined point of view according to the social perspectives of the community or society he lives in.
  • 97.  The psychologist Vygotsky stressed that learning is affected by social influences. He suggested the interactive process in learning. A more capable adult (teacher or parent) can aid or complement what the learner sees in a given tasks or project. In addition, John Dewey sees language as medium for social coordination and adaptation. For Dewey, human learning is really human languaging that occurs when students socially share, build and agree upon meanings and knowledge.
  • 98.
  • 99. Informative Tool  The computer can provide vast amounts of information in various forms, such as text, graphics, sound, and video. Even multimedia encyclopedia are today available on the internet.
  • 100. Communication Tool  The computer has been used in communication as evident by social networking sites as to facebook, twitter and friendster. We can even chat/talk friends and families anywhere in the globe through yahoo messenger or the one in facebook or view them through the webcam. We can send messages and information through the internet in just seconds or minutes.
  • 101. Constructive Tool  The computer itself can be used for manipulating information, visualizing one’s understanding, and building new knowledge. The Microsoft Word computer program itself is a desktop publishing software that allows users to organize and present their ideas in attractive formats.
  • 102. Co-constructive Tool  Students can use constructive tools to work cooperatively and construct a shared understanding of new knowledge. One way of co- construction is the use of the electronic whiteboard where students may post notices to a shared document/whiteboard. Students may also co-edit the same document from their homes.
  • 103. Situating Tool  By means of virtual reality (RS) extension systems, the computer can create 3-D images on display to give the user the feeling that are situated in a virtual environment. A flight simulation program is an example of a situating tool which places the user in simulated flying environment.
  • 104. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN SUPPORT OF STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING  The idea of student-centered learning is not a recent idea. In fact, as early as the 20th century, educational educators such as John Dewey argued for highly active and individualized pedagogical methods which place the student at the center of the teaching-learning process.
  • 105. The Traditional Classroom  It may be observed that classrooms are usually arranged with neat columns and rows of student chairs or desks, while the teacher stands in front of the classroom or sits behind his table. This situation is necessitated by the need to maintain classroom discipline, also allows the teacher to control classroom activities through lecture presentation and teacher-led discussions.  Noticeably, however, after spending so many minutes in lesson presentation and class management, students can get restless and fidgety. Often enough, the teacher has to also manage misbehaviour in class as students start to talk among themselves or simply stare away in lack of attention.
  • 106. The SCL Classroom  John Dewey has described traditional learning as a process in which the teacher pours information to student learners, much like pouring water from a jug into cups. This is based on the long accepted belief that the teacher must perform his role of teaching so that learning can occur. This learning approach is generally known as direct instruction, and it has worked well for obtaining many kinds of learning outcomes. The problem with it is that the approach in learning, however, is the fact that the world’s societies have began to change. It may not be felt strongly to countries in which on countries who depends mostly their economy to factory workers. Traditional and direct instruction is very useful in these countries.
  • 107.  In contrast, industrialized societies we find knowledge-based economies in which workers depend on information that can be accessed through information and communication technologies (ICTs). Desiring to gain effectiveness, efficiency and economy in administration, schools in these developed economies have also adopted the support of ICTs. Their students have now become active not passive learners, demonstrating independence and self-awareness in the learning process.
  • 108. THE INTERNET AND EDUCATION  The internet, also simply called the NET is the largest and far flung-network system-of-all- systems. Surprisingly, the internet is not really a network but a loosely organize collection of about 25,000 networks accessed by computer on the planet. It is astonishing to know that no one owns the internet. It has no central headquarters, no centrally offered services, and no comprehensive online index to tell users what information is available in the system.
  • 109.  Educational technology is indeed very helpful for me. But it should not be abused be used in a wrong way. Computer should not just be used in a playing games, posting photos and etc. rather it used in a correct way instead playing online games why don’t we Google our assignment over the internet for me educational technology is a big help for me because I could Gin more and also educational technology gives us a better comprehension. From the technology
  • 110.  In this lesson we are being aware the importance of computer to our learning and to our life, it helps us to be computer literate and aside from that it enhances our knowledge about the use of computer. Teachers also become an effective teacher where she/he teaches us effectively.  This lesson teaches us to be aware with the use of different use of computer software including the Microsoft, power point and micro excel. As a future teacher we are given a chance to become an effective teacher someday we are being thought for a better teaching which is also helpful for both teacher and students.
  • 111.  With the use of the new technologies we can easily use materials and acquire higher thinking skills through IT-Based Projects. Moreover, in enhancing our mind to think logically. As a future teacher, it is a challenge for us to create learning environment that focus on learning inquiry/guest/discovery to make learner think creatively, critically and logically.  In this lesson we know that there is a big difference between the traditional classroom and student-centered learning because the traditional classroom the teacher are really focused are really the who one who teaches, she engage herself to teach herself knowing the fact that nowadays students has a total of 50-60 numbers it is really hard for them to accommodate them while in the SCL the students are participating in the discussion  Education is really important to us as well as the Internet, Internet is really helpful in our education because it helps us to gain lots of information where we cannot answer by our self and by our teacher. We cannot deny the fact that there are times that we have inquiry that really plats in our mind and it is just answerable with the use of internet and our teacher.