How to use this presentation• I am a nocturnal being. There is not much time till sunrise, when I slumber again. However, I will explain as much as I can in the time remaining.• My PowerPoint is on the first course of the river, the mountainous course.• To beautify, I have kept scenic pictures of rivers at night for you.• There are also interesting facts alongside pictures of landforms.• Enjoy!
Rivers• I will begin my presentation with a brief explanation of rivers.• Rivers are fast flowing water bodies, somewhat like streams except larger and wider.• As they flow, they continue the process of degradation.• Rivers can be classified into four types: – Youthful – Mature – Old – Rejuvenated
Courses of a River• There are three courses in a river: – Mountainous or crenon – It is classified by cold, fast moving water near the source of a river, usually on mountains. This is the course I will focus on in this PowerPoint. – Plain or rithron – It has slightly warmer temperatures and it succeeds the crenon. – Deltaic or potamon – It is warm, is extremely slow, and deposits all of the grains it has carried, creating a sandy bed. My presentation REALLY begins from the next slide.
The Basics• As you can tell from the name, during the mountain course, the river flows through mountains.• A lot of erosion takes place as its velocity is high.• Many tributaries, or small streams, join the river at this place.• The river causes vertical erosion, usually V shaped valleys, wherever it goes.• The excessive energy of the river is used in eroding the valley.
Landforms• You’ve probably heard of An example of a canyon canyons, maybe even gorges in literature. As you’ve probably guessed, these both are caused by the mountainous course river. Here are all of the landforms: – Gorge or I shaped valley – Canyon – V shaped valley – Pothole – Rapids, cataracts, and waterfalls
Gorge• Gorges are created when rivers run swiftly down slopes, causing vertical corrasion.• In arid and semi arid areas, this river usually forms a gorge or an I shaped valley.• A gorge is a narrow valley with flat valley floors.• The Sutlej, Indus, and Brahmaputra, the Gandak and the Kosi rivers have cut deep gorges in the Himayalas.
Pot Holes• No, not the ones on the roads. Believe it or not, potholes also occur naturally.• If the water of a swift flowing river flows over an uneven surface, it begins to swirl.• The pebbles carried by the river erode forming circular depressions, or potholes, in the river bed.
Canyons The Grand Canyon• Canyons can be simply defined as magnified gorges.• Over more than a million years, the Colorado River has cut through the immense Grand Canyon, making it over a mile deep.
V Shaped Valley• Many rivers in the world have formed V shaped valleys.• These valleys are formed in areas of sufficient rainfall.• By cutting down, the river forms a V shaped valley.
Rapids• Rapids can occur at any part of a river’s course, but most often at the mountainous region.• Unequal resistance of hard and soft rock causes the hard rock to jut out, making the river “jump” or “fall.”
Cataracts• Cataracts are simply rapids with falls of greater dimensions.• Oh no, the sun is about to rise! It is almost time for me to leave!
Waterfalls• Waterfalls are when the rivers fall from a huge distance.• The highest fall in the world is Angel Falls in Venezuela.• Opposite is a picture containing waterfalls(far left and right), cataracts(right), an d rapids(in front).
The sun is beginning to rise. I mustleave. But I hope you learnedsomething very valuable and enjoyedthe pictures of night rivers.I must bid you fare well. (please clickafter reading)Remember, this project was made bySrikar and Srikar only.