3 Lymphatic & Immune System Terms<br />Frank Lemond<br />Biology 120<br />6/27/10<br />
I.  ELISA<br />
I.  ELISA<br />ELISA, aka an enzyme immunoassay, or EIA, aka enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, = a biochemical technique ...
I.  ELISA (cont’d)<br />This antibody = linked to an enzyme, (protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction) & in...
II. HIVES<br />
II.  HIVES<br />Hives are raised, often itchy, red welts on the epidermis.  They’re usually an allergic (hypersensitive) r...
II.  HIVES (cont’d)<br />Treatment may or may not be needed if the hives are mild.  They can disappear on their own.  To r...
II.  HIVES (cont’d).<br />When one has an allergic reaction to a substance, the body releases histamines + other chemicals...
III.  NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS<br />
III.  NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION<br />Nosocomial infections are infections that are a result of treatment in a healthcare servic...
III.  NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION (cont’d).<br />Also, increased use of outpatient treatment means that people who are hospitaliz...
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3 lymphatic & immune system terms

  1. 1. 3 Lymphatic & Immune System Terms<br />Frank Lemond<br />Biology 120<br />6/27/10<br />
  2. 2. I. ELISA<br />
  3. 3. I. ELISA<br />ELISA, aka an enzyme immunoassay, or EIA, aka enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, = a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. (An antibody = a protein material made in the body as a response to the invasion of a foreign substance. An antigen = a foreign invader that stimulates an immune response). ELISA has been used as a diagnostic tool in medicine & for plant diseases, and also as a quality-control check in some industries. In ELISA, an unknown amount of antigen = attached to a surface, and then a certain antibody = applied over the surface so that it’ll bind to the antigen.<br />
  4. 4. I. ELISA (cont’d)<br />This antibody = linked to an enzyme, (protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction) & in the final step a substance = added that the enzyme can convert to some detectable signal. For example, in the case of fluorescence ELISA, when light of the right wavelength = shone on a sample, any antigen and/or antibody complexes will fluoresce so that the amount of antigen in the sample can be inferred through the strength of the fluorescence.<br />ELISA = a useful tool in checking serum antibody concentrations (such as the HIV test or West Nile Virus).<br />
  5. 5. II. HIVES<br />
  6. 6. II. HIVES<br />Hives are raised, often itchy, red welts on the epidermis. They’re usually an allergic (hypersensitive) reaction to medicine or food. <br />The symptoms of hives include:<br />1. Swelling of the epidermis (surface of the skin) into skin-colored or red welts (wheals) with clearly-defined edges.<br />2. Itching.<br />The wheals may enlarge, spread, and join together to form larger areas of flat, raised skin. <br />They can also change shape, disappear, and reappear within hours or minutes .<br />The wheals tend to start suddenly and go away quickly. When one presses the center of a red welt, it turns white. This = aka blanching.<br />
  7. 7. II. HIVES (cont’d)<br />Treatment may or may not be needed if the hives are mild. They can disappear on their own. To reduce swelling & itching:<br />AVOID HOT baths or showers.<br />Avoid irritating the area(s) with tight-fitting clothes.<br />Take antihistamines (substances that act to control allergic symptoms by counteracting histamine, which = in the body & = released in allergic reactions).<br />
  8. 8. II. HIVES (cont’d).<br />When one has an allergic reaction to a substance, the body releases histamines + other chemicals into the blood. This causes swelling, itching, + other symptoms. Hives are a common reaction, esp. in those with other allergies such as hay fever. <br />Many substances can trigger hives, such as:<br />1. Cat dander (or other animal dander)<br />2. Insect bites<br />3. Certain medications<br />4. Pollen<br />5. Foods, such as milk, eggs, peanut butter, nuts, shellfish, fish, etc.<br />
  9. 9. III. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS<br />
  10. 10. III. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION<br />Nosocomial infections are infections that are a result of treatment in a healthcare service unit such as a nursing home or hospital. These infections are considered nosocomial if they first appear 2 days or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge. In the US, the CDC (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention) estimated that approx. 1,700,000 hospital-associated infections, from all types of bacteria combined, cause or contribute to 99,000 deaths/year. <br />Nosocomial comes from the Greek word nosokomeion (hospital) (nosos = disease, komeo = to take care of). <br />Nosocomial infections are often transmitted when hospital workers become complacent & personnel don’t practice hygiene regularly. <br />
  11. 11. III. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION (cont’d).<br />Also, increased use of outpatient treatment means that people who are hospitalized are more ill & have more weakened immune systems than may have been true before.<br />Hospitals have sanitation rules regarding uniforms, equipment sterilization, washing, & other measures. Complete hand-washing and/or use of alcohol wipes by all medical personnel before + after each patient contact = a very effective way to fight nosocomial infections.<br />

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