DED100 Educational Psychology I:
Theories and Applications for Learning and Teaching
*Brief Introduction of Learning Theories to be
*Brief Introduction of scenario
*Analysis of Scenario
*Proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943.
*Suggests that all individuals have needs
*Broken up into two categories: Deficiency
Needs and Growth Needs
*Proposed by Jean Piaget in 1965.
*Suggested that children’s response to moral
problems can be divided into two broad stages.
*Proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg
*Suggested that there are three levels, and six stages
of moral reasoning.
*Law and Order
*Proposed by Erik Erikson.
*Suggests that our psychosocial development is
characterised by 8 different stages.
*Will only focus on Stage 4 : Industry vs.
*Proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner in 1979.
*Suggests that human development boils down
to two main factors: our biological wiring and
environmental experiences in different
*Will focus on two main systems – mesosystem
*Proposed by Diana Baumrind
*First suggested that there were 3 parenting
styles, which were later expanded to four by
Maccoby and Martin.
*Social Emotional Learning (SEL)
*SEL Competencies to encourage better
communication skills, relationship management
and making good decisions.
*Main Focus of Scenario: Primary School Student
*Analysis of John
*Analysis of John’s Home Environment and its
*Analysis of John’s School Environment and its
*Has good potential to do well
*Low Self Esteem
*Lack of Intrinsic motivation to study - as seen
from test papers, does not even try.
*Uses force to vent his frustrations (knocking his
head, pushing friends, throwing the chair at
*Parents are divorced; parents were fighting for
his custody 4 years ago and it affected him
*Mother has since found another boyfriend
*Father is constantly not around
*Currently staying with mother and stepfather
*Both mother and stepfather see his inability to
do well in school as an embarrassment.
*Stepfather uses physical punishment to discipline
*Does not get along well with classmates and
*Initially tries to be close to his classmates, but
is not welcomed by his classmates.
*Does not participate in group work because the
classmates think he is a liability.
*Is defiant towards his teachers
*Argues and answers the teacher
*Gets involved in computer games till wee hours
of the morning
*Is not performing well in school
*is badly affected by his parents' quarreling -
knocks his head against the wall to vent his
*Is disinterested in trying to mingle with the
group to get his work done
*Is seeking companionship, regardless of with friends
*Is quite bright and has good potential, but not
*Has seemingly given up hope in his studying and
*Values family alot, but is disappointed when his
family does not seem to value him as much
*Misses the times when his family was still intact
*Parents are divorced.
*Living with Stepfather and Mother.
*Past – Parents used to dote on him.
*Mother and Stepfather just leaves abruptly,
leaving John in the care of Grandparents.
*No proper care and guidance (Computer
*Father is constantly not around.
*Mother jumps to conclusions
*Stepfather uses physical punishment to deal
*John resorts to physical methods to express his
frustration (Reactive Aggression)
*Feels left out
*No sense of belonging
*No proper guiding figure
*Teachers are aware, but lets parents deal with
*Sees speaking to parents as an intervention
*Intentional exclusion towards him (Group Work,
*Hostile towards John, quotes their own parents
*Lack of Sense of Belonging
*Lack of Motivation to study
*Lack of Self Belonging
*Lack of Self Esteem
*Lack of Motivation
*Fundamental Theory: Maslow’s Hierarchy of
*Fundamental Theory – Motivation Theory
*Identified that the main issue was the lack of
*Face to Face Interaction between Teacher and
*Face to Face Interaction between FTSC and
*Face to Face Interaction between School
Principal and student
*Use of Strategies to Ensure More Attention to
Individual Pupil Development throughout
Primary School Life (SEAIP) Model
*People who have direct contact with students
*Serves to motivate and encourage
*Provide an avenue for the student to express
outside the classroom
*In line with SEAIP
*FTSC (Full Time School Counsellor)
*Employed when talks with student has broken
*Allows a profession in the field to examine and
analyse the motivation behind such behaviour
*Will inform parents of such an arrangement
*To show the willingness of the school to adopt
a listening stance
*To show the care and concern offered by all
members of the school.
*Strategies to Ensure More Attention to
Individual Pupil Development through Primary
School Life (SEAIP) Model
*One on One Interaction
*Form and Co-Form Teachers
*To create a suitable environment which the
students might not be able to get at home
*To provide guidance
*To promote an avenue for inclusivity amongst
*To help encourage self-efficacy through
confidence building activities
*To be held after school
*Will involve teachers and AEs (Allied Educators)
*Sports and Recreation
*Skill Learning (Drama, Art, Music etc)
*The home environment is no longer conducive
for the student.
*Lack of such programmes in John’s current
*John will not change his behaviour immediately
*To allow for students to identify their personal
*To allow for students to identify the steps they
will take to achieve such goals
*The ‘ME!’ Discovery
*Self Discovery Process
*Encourages the students to ask themselves
what they are really like
*A platform for self expression
*Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
*Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
*Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development
*Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
*Holistic, all rounded approach
*Concerted Effort between parents and teachers
*Proper environments must be developed and