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  1. 1. Complexity, Innovation and Quality in UG IPE theory background for development of educational design in NCIPECP shared papers Stanley Frielick
  2. 2. Common semester curriculum development project (2007) To address and resolve issues of: coherence, consistency, resourcing, structure, relationship of papers to disciplines, development of appropriate knowledge base and skill set for interprofessional learning, development of key skills and competencies as outlined in theme 1 of the AUT strategic plan and draft Faculty plan, and the quality of student learning outcomes in the core papers; so as to develop a more integrated and ‘common’ semester in the Faculty, and provide a more interactive and engaging learning experience for novice undergraduate students.
  3. 3. Key learning/teaching aspects of AUT strategic plan • Curricula and programmes at the leading edge of practice • Assist students to become intellectually independent with a thorough understanding of the relevant body of knowledge • Strong linkages with the professions and industry • Blending traditional and new learning / teaching approaches and technologies • Ensuring that our graduates are skilled in communication, problem-solving, critical analysis, are information literate, and can use the relevant technologies. • Ensuring that our graduates have the ability to work collaboratively, make informed decisions and bring ethical analysis to practice. • Ensuring that our graduates have the ability to challenge to challenge the status quo, promote change and bring a forward looking dimension to their chosen career. • Ensuring that all students are equipped with a range of skills, including information literacy. • Ensuring the development of excellent teachers, able to use a range of approaches and technologies in ways that meet the needs of their students.
  4. 4. Deep approaches to learning Educational alignment (coherence) Alignment within papers - constructive alignment (enactive coherence) - optimal environment for deep approaches - alignment with AUT generic outcomes Alignment across papers - Connected course design - Consistency in assessment - Relationship of common papers to discipline pathways - Promotion of shared learning - alignment with AUT generic outcomes
  5. 5. No one starts out teaching well Paul Ramsden What the students do is more important than what the teacher does John Biggs The shift from teaching to learning …. Barr and Tagg The relational or ecological perspective on university teaching and learning
  6. 6. Significant influences on higher education research Phenomenography Variation in conceptions of The Experience of Learning teaching and learning Understanding Learning & Teaching Link between learning approaches and outcomes Relational perspective Learning to Teach in Higher Education Perceptions of the context influence approaches and outcomes A systems view of teaching/learning Constructive alignment / Systems theory Approach as description of multiple relationships - an emergent property Teaching for Quality Learning at University
  7. 7. Orientation Characteristics Deep Knowledge transforming An intention to understand approach material for oneself Vigorous and critical interaction with knowledge content Relating ideas to oneís previous knowledge and experience Discovering and using organizing principles to integrate ideas Relating evidence to conclusions Examining the logic of arguments Surface Information reproducing An intention simply to approach reproduce parts of the content Ideas and information accepted passively Concentrating only on what is required for assessment Not reflecting on purpose or strategies Memorising facts and procedures routinely Failing to distinguish guiding principles or patterns
  8. 8. Approaches to learning are emergent properties of the learning/teaching system The multifaceted, non-linear relationship between: A. teachers’ perceptions of the teaching environment, B. teacher’s approaches to teaching, C. student perceptions of the learning environment, and D. student approaches to learning, shapes and influences the outcomes of learning.
  9. 9. Martin 1999
  10. 10. Biggs, J. B (1999)
  11. 11. In an ecological perspective deep learning is the transformation of information into functioning knowledge. Deep learning is an emergent property of a teaching/learning ecology in which intended outcomes are coherent with course design, teaching modes, assessment, and evaluation.
  12. 12. ‘good’ TEACHING/LEARNING is a process of creating learning environments in which students are encouraged to engage deeply with the subject and emerge with a transformed understanding that is transferable to further inquiry and practical applications in different contexts.
  13. 13. We must change our whole way of thinking about mental and communication process……. learn to think as Nature thinks. Gregory Bateson (1972). Steps to an Ecology of Mind
  14. 14. The underlying fabric of the university is stitched in 17th century dualistic / mechanistic thought …. The great research university is old at heart … For as it grasps us it splits us into minds and bodies. Wilshire (1990). The Moral Collapse of the University 'man sliced in half'
  15. 15. Teaching acquires its form within a complex relational web that seeks to affect the understandings and abilities of the individual members of that community…. Spider web against sky September 28 03'
  16. 16. Just as the cognizing agent cannot be understood as a solitary component (but must be regarded as a subsystem of a larger system), teaching and learning cannot be studied as though they occur in isolated and closed systems Davis & Sumara, 1997:122 Baobab avenue'
  17. 17. Ecosystems transform energy to maintain optimal conditions for the evolution of life. Isomorphic Strange Weed333' Learning systems transform information to maintain optimal conditions for the evolution of knowledge. 'peek-a-boo - _MG_6709'
  18. 18. Break the pattern which connects the items of learning and you necessarily destroy all quality… (Bateson 1979: 16)
  19. 19. Stanley Frielick - STLHE 2003
  21. 21. The SOLO (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) provides a systematic way of describing how a learner's performance increases in complexity when mastering academic tasks. It can thus be used to define learning objectives—which describe the level at which students should be learning—and for evaluating learning outcomes in order to find out the level at which students actually are learning. There are five levels of understanding described by SOLO: 1 Prestructural use of irrelevant information, or no meaningful response 2 Unistructural Answer focuses on one relevant aspect only 3 Multistructural Answer focuses on several relevant features, but they are not coordinated together 4 Relational The several parts are integrated into coherent whole; details are linked to conclusions; meaning is understood 5 Extended abstract Answer generalises the structure beyond the information given; higher order principles are used to bring in a new set of issues
  22. 22. 30 Low quality 25 20 15 SOLO level 10 5 0 Prestructural Unistructural Multistructural Relational Extended abstract 30 25 20 15 SOLO level 10 5 High quality 0 Prestructural Unistructural Multistructural Relational Extended abstract
  23. 23. Stanley Frielick - STLHE 2003
  24. 24. Linear version of enactive coherence Zone of Key aspects Continuum of variation teaching/learning ecology STUDENT/S The physical bodies and knowledge Surface … deep formation processes of the students. Backgrounds, identities, predispositions, orientations, motivations, perceptions of the context, approaches to learning. TEACHER/S The physical bodies and knowledge Information transmission …. formation processes of the teacher/s. Conceptual change Backgrounds, identities, predispositions, orientations, motivations, perceptions of the context, approaches to teaching. OUTCOMES What the students are able to do at the end Low quality …. High quality of the unit of study. Expressed as verbs and on levels of functioning knowledge as defined by eg. The SOLO taxonomy. Also shaped by external standards of quality, competence, unit standards, etc. Tension between intended and actual outcomes correlates with the degree of coherence in the system. ASSESSMENT The ways in which the intended outcomes Measurement (norm- are assessed. Clear criteria, appropriate referenced) .… standards processes and institutional policies. (criterion-referenced) COURSE The approach to designing the curriculum Fragmented …. connected DESIGN taken by the teacher in the context of a departmental culture and institutional rules and regulations. Influenced by pedagogical assumptions of discipline. CONTENT & Selection of appropriate content aligned to Declarative …. functioning WORKLOAD outcomes and assessment and defined in terms of knowledge type CLASSROOM The physical environment or Monological …. dialogical teaching/learning setting. Modes of interaction between teacher-subject- student. Appropriate teaching/learning aligned to outcomes and assessment. Applies to virtual and distance settings. EVALUATION The modes and processes of evaluating Analytic …. systemic teaching quality and effectiveness. Emphasis on multiple sources of evidence in a teaching portfolio. Stanley Frielick – STLHE 2003
  25. 25. Thinking eco-logically about learning/teaching Scientific model of energy transformations in Metaphorical model of knowledge photosynthesis transformations in education Frielick, S. (2004)
  26. 26. Cooper, H., Braye, S., & Geyer, R. (2004). Complexity and interprofessional education. Learning in Health and Social Care, 3(4), 179-189. doi: 10.1111/j. 1473-6861.2004.00076.x.
  27. 27. •  KEC – enquiry / ontology / identity •  HAP1 – complex adaptive systems / relationship to practice / EBL >>HAP2 •  HE – teamwork / social/political context / EBL •  P&L>>Health across Lifespan – IDN / pre-clinical/ IPE cases •  556301 MoRE - modular / IPE designs •  Pharmacology – modular / applications / IPE implications •  Te Ara Hauora Maori ….. ?