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Useful Tools for Problem Solving

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This presentation is a collection of 24 useful tools for problem solving. It includes the basic and advanced QC tools and are applicable to all types of industries.

Simply presented using a 'Purpose', 'When To Use' and 'Procedure' format, these tools can be applied to add greater breadth and depth to your PDCA, DMAIC, or 8D, etc. problem solving projects.

The tools include the following:

1. Flow Chart
2. Brainstorming
3. Gantt Chart
4. Stratification
5. Check Sheet
6. Bar Chart
7. Waterfall Chart
8. Line Graph
9. Pie Chart
10. Belt Graph
11. Radar Chart
12. Control Chart
13. Pareto Chart
14. Cause & Effect Diagram
15. 5 Whys
16. Histogram
17. Scatter Diagram
18. Affinity Diagram
19. Relations Diagram
20. Tree Diagram
21. Matrix Diagram
22. Matrix Data Analysis Chart
23. Arrow Diagram
24. Process Decision Program Chart

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Useful Tools for Problem Solving

  1. 1. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Useful Tools for Problem Solving
  2. 2. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Flow Chart 1 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  3. 3. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 7 Flow Chart Example This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  4. 4. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10 Flow Chart • Procedure (con’t) 5. When all activities are included and everyone agrees that the sequence is correct, draw arrows to show the flow of the process. 6. Review the flow chart with others involved in the process (workers, supervisors, suppliers, customers) to see if they agree that the process is drawn accurately. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  5. 5. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Brainstorming 2 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  6. 6. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Gantt Chart 3 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  7. 7. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Stratification 4 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  8. 8. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 22 Stratification – Example 2 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  9. 9. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 25 Stratification Considerations • Survey data usually benefit from stratification. • Always consider before collecting data whether stratification might be needed during analysis. Plan to collect stratification information. After the data are collected it might be too late. • On your graph or chart, include a legend that identifies the marks or colors used. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  10. 10. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28 Check Sheet – Example 1 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  11. 11. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 31 Check Sheet – Points to take note 1. Is the objective vague? 2. Is there any omission in checking? 3. Is the check carried out with plans? 4. Is it too late to do the check? 5. Are the entries correct? 6. Is it too time-consuming to prepare a draft for the check sheet? 7. Is it too complicated? 8. Are there any individual differences in the checking? This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  12. 12. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 34 Bar Chart Examples 130 173 192 138 198 210 0 50 100 150 200 250 FY 11 FY 12 FY 13 Budget Actual 7 14 15 13 15 28 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 FY 11 FY 12 FY 13 Budget Actual Revenue Profit Before Tax This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  13. 13. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 37 Waterfall Chart – Example 1 AddressableAddressable HC (FTE) = 47 47 6.2 5.9 74 131.9 System O perations (Sysops) Server M anagem ent - M ainfram e (M /F) Server M anagem ent - Distributed (M /R) Infrastructure and Resource M anagem ent (N/S) Service M anagem ent (S/M ) W hole accountThis document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  14. 14. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 40 Line Graph (a.k.a. Run Chart or Trend Chart) • Purpose To show patterns of change in a sequence of measurements, i.e. data points plotted in chronological order. To visualize how a process is performing according to time. • When to use To show changes across time for an item that is repeatedly measured. To understand variation in process performance. When measuring progress towards a goal; to show relative improvement. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  15. 15. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Pie Chart 9 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  16. 16. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 46 Pie Chart – Example 2 Source: w3schools.com This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  17. 17. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 49 Belt Graph Example 42 13 30 5 28 25 8 21 12 17 28 23 4 18 8 5 6 20 23 14 15 13 4 6 3 9 18 24 8 20 12 13 2 3 18 20 6 21 16 27 1 1 8 21 2 14 27 44 1 0 11 8 35 0 20 40 60 80 100 Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5 Rank 6 Rank 7 Rank 8 Ranking of Service Attributes Clear distinction in customers’ preference as the difference between ranked 1st for the top 3 attributes is large (>10%). This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  18. 18. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 52 Radar Chart Example 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Sort Set In Order ShineStandardize Sustain Comparison of 5S Performance Area A Area B This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  19. 19. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 55 Control Chart Example Phase 1 Phase 3Phase 2 Xbar Chart Data points outside the control limits suggest that there are special causes to the process deviation This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  20. 20. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 58 Control Limit Formulas for Continuous Data X bar and S Charts Individuals Charts (Subgroup size = 1) (Subgroup size = 2-9) (Subgroup size > 9) This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  21. 21. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 61 Creating an ImR Chart • Procedure (con’t) 4. Plot the data (the original data values on one chart and the moving ranges on another) 5. After 20 or more sets of measurements, calculate control limits for moving Range chart 6. If the Range chart is no in control, take appropriate action 7. If the Range chart is in control, calculate control limits for the Individuals chart 8. If the Individuals chart is not in control, take appropriate action This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  22. 22. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 64 Creating p-, np-, c- and u-Charts • Procedure 1. Determine the appropriate sampling plan 2. Collect the sample data. Take a set of readings at each specified interval of time. 3. Calculate the relevant metric (n, np, c or u) 4. Calculate the appropriate centerline 5. Plot the data 6. After 20 or more measurements, calculate control limits 7. If the chart is not in control, take appropriate action This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  23. 23. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 67 Pareto Chart • Purpose To show relative importance of a set of measurements. Also called the “80/20” rule. • When to use To identify and prioritize problems to be solved. To differentiate the ‘vital few’ from the ‘trivial many’. After improving a process, to show relative change in a measured item. Sorting a set of measurements to emphasize their relative sizes. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  24. 24. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 70 Pareto Chart Example Wrong Toppings Pizza Cold Pizza Late Wrong Crust Tastes Bad Forgot Breadstic ks Driver Had No Change Smashed in Box Wrong Price Driver Rude All other Quantity 29 25 22 13 10 7 4 3 2 1 2 Cum % 25% 46% 64% 75% 84% 90% 93% 96% 97% 98% 100% % of Total 25% 21% 19% 11% 8% 6% 3% 3% 2% 1% 2% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% - 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 CumulativePercent Occurences Pizza Defects Pareto Chart January-02Time Period: This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  25. 25. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 73 Pareto Chart • Procedure (con’t) 4. In the order of the most data, from the left, draw in the bar graphs. Keep all the bars in the same width. (Note: You may use Excel to generate the bar graphs.) 5. Using the cumulative figure, draw the cumulative curve. From the bar graph column’s right corner, extend the line to the end, joining with a broken line graph. 6. Draw a line from the end of the bar graph to the vertical axis. Where it intersects the cumulative curve, it is taken as 100%. Put in the scales for the cumulative percentage. 7. Lastly, write in the title for the Pareto Chart, the period the data was collected, the total number of data, the authors, etc. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  26. 26. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 76 Pareto Chart – Key points to note • Get as much information as possible from Pareto chart. Collect various viewpoints and classification. • Draw a Pareto chart based on cause, not symptoms. • If possible, use the vertical axis to represent monetary units. • Do not have too many or too few items on the horizontal axis. Recommended items = 6 to 10. • Shade the items (e.g. oblique lines) that are taken up. • Write the legend for the Pareto chart clearly. • Item under “others” should not be too many. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  27. 27. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 79 Cause & Effect Diagram (Manufacturing) EffectCauses Problem Statement cause Machines Measurements Materials Methods Mother Nature Manpower (Environment) This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  28. 28. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 82 Example 2: Cause and effect diagram used in solving the problem of “Late Payment of Invoices” Computer System Internal Mail System Staff Finance Policy Documentation Older System Downtime Excess Demand Access Limitations Low Priority Manual Sort ProcessNew Maintenance Contractor Excess Demand Cost-Reduction Program One Pick-Up Daily Workspace Equipment Lost&Misplaced Mail Turnover Inexperienced Staff Manual Files Crowded Space Resigned No Limit Manager Missing Documentation Branch Offices Forward Payments Weekly Reorganization of Purchase Org. Centralized Payment Authorization Audit Recommendation for Tighter Control Missing Purchase Orders Maximize Cash Payment Delays Increased Workload Turnover Hiring Freeze Access Limitations Low Priority Morale Paycuts Overtime Reduced Productivity Deadlines Suspected root causes Legend Late Payment of Invoices This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  29. 29. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5 Whys 15 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  30. 30. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 88 5 Whys • Procedure 1. Write down the specific problem. Writing the issue helps you formalize the problem and describe it completely. It also helps a team focus on the same problem. 2. Ask Why the problem happens and write the answer down below the problem. 3. If the answer you just provided doesn’t identify the root cause of the problem that you wrote down in Step 1, ask Why again and write that answer down. 4. Loop back to step 3 until the team is in agreement that the problem’s root cause is identified. Again, this may take fewer or more times than five Whys. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  31. 31. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Histogram 16 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  32. 32. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 94 Histogram Examples Final Test Scores Scores NumberofStudents This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  33. 33. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 97 Scatter Diagram • Purpose To show the type and degree of any causal relationship between two factors. To see patterns in data. Helps create or refine hypotheses. • When to use To show any correlation between two factors. When suspected that any one item may be causing another. When both items can be measured together, in pairs. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  34. 34. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 100 Scatter Diagram This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  35. 35. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 103 Scatter Diagram Considerations • If the diagram shows no relationship, consider whether the independent (x-axis) variable has been varied widely. Sometimes a relationship is not apparent because the data don’t cover a wide enough range. • Think creatively about how to use scatter diagrams to discover a root cause. • Drawing a scatter diagram is the first step in looking for a relationship between variables. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  36. 36. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 106 How to Create an Affinity Diagram • Step 1 – Generate Ideas Use the Brainstorming tool to generate a list of ideas. The rest of the steps in the Affinity process will be easier if these ideas are written on Post-Its. • Step 2 - Display the ideas Post the ideas on a whiteboard, a wall, or a table in a random manner. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  37. 37. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 109 How to Create an Affinity Diagram • Step 5 – Draw the finished Affinity Diagram Write a problem statement at the top of the diagram. Place header and superheader cards above the groups of ideas. Review and clarify the ideas and groupings. Document the finished Affinity Diagram This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  38. 38. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 112 Relations Diagram Example Source: ASQ This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  39. 39. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Tree Diagram 20 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  40. 40. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 118 Tree Diagram – Example 1 Overall Equipment Effectiveness Availability Breakdowns Setups & Adjustments Performance Reduced Speed Minor Stops & Idling Quality Defects & Rework Startup & Yield Loss Six Big Losses This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  41. 41. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 121 Tree Diagram • Procedure (con’t) 3. Brainstorm all possible answers. If an affinity diagram or relationship diagram has been done previously, ideas may be taken from there. Write each idea in a line below (for a vertical tree) or to the right of (for a horizontal tree) the first statement. Show links between the tiers with arrows. 4. Do a “necessary and sufficient” check. Are all the items at this level necessary for the one on the level above? If all the items at this level were present or accomplished, would they be sufficient for the one on the level above? This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  42. 42. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 124 Matrix Diagram • Purpose To show the relationship between two, three or four groups of information. • When to Use Provide information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles played by various individuals, or measurements. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  43. 43. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 127 Matrix Diagram – Example 3 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  44. 44. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 130 MDAC – Example 1 Countermeasures M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 Total Score Countermeasure #1 2 8 6 4 2 22 Countermeasure #2 2 3 6 4 6 21 Countermeasure #3 2 5 5 6 2 20 Countermeasure #4 4 8 3 2 2 19 Countermeasure #5 5 8 5 2 2 22 Examples of Selection Criteria: M1 = Easy to Implement M2 = Feasible M3 = Cost Effective M4 = Robust M5 = Risk Selection Criteria (1=Bad, 10=Good) Countermeasures Selection Matrix This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  45. 45. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 133 MDAC – Example 4 EaseofImplementation Difficult Low Anticipated Benefit High Priority Action Eliminate Easy Consider Prioritization Chart This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  46. 46. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 136 How to Create a MDAC • Procedure (con’t) 6. Interpret the chart and act on the results. Typical activities include the investigation into and subsequent action on: Why items which might be expected to group closely do not. Why items unexpectedly form clusters. Why individual items are not positioned where they were expected to be on the chart. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  47. 47. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 139 Arrow Diagram – Example 1 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  48. 48. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 142 Arrow Diagram • Procedure (con’t) 3. Diagram the network of tasks. If you are using notes or cards, arrange them in sequence on a large piece of paper. Time should flow from left to right and concurrent tasks should be vertically aligned. Leave space between the cards. 4. Between each two tasks, draw circles for “events.” An event marks the beginning or end of a task. Thus, events are nodes that separate tasks. 5. Look for three common problem situations and redraw them using “dummies” or extra events. A dummy is an arrow drawn with dotted lines used to separate tasks that would otherwise start and stop with the same events or to show logical sequence. Dummies are not real tasks. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  49. 49. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 145 PDPC – Example 1 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  50. 50. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 148 PDPC • Procedure (con’t) 4. For each potential problem, brainstorm possible countermeasures. These might be actions or changes to the plan that would prevent the problem, or actions that would remedy it once it occurred. Show the countermeasures as a fifth level, outlined in clouds or jagged lines. 5. Decide how practical each countermeasure is. Use criteria such as cost, time required, ease of implementation and effectiveness. Mark impractical countermeasures with an X and practical ones with an O. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  51. 51. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. About Operational Excellence Consulting This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  52. 52. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Appendix I - Exercises This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  53. 53. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 157 Exercise: Construct a C&E Diagram based on the report below. Time: 20 mins This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  54. 54. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 160 X and R Chart Example In-class Exercise • The following collection of data (see next slide)represents samples of the amount of force applied in a gluing process. • Determine if the process is in control by calculating the appropriate upper and lower control limits of the X-bar and R charts. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
  55. 55. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 163 Example of X-bar and R charts: Step 2. Determine Control Limit Formulas and Necessary Tabled Values x Chart Control Limits UCL = x + A R LCL = x - A R 2 2 R Chart Control Limits UCL = D R LCL = D R 4 3 n A2 D3 D4 2 1.88 0 3.27 3 1.02 0 2.57 4 0.73 0 2.28 5 0.58 0 2.11 6 0.48 0 2.00 7 0.42 0.08 1.92 8 0.37 0.14 1.86 9 0.34 0.18 1.82 10 0.31 0.22 1.78 11 0.29 0.26 1.74 This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/useful-tools-for-problem-solving-959
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