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Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
     How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations
                            and the demand on the grid




      LIVE WEBINAR
     21 January 2013
Command Center

45min Presentation
15min Q&A

Audio Options:
- Use headset
- Call: 1 (647) 497-9387
- Access #: 678-883-897

Poll Questions:
- Don’t close window = you’ll
exit the webinar

Technical Questions:
- Message Megan




 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
 How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Conventional vehicles require conventional wisdom.
        EVs require EV wisdom
Part 3 of our webinar series

                                                  EVs in Cold Weather                                EVs in Hot Weather




  Free
  recorded
  webinars




                                                         Visit our free resource center online at:
                                                           www.fleetcarma.com/en/Resources

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
In 45 minutes you will know…

   Prospective and Current EV Owners:
   1. How are fleet plug-in vehicles being charged in real-world?
   2. How many fleet applications have enough time to allow for EV
      charging?
   3. How do you decide when investing in faster charging equipment is
      worth the additional costs?


   Electrical Grid System Operators:
   4. When are fleet plug-in vehicles charging?
   5. What is the load on the grid?

   The answer to all of these questions can be found in real-world data.
Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Speakers – Who are we?
                            Megan Allen
                            Vehicle Technology Analyst, FleetCarma
                            Researched diesel emissions clean-up technology.
                            Expertise in electric vehicle modeling & simulation.
                            Bachelors in Chemical Engineering.



                            Eric Mallia
                            General Manager, FleetCarma
                            Helps fleet managers considering and using higher efficiency vehicles.
                            Masters in Environment Studies.
                            Bachelors in Business Administration.
                            Published author in energy management topics.


                           Matt Stevens
                           CEO, CrossChasm Technologies
                           Helping design hybrid and electric vehicles since 2004.
                           Helping fleets since 2007.
                           PhD in Chemical Engineering.
                           Chair of Electric Mobility Canada.


Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
What do we do?




        Hybrid & Electric Vehicles:                         Decisions Destined for Success.      Car-Buying, Based on You.
        Faster, Better, Cheaper                             Save dollars, gallons, and tons.     Save dollars, gallons, & tons.

        Services & prototypes sold                          Products for vehicle selection and   Dealership product for customer
        to vehicle OEM/                                     monitoring: FleetCarma TCO/ROI       engagement and conversion.
        manufacturers.                                      and Energy & Emissions.              Decision-support for customers.




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
How about you?




Let’s quickly understand a bit more about you.
We have three quick questions for you.
This will give us a bit of background on your interests and EV experience.

Please use the GoToWebinar controls to respond.




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Topics in this webinar


Q1: Which part of this webinar are you most interested in?
I want to learn more about:

A. How fleet operators can evaluate EVs for their fleets
B. Selecting the right charging equipment for fleet operations
C. Charging behavior and how it impacts fleet EV utilization
D. How fleet EV charging is affecting the electrical grid




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
EVs in your fleet?


Q2: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Status
Which of the following best describes your status with plug-in vehicles?

A. EVs are at least 1 year away.
B. Within the next year we will have plug-in vehicles.
C. Have EVs operating – not data logging.
D. Have EVs operating – already data logging.
E. Cheering from the sidelines.




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Does faster charging result in higher EV utilization?


Q3: My hunch is…
Having a level 2 charger installed

A. Greatly increases an electric vehicle’s usage
B. Somewhat increases an electric vehicle’s usage
C. Has a negative effect on an electric vehicle’s usage
D. Has no effect on an electric vehicle usage




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Webinar Agenda

   Part 1 – EVSE basics

   Part 2 – How can fleets determine if an EV will be charge
            capable in their own duty cycles?

   Part 3 – EV charging profiles and impact on fleet operations

   Part 4 – Fleet EV load demand on the grid



Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Part 1
EVSE basics
Quick Overview of the EV Charging Landscape and Terms

   14 global EVSE manufacturers




                                                                                 Source: Pike Research, 2012

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Quick Overview of the EV Charging Landscape and Terms

                 Level 1                                                          Level 2     DC Quick
                Charging                                                         Charging     Charging
                    110v                                                          220v          440v
                  ~ 1.3 kW                                                   ~ 3.3 – 6.6 kW   ~ 50 kW




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Quick Overview of the EV Charging Landscape and Terms

   Connectors




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Defining some key ‘EV charging’ terms

   • Charging window
            – The available time to charge a plug-in vehicle

   • Bulk charging
            – Charge events that occur at the end of the day
            – After the last trip of the day and before the first trip of the next day

   • Opportunity charging
            – Charge events that occur throughout the day
            – Charging in between trips

   • Charge capable
            – Occurs when there is sufficient time to fully charge the plug-in vehicle
              before the first trip of the next day

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Part 2
Determining if an EV will be
     charge capable
Informing real important decisions with real-world data




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Determining if an EV is charge capable in your fleet
                                      Current fleet vehicle
                                                                                 Potential EV




                                          Daily Utilization




                                                                                  EVs would not be charge
                                                                                    capable in this fleet
                                                                                        application
Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Determining if an EV is charge capable in your fleet
                                      Current fleet vehicle
                                                                                 Potential EV




                                          Daily Utilization




                                                                                    EVs would be charge
                                                                                     capable in this fleet
                                                                                         application
Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Determining if an EV will be charge capable

                            How often is a plug-in vehicle charge capable
                                        in fleet applications?

Step 1                                                                           Step 2
Data log all types of vehicles                                                   Data log real-world fleet EV usage
               How much time do                                                   What is the average
              fleet vehicles spend                                                 ending day battery
                resting at night?                                                state of charge (SOC)?



Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Step 1 - Collect data for all fleet applications

                                               How much time do fleet vehicles rest at night?
                       450

                       400
                                 Average = 14.5 hours
                       350                                                                                         Time between last
                       300                                                                                           trip of one day
                                                                                                                  and first trip of next
    # of occurrences




                       250
                                                                                                                           day
                       200

                       150

                       100

                        50

                         0
                             3   5         7          9         11         13    15    17     19        21   23      25     27     29

                                                                     Available Time to Charge (hours)


  Sample size = 3,703

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
How often would a Nissan Leaf be charge capable?
                            Level 1 charging                                                          500
                                                                                                                                    68% of the time




                                                                                 # of occurrences
                                                                                                      400
                            at 1.3 kW                                                                 300
                                                                                                      200
                           End of day SOC: 20%                                                        100

                           Time to full charge: ~13 hours                                               0
                                                                                                            3   5    7   9    11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29

                                                                                                      500
                                                                                                                             81% of the time




                                                                                   # of occurrences
                                                                                                      400
                                                                                                      300

                           End of day SOC: 40%                                                        200
                                                                                                      100
                           Time to full charge: ~5 hours                                                0
                                                                                                            3   5    7   9     11    13    15    17    19    21    23    25    27    29


                                                                                                      500
                                                                                                                    90% of the time
                                                                                   # of occurrences   400

                                                                                                      300
                            End of day SOC: 60%                                                       200

                            Time to full charge: ~ 6 hours                                            100

                                                                                                        0
                                                                                                            3   5    7   9    11    13    15    17    19    21    23    25    27    29
  Sample size = 3,703                                                                                                        Available Time to Charge (hours)

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
How often would a Nissan Leaf be charge capable?
                            Level 2 charging                                                           500             92% of the time




                                                                                    # of occurrences
                                                                                                       400
                            at 3.3 kW                                                                  300
                                                                                                       200
                           End of day SOC: 20%                                                         100
                                                                                                         0
                           Time to full charge: ~5 hours                                                     3     5     7   9     11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29

                                                                                                       500
                                                                                                                 96% of the time




                                                                                 # of occurrences
                                                                                                       400
                                                                                                       300
                                                                                                       200
                           End of day SOC: 40%                                                         100
                           Time to full charge: ~4 hours                                                 0
                                                                                                             3    5     7    9    11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29


                                                                                                       500
                                                                                                             100% of the time
                                                                                 # of occurrences      400
                                                                                                       300

                            End of day SOC: 60%                                                        200
                                                                                                       100
                            Time to full charge: ~ 2 hours                                               0
                                                                                                             4           8         12       16       20       24    28
                                                                                                                                 Time Available to Charge (hours)
  Sample size = 3,703

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
How often would a Chevrolet Volt be charge capable?
                            Level 1 charging
                                                                                                         500
                                                                                                                            87% of the time




                                                                                     # of occurrences
                                                                                                         400

                            at 1.3 kW                                                                    300
                                                                                                         200

                           End of day SOC: 0%                                                            100
                                                                                                           0
                           Time to full charge: ~ 8 hours                                                      3   5    7     9    11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29


                                                                                                         500
                                                                                                                       90% of the time




                                                                                 # of occurrences
                                                                                                         400
                                                                                                         300
                           End of day SOC: 20%                                                           200

                           Time to full charge: ~ 6 hours                                                100
                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                               3   5    7     9     11   13   15   17   19   21   23   25   27   29

                                                                                                         500
                                                                                      # of occurrences
                                                                                                         400
                                                                                                                   92% of the time
                                                                                                         300
                            End of day SOC: 40%                                                          200

                            Time to full charge: ~ 5 hours                                               100
                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                               3   5    7     9     11   13   15   17   19   21   23   25   27   29
  Sample size = 3,703                                                                                                             Available Time to Charge (hours)

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
How often would a Chevrolet Volt be charge capable?
                            Level 2 charging                                                          500       100% of the time




                                                                                   # of occurrences
                                                                                                      400
                            at 3.3 kW                                                                 300
                                                                                                      200

                           End of day SOC: 0%                                                         100
                                                                                                        0
                           Time to full charge: ~ 3 hours                                                   4         8     12       16        20       24   28


                                                                                                      500   100% of the time




                                                                                 # of occurrences
                                                                                                      400
                                                                                                      300

                           End of day SOC: 20%                                                        200
                                                                                                      100
                           Time to full charge: ~ 2.5 hours                                             0
                                                                                                            4        8      12       16       20        24   28


                                                                                  # of occurrences    500   100% of the time
                                                                                                      400
                                                                                                      300

                            End of day SOC: 40%                                                       200
                                                                                                      100
                            Time to full charge: ~ 2 hours                                              0
                                                                                                            4        8      12       16       20       24    28

  Sample size = 3,703                                                                                                     Time Available to Charge (hours)


Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Step 2 – What is the average ending day battery SOC?

                                                             Nissan LEAF                Chevrolet Volt
                                           Avg. End of Day SOC: 56%              Avg. End of Day SOC: 24%



 Level 1                                         Charge capable                      Charge capable
 charging                                                    88%                            90%
 at 1.3 kW                                             of the time                       of the time


Level 2                                          Charge capable                     Charge capable
charging                                                   100%                           100%
at 3.3 kW                                              of the time                      of the time

  Sample size = 3,703

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Part 3
EV charging profiles and their impact
        on fleet operations
Example 1 – After-Work Alfie at the City of Toronto




     Real-World Results:
     • 91 MPGe (2.6 L / 100kmeq)
     • 45 miles (73 km) / working day
     • 24% of driving time at idle
     • 97% of charging on Level 2

     • Cost per 100 km: $2.75
Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Example 2 – Night-Time Nick at the Globe & Mail




         Real-World Results:
         • 138 MPGe (1.7 L / 100kmeq)
         • 23 miles (37 km) / working day
         • 37% of driving time at idle
         • 99% of charging on Level 2

         • Cost per 100 km: $1.70

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Example 3 – Day-time David at the NYPD




         Real-World Results:
          • 57 MPGe
          • 41 miles (66 km) per working day
          • 49% of miles driven on electric power
          • 25% of driving time at idle
          • 100% of charging on Level 2

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Example 3 – Day-time David at the NYPD




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
How else can fleet operators increase electric utilization?

   Supervisor vehicle
   •     Fairly good ‘eco-driving’

   •     Lots of ‘opportunity’ charging
           o   Done at the office during
               the day

   •     Vehicle goes home with driver

   •     Not much ‘overnight’ charging

   •     Reimburse electricity from home
         charging… How do you track it?




           Compact data logger plugs into OBD-II port

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Exportable to Excel – Charging Log and Trip Logs




   •    Log the time
        of charge
        events

   •    Track the
        costs and
        savings

   •    Analyze
        individual trip
        details
                                                      Easily track and expense charging at home to increase electric
                                                                        utilization of plug-in hybrids


Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Example 4 – Opportunistic Oscar at DHSE



                                                                                 Real-World Results:
                                                                                  • 137 MPGe (1.7 L / 100kmeq)
                                                                                  • 39 miles (63 km) / day
                                                                                  • 14% of driving at idle
                                                                                  • 97% of charging at Level 2

                                                                                  • Cost per 100 km: $2.73




                                                Engineering firm in Nova Scotia, Canada
Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Example 4 – Opportunistic Oscar at DHSE




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Example 4 - Opportunistic Oscar at DHSE


    Day-by-Day Reporting on:

    • Electric driving range
        • Potential distance
        • Actually driven

    • Benefit of opportunity charging
      throughout the day (light blue)                                            176km




    • Impact of weather change
                                                                                         245km

    • Impact of HVAC loads

    • Impact of eco-driving




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Exportable to Excel – Charging Log and Trip Logs




   •    Log the time
        of charge
        events

   •    Track the
        costs and
        savings

   •    Analyze
        individual trip
        details




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Is there a relationship between L2 charging and vehicle utilization?

                                            Utilization of Plug-in Vehicles with more Level 2 Charging
                                160

                                140

                                120
          Daily Distance (km)




                                100

                                 80

                                 60

                                 40

                                 20

                                 0
                                      50%    55%    60%        65%           70%   75%   80%   85%   90%   95%   100%

                                                    Proportion of Total Charge Events on Level 2

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Is there a relationship between L2 charging and vehicle utilization?




                                160
                                                BEV Potential Utilization vs. Actual Distance Traveled

                                140

                                120
          Daily Distance (km)




                                100         Potential electric
                                            daily utilization
                                80          Actual electric
                                            daily utilization
                                60

                                40

                                20

                                 0
                                      50%               60%                70%                80%               90%   100%
                                                                      Proportion of Total Charge Events on Level 2
Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Is there a relationship between L2 charging and vehicle utilization?



                            160
                                       PHEV Potential Utilization vs. Actual Distance Traveled
                            140

                            120
      Daily Distance (km)




                            100
                                       Potential electric
                                       daily utilization
                            80
                                       Actual electric
                                       daily utilization
                            60

                            40

                            20

                             0
                              50%              60%                        70%          80%                 90%   100%
                                                            Proportion of Total Charge Events on Level 2

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Does Level 2 charging increase fleet electric utilization?

   • Although the vast majority of fleet charging occurs at Level 2, there is
     not a strong positive trend to suggest that it increases electric drive
     utilization.

   • Fleets seem to be getting similar electric utilization per day from
     BEVs (all-electric) as they are from PHEVs (plug-in hybrids).

   • There is often a large gap between potential electric driving range each
     day and actual electric driving traveled, particularly more so with the
     BEVs than the PHEVs.




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Part 4
 When are fleet EVs charging during
the day and what is the load demand
       on the electrical grid?
Fleet EV grid demand profile – distribution of events

                                                Fleet EV Charge Events – All Levels of Charging
                             1400


                             1200


                             1000
          # of occurrences




                             800


                             600


                             400


                             200


                                0
                                    1   2   3   4   5   6    7     8     9       10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24

                                                                                      Time of Day

  Sample size = 2,653

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Fleet EV grid demand profile – by charge level
                                                                                                                          Level 1 Charge Events
   • Level 1 charging in fleet                                                                          1000
                                                                                                         900
     operations occur more                                                                               800




                                                                                     # of occurrences
                                                                                                         700

     often during the day                                                                                600
                                                                                                         500
                                                                                                         400
     time, however, the                                                                                  300
                                                                                                         200

     distribution is relatively flat.                                                                    100
                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                               1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
                                                                                                                                Time (hour)



                                                                                                                        Level 2 Charge Events
   • Level 2 charging in fleet                                                                          1000
                                                                                                         900
     operations occur much                                                                               800
                                                                                 # of occurrences


                                                                                                         700

     more often between 3pm
                                                                                                         600
                                                                                                         500
                                                                                                         400
     and 6pm.                                                                                            300
                                                                                                         200
                                                                                                         100
                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                               1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
  Sample size = 2,653                                                                                                                   Time (hour)

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Fleet EV grid demand profile – power load
                                                                     Time of Use Rates in Ontario
                                                                     Weekday Summer Schedule
                   3500
                                                          9.9 cents/kWh               11.8 cents/kWh
                   3000       6.3 cents/kWh                                                                                           6.3 cents/kWh

                   2500
      Power (kW)




                   2000


                   1500


                   1000


                   500


                      0
                          1   2   3     4     5     6      7     8     9    10   11    12   13   14    15   16    17   18   19   20   21   22   23    24

                                                                                  Time of Day
                                                                 Off-Peak               Mid-Peak                 On-Peak

                                  Only 27% of charging events would occur ‘off-peak’
  Sample size = 2,653

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Fleet EV grid demand profile – power load
                                                       Time of Use Rates in California
                                               Weekday Summer Low Emissions Vehicle Schedule
                   3500                                                                                   31.1 cents/kWh
                                                                     10.2 cents/kWh                                                  10.2 cents/kWh
                   3000       3.9 cents/kWh

                   2500
      Power (kW)




                   2000


                   1500


                   1000


                   500


                      0
                          1   2   3     4     5     6      7     8     9    10   11   12   13   14   15    16   17   18    19   20   21   22   23   24

                                                                                 Time of Day
                                                                 Off-Peak             Part-Peak                 Peak

                                  Only 8% of charging events would occur ‘off-peak’
  Sample size = 2,653

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Conclusions

   1. Fleets are more ‘charge capable’ than they think they
      are.




   Depending on the type of vehicle and charger level, 68-100% of vehicles in
     fleet applications have been charge capable when ending the day with
                               20% battery SOC.

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Conclusions

   2. With today’s utilization of electric vehicles in fleet
      applications, we do not see Level 2 charging
      increasing electric distance traveled.
                                                                    160
                                                                    140
                                              Daily Distance (km)




                                                                    120
                                                                    100
                                                                    80
                                                                    60
                                                                    40
                                                                    20
                                                                      0
                                                                          50%   60%   70%             80%   90%   100%
                                                                                            Level 2


       Electric vehicles are not being used to a point where an investment in a
                              level 2 charger is required.

Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Conclusions

   3. Fleets are exhibiting 4 common charging profiles
      After-Work Alfie                            Night-Time Nick                Day-Time David   Opportunistic Oscar




             Fleet operators should set EV charging targets relating to time of
                   charging and average electric daily distance traveled.


Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Conclusions

   4. Fleets can optimize the time they charge to save
      money and meet environmental mandates.
                                                            California Summer Rate Schedule




                          Fleet operators have not yet been charging very much
                                          during off-peak hours.
Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Conclusions
             With EVs, monitoring the vehicle is as important as monitoring
             its charging




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
FleetCarma C5 data logger – data access options


                                                                                 Customized Reports

 Manual
 USB upload
 (released: March 2012)

 Cellular
 automatic upload
 (released: Dec 2012)

 Wi-Fi
 automatic upload
 (releasing: Jan 2013)

Bluetooth to
smartphone or EVSE
(in development)
Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Our fleet partners use FleetCarma systems to:



     Measure Vehicle Metrics to                                                  Choose the Best Fit Vehicle for Each
     Improve Fleet Performance                                                        Job in the Fleet Portfolio




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Thank you to our clients and partners




Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
FleetCarma’s EV Champion Challenge
                                                                                 Participant
                                                                                    Blog




             www.fleetcarma.com/Programs/ev-challenge
Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Part 3 of our webinar series
                                        EVs in Cold Weather                      EVs in Hot Weather     Charging Behavior

  Free
  recorded
  webinars



                                          Light-duty vehicles                    Heavy-duty vehicles   Simulation for Fleets
  Free
  eBooks
  on these
  topics

                                                         Visit our free resource center online at:
                                                           www.fleetcarma.com/en/Resources
Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
Matt Stevens
 The Vehicle Nerds
mstevens@fleetcarma.com                                                           Megan Allen
                                                                                  mallen@fleetcarma.com
                                                                                                          Eric Mallia
                                                                                                          emallia@fleetcarma.com




                                                                                                            www.fleetcarma.com
   Thank You! Q&A                                                                                           519.342.7385 (office)
                                                                                                          800.975.2434 (toll-free)
 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles
 How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid

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Plugging in Fleet Vehicles

  • 1. Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid LIVE WEBINAR 21 January 2013
  • 2. Command Center 45min Presentation 15min Q&A Audio Options: - Use headset - Call: 1 (647) 497-9387 - Access #: 678-883-897 Poll Questions: - Don’t close window = you’ll exit the webinar Technical Questions: - Message Megan Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 3. Conventional vehicles require conventional wisdom. EVs require EV wisdom
  • 4. Part 3 of our webinar series EVs in Cold Weather EVs in Hot Weather Free recorded webinars Visit our free resource center online at: www.fleetcarma.com/en/Resources Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 5. In 45 minutes you will know… Prospective and Current EV Owners: 1. How are fleet plug-in vehicles being charged in real-world? 2. How many fleet applications have enough time to allow for EV charging? 3. How do you decide when investing in faster charging equipment is worth the additional costs? Electrical Grid System Operators: 4. When are fleet plug-in vehicles charging? 5. What is the load on the grid? The answer to all of these questions can be found in real-world data. Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 6. Speakers – Who are we? Megan Allen Vehicle Technology Analyst, FleetCarma Researched diesel emissions clean-up technology. Expertise in electric vehicle modeling & simulation. Bachelors in Chemical Engineering. Eric Mallia General Manager, FleetCarma Helps fleet managers considering and using higher efficiency vehicles. Masters in Environment Studies. Bachelors in Business Administration. Published author in energy management topics. Matt Stevens CEO, CrossChasm Technologies Helping design hybrid and electric vehicles since 2004. Helping fleets since 2007. PhD in Chemical Engineering. Chair of Electric Mobility Canada. Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 7. What do we do? Hybrid & Electric Vehicles: Decisions Destined for Success. Car-Buying, Based on You. Faster, Better, Cheaper Save dollars, gallons, and tons. Save dollars, gallons, & tons. Services & prototypes sold Products for vehicle selection and Dealership product for customer to vehicle OEM/ monitoring: FleetCarma TCO/ROI engagement and conversion. manufacturers. and Energy & Emissions. Decision-support for customers. Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 8. How about you? Let’s quickly understand a bit more about you. We have three quick questions for you. This will give us a bit of background on your interests and EV experience. Please use the GoToWebinar controls to respond. Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 9. Topics in this webinar Q1: Which part of this webinar are you most interested in? I want to learn more about: A. How fleet operators can evaluate EVs for their fleets B. Selecting the right charging equipment for fleet operations C. Charging behavior and how it impacts fleet EV utilization D. How fleet EV charging is affecting the electrical grid Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 10. EVs in your fleet? Q2: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Status Which of the following best describes your status with plug-in vehicles? A. EVs are at least 1 year away. B. Within the next year we will have plug-in vehicles. C. Have EVs operating – not data logging. D. Have EVs operating – already data logging. E. Cheering from the sidelines. Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 11. Does faster charging result in higher EV utilization? Q3: My hunch is… Having a level 2 charger installed A. Greatly increases an electric vehicle’s usage B. Somewhat increases an electric vehicle’s usage C. Has a negative effect on an electric vehicle’s usage D. Has no effect on an electric vehicle usage Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 12. Webinar Agenda Part 1 – EVSE basics Part 2 – How can fleets determine if an EV will be charge capable in their own duty cycles? Part 3 – EV charging profiles and impact on fleet operations Part 4 – Fleet EV load demand on the grid Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 14. Quick Overview of the EV Charging Landscape and Terms 14 global EVSE manufacturers Source: Pike Research, 2012 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 15. Quick Overview of the EV Charging Landscape and Terms Level 1 Level 2 DC Quick Charging Charging Charging 110v 220v 440v ~ 1.3 kW ~ 3.3 – 6.6 kW ~ 50 kW Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 16. Quick Overview of the EV Charging Landscape and Terms Connectors Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 17. Defining some key ‘EV charging’ terms • Charging window – The available time to charge a plug-in vehicle • Bulk charging – Charge events that occur at the end of the day – After the last trip of the day and before the first trip of the next day • Opportunity charging – Charge events that occur throughout the day – Charging in between trips • Charge capable – Occurs when there is sufficient time to fully charge the plug-in vehicle before the first trip of the next day Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 18. Part 2 Determining if an EV will be charge capable
  • 19. Informing real important decisions with real-world data Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 20. Determining if an EV is charge capable in your fleet Current fleet vehicle Potential EV Daily Utilization EVs would not be charge capable in this fleet application Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 21. Determining if an EV is charge capable in your fleet Current fleet vehicle Potential EV Daily Utilization EVs would be charge capable in this fleet application Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 22. Determining if an EV will be charge capable How often is a plug-in vehicle charge capable in fleet applications? Step 1 Step 2 Data log all types of vehicles Data log real-world fleet EV usage How much time do What is the average fleet vehicles spend ending day battery resting at night? state of charge (SOC)? Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 23. Step 1 - Collect data for all fleet applications How much time do fleet vehicles rest at night? 450 400 Average = 14.5 hours 350 Time between last 300 trip of one day and first trip of next # of occurrences 250 day 200 150 100 50 0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Available Time to Charge (hours) Sample size = 3,703 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 24. How often would a Nissan Leaf be charge capable? Level 1 charging 500 68% of the time # of occurrences 400 at 1.3 kW 300 200 End of day SOC: 20% 100 Time to full charge: ~13 hours 0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 500 81% of the time # of occurrences 400 300 End of day SOC: 40% 200 100 Time to full charge: ~5 hours 0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 500 90% of the time # of occurrences 400 300 End of day SOC: 60% 200 Time to full charge: ~ 6 hours 100 0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Sample size = 3,703 Available Time to Charge (hours) Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 25. How often would a Nissan Leaf be charge capable? Level 2 charging 500 92% of the time # of occurrences 400 at 3.3 kW 300 200 End of day SOC: 20% 100 0 Time to full charge: ~5 hours 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 500 96% of the time # of occurrences 400 300 200 End of day SOC: 40% 100 Time to full charge: ~4 hours 0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 500 100% of the time # of occurrences 400 300 End of day SOC: 60% 200 100 Time to full charge: ~ 2 hours 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Time Available to Charge (hours) Sample size = 3,703 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 26. How often would a Chevrolet Volt be charge capable? Level 1 charging 500 87% of the time # of occurrences 400 at 1.3 kW 300 200 End of day SOC: 0% 100 0 Time to full charge: ~ 8 hours 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 500 90% of the time # of occurrences 400 300 End of day SOC: 20% 200 Time to full charge: ~ 6 hours 100 0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 500 # of occurrences 400 92% of the time 300 End of day SOC: 40% 200 Time to full charge: ~ 5 hours 100 0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Sample size = 3,703 Available Time to Charge (hours) Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 27. How often would a Chevrolet Volt be charge capable? Level 2 charging 500 100% of the time # of occurrences 400 at 3.3 kW 300 200 End of day SOC: 0% 100 0 Time to full charge: ~ 3 hours 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 500 100% of the time # of occurrences 400 300 End of day SOC: 20% 200 100 Time to full charge: ~ 2.5 hours 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 # of occurrences 500 100% of the time 400 300 End of day SOC: 40% 200 100 Time to full charge: ~ 2 hours 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Sample size = 3,703 Time Available to Charge (hours) Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 28. Step 2 – What is the average ending day battery SOC? Nissan LEAF Chevrolet Volt Avg. End of Day SOC: 56% Avg. End of Day SOC: 24% Level 1 Charge capable Charge capable charging 88% 90% at 1.3 kW of the time of the time Level 2 Charge capable Charge capable charging 100% 100% at 3.3 kW of the time of the time Sample size = 3,703 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 29. Part 3 EV charging profiles and their impact on fleet operations
  • 30. Example 1 – After-Work Alfie at the City of Toronto Real-World Results: • 91 MPGe (2.6 L / 100kmeq) • 45 miles (73 km) / working day • 24% of driving time at idle • 97% of charging on Level 2 • Cost per 100 km: $2.75 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 31. Example 2 – Night-Time Nick at the Globe & Mail Real-World Results: • 138 MPGe (1.7 L / 100kmeq) • 23 miles (37 km) / working day • 37% of driving time at idle • 99% of charging on Level 2 • Cost per 100 km: $1.70 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 32. Example 3 – Day-time David at the NYPD Real-World Results: • 57 MPGe • 41 miles (66 km) per working day • 49% of miles driven on electric power • 25% of driving time at idle • 100% of charging on Level 2 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 33. Example 3 – Day-time David at the NYPD Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 34. How else can fleet operators increase electric utilization? Supervisor vehicle • Fairly good ‘eco-driving’ • Lots of ‘opportunity’ charging o Done at the office during the day • Vehicle goes home with driver • Not much ‘overnight’ charging • Reimburse electricity from home charging… How do you track it? Compact data logger plugs into OBD-II port Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 35. Exportable to Excel – Charging Log and Trip Logs • Log the time of charge events • Track the costs and savings • Analyze individual trip details Easily track and expense charging at home to increase electric utilization of plug-in hybrids Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 36. Example 4 – Opportunistic Oscar at DHSE Real-World Results: • 137 MPGe (1.7 L / 100kmeq) • 39 miles (63 km) / day • 14% of driving at idle • 97% of charging at Level 2 • Cost per 100 km: $2.73 Engineering firm in Nova Scotia, Canada Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 37. Example 4 – Opportunistic Oscar at DHSE Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 38. Example 4 - Opportunistic Oscar at DHSE Day-by-Day Reporting on: • Electric driving range • Potential distance • Actually driven • Benefit of opportunity charging throughout the day (light blue) 176km • Impact of weather change 245km • Impact of HVAC loads • Impact of eco-driving Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 39. Exportable to Excel – Charging Log and Trip Logs • Log the time of charge events • Track the costs and savings • Analyze individual trip details Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 40. Is there a relationship between L2 charging and vehicle utilization? Utilization of Plug-in Vehicles with more Level 2 Charging 160 140 120 Daily Distance (km) 100 80 60 40 20 0 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% Proportion of Total Charge Events on Level 2 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 41. Is there a relationship between L2 charging and vehicle utilization? 160 BEV Potential Utilization vs. Actual Distance Traveled 140 120 Daily Distance (km) 100 Potential electric daily utilization 80 Actual electric daily utilization 60 40 20 0 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Proportion of Total Charge Events on Level 2 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 42. Is there a relationship between L2 charging and vehicle utilization? 160 PHEV Potential Utilization vs. Actual Distance Traveled 140 120 Daily Distance (km) 100 Potential electric daily utilization 80 Actual electric daily utilization 60 40 20 0 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Proportion of Total Charge Events on Level 2 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 43. Does Level 2 charging increase fleet electric utilization? • Although the vast majority of fleet charging occurs at Level 2, there is not a strong positive trend to suggest that it increases electric drive utilization. • Fleets seem to be getting similar electric utilization per day from BEVs (all-electric) as they are from PHEVs (plug-in hybrids). • There is often a large gap between potential electric driving range each day and actual electric driving traveled, particularly more so with the BEVs than the PHEVs. Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 44. Part 4 When are fleet EVs charging during the day and what is the load demand on the electrical grid?
  • 45. Fleet EV grid demand profile – distribution of events Fleet EV Charge Events – All Levels of Charging 1400 1200 1000 # of occurrences 800 600 400 200 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Time of Day Sample size = 2,653 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 46. Fleet EV grid demand profile – by charge level Level 1 Charge Events • Level 1 charging in fleet 1000 900 operations occur more 800 # of occurrences 700 often during the day 600 500 400 time, however, the 300 200 distribution is relatively flat. 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Time (hour) Level 2 Charge Events • Level 2 charging in fleet 1000 900 operations occur much 800 # of occurrences 700 more often between 3pm 600 500 400 and 6pm. 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Sample size = 2,653 Time (hour) Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 47. Fleet EV grid demand profile – power load Time of Use Rates in Ontario Weekday Summer Schedule 3500 9.9 cents/kWh 11.8 cents/kWh 3000 6.3 cents/kWh 6.3 cents/kWh 2500 Power (kW) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Time of Day Off-Peak Mid-Peak On-Peak Only 27% of charging events would occur ‘off-peak’ Sample size = 2,653 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 48. Fleet EV grid demand profile – power load Time of Use Rates in California Weekday Summer Low Emissions Vehicle Schedule 3500 31.1 cents/kWh 10.2 cents/kWh 10.2 cents/kWh 3000 3.9 cents/kWh 2500 Power (kW) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Time of Day Off-Peak Part-Peak Peak Only 8% of charging events would occur ‘off-peak’ Sample size = 2,653 Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 49. Conclusions 1. Fleets are more ‘charge capable’ than they think they are. Depending on the type of vehicle and charger level, 68-100% of vehicles in fleet applications have been charge capable when ending the day with 20% battery SOC. Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 50. Conclusions 2. With today’s utilization of electric vehicles in fleet applications, we do not see Level 2 charging increasing electric distance traveled. 160 140 Daily Distance (km) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Level 2 Electric vehicles are not being used to a point where an investment in a level 2 charger is required. Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 51. Conclusions 3. Fleets are exhibiting 4 common charging profiles After-Work Alfie Night-Time Nick Day-Time David Opportunistic Oscar Fleet operators should set EV charging targets relating to time of charging and average electric daily distance traveled. Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 52. Conclusions 4. Fleets can optimize the time they charge to save money and meet environmental mandates. California Summer Rate Schedule Fleet operators have not yet been charging very much during off-peak hours. Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 53. Conclusions With EVs, monitoring the vehicle is as important as monitoring its charging Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 54. FleetCarma C5 data logger – data access options Customized Reports Manual USB upload (released: March 2012) Cellular automatic upload (released: Dec 2012) Wi-Fi automatic upload (releasing: Jan 2013) Bluetooth to smartphone or EVSE (in development) Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 55. Our fleet partners use FleetCarma systems to: Measure Vehicle Metrics to Choose the Best Fit Vehicle for Each Improve Fleet Performance Job in the Fleet Portfolio Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 56. Thank you to our clients and partners Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 57. FleetCarma’s EV Champion Challenge Participant Blog www.fleetcarma.com/Programs/ev-challenge Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 58. Part 3 of our webinar series EVs in Cold Weather EVs in Hot Weather Charging Behavior Free recorded webinars Light-duty vehicles Heavy-duty vehicles Simulation for Fleets Free eBooks on these topics Visit our free resource center online at: www.fleetcarma.com/en/Resources Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid
  • 59. Matt Stevens The Vehicle Nerds mstevens@fleetcarma.com Megan Allen mallen@fleetcarma.com Eric Mallia emallia@fleetcarma.com www.fleetcarma.com Thank You! Q&A 519.342.7385 (office) 800.975.2434 (toll-free) Plugging in Fleet Vehicles How charging behavior is impacting fleet operations and the demand on the grid

Editor's Notes

  1. J15 – Update to reflect what is covered in this webinar
  2. Update to american ones, university of colaroda.
  3. Cut = general
  4. In order to collect this data we use ourdatalogger called the C5The C5 plugs into a vehicle’s OBD port and ‘listens in” to collect signals from the vehicleThe interesting thing about electric vehicle’s is that this data is hard to get, the C5 can unlock these signals to help you understand your vehicle
  5. The first time most fleet managers consider the issue of charging altogether is when they are considering purchasing an EV. That is where we come in. With FleetCarma’s TCO we can predict if a vehicle is charge capable based on its duty cycle and usage.We look at the distance each vehicle is driven each day and the subsequent affect that that would have on the battery’s state of charge, and then the time afterwards in which the vehicle could be charging.
  6. We looked through all of our data on fleet vehicle’s and found the distribution of night-time charge windows. We chose the night because this is a time when most fleets aren’t using their vehicles.To answer this question for the webinar we had to look at the worst case scenario.
  7. Some fleets will use night-timecharging if the vehicle is being utilized often throughout the dayThis vehicle travels around to different places within a metropolitan area. Does not have the opportunity to charge during the day.Example of Primarily Bulk After-Work Charging
  8. Day-time DavidCharges during the dayChargers between trips for utilization around the clock
  9. Day-time DavidCharges during the dayChargers between trips for utilization around the clock
  10. MAKE PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CHARGING THAT IS LEVEL 2State a hypothesisState sample size (n)  took a ‘subset of vehicles in fleet applications a mix of ____, Leaf, (just on the days that the vehicle was used)Animate or add slides that show our expected hypothesis(perhaps take out Volts to make it straightforward)
  11. MAKE PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CHARGING THAT IS LEVEL 2State a hypothesisState sample size (n)  took a ‘subset of vehicles in fleet applications a mix of ____, Leaf, (just on the days that the vehicle was used)Animate or add slides that show our expected hypothesis(perhaps take out Volts to make it straightforward)
  12. In order to collect this data we use ourdatalogger called the C5The C5 plugs into a vehicle’s OBD port and ‘listens in” to collect signals from the vehicleThe interesting thing about electric vehicle’s is that this data is hard to get, the C5 can unlock these signals to help you understand your vehicle
  13. Add logos, Eric has a slide