Question 1b general tips


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Question 1b general tips

  1. 1. Media Theory and Theorists for G325 Section A: Examining your own productions A2 Revision Session
  2. 2. G325a – Skills and Processes (Hands) <ul><li>Theory not needed explicitly, only if it crops up. Creativity and the DIKY triangle will help </li></ul>G325b – Concepts (Head) <ul><li>Must use media theory/ theorists </li></ul><ul><li>I have split them by area of relevance: Genre/ Narrative/ Representation/ Audience/ Media Language </li></ul>
  3. 3. What do you need to be able to do with theorists and theories? <ul><li>You do NOT need to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn a load of quotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain their theories in great depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know them all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You DO need to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a few </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be able to apply them to your work/ case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider how useful/ not useful they are when discussing your work/ case studies </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How to use theorists… <ul><li>Quote </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise </li></ul><ul><li>Comment </li></ul><ul><li>Assume your reader knows about the theory/ theorist. </li></ul><ul><li>Don ’t explain the theory; use it. </li></ul><ul><li>A Todorovian analysis would argue… </li></ul><ul><li>Mulvey ’s notion of the Male Gaze provides a useful way of understanding the video in that… </li></ul><ul><li>Steve Neale ’ s statement that Genre is “ made up of repetition and change ” could be useful here because… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Some theorists you MIGHT be able to use
  6. 6. Genre <ul><li>Steve Neale 'genres are instances of repetition and difference' ( Neale  1980) 'difference is absolutely essential to the economy of genre' ( Neale 1980): mere repetition would not attract an audience. David Buckingham 'genre is not... simply &quot;given&quot; by the culture: rather, it is in a constant process of negotiation and change' ( Buckingham  1993) Nicholas Abercrombie 'the boundaries between genres are shifting and becoming more permeable' ( Abercrombie  1996) Andrew Tudor 'a genre... defines a moral and social world' ( Tudor  1974) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Narrative <ul><li>Tzetvan Todorov – Argues that narratives always have a structure of Equilibrium/ Disequilibrium/ New equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Story versus plot </li></ul><ul><li>Claude Levi-Strauss – Argues that human cultural understanding is based upon a system of binary oppposites (good/ bad; black/ white; male/ female…). Narratologists have taken this theory and applied it to narrative, arguing that binary opposition forms a fundamental way of understanding narrative. </li></ul><ul><li>Roland Barthes : Enigma code; Action code. Also, Open and Closed texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Vladimir Propp – argued that narratives always have certain character types who perform certain actions. Characters are agents of action. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Representation <ul><li>Laura Mulvey – argues that cinema positions the audience as male. The camera gazes at the female object on screen. It also frames the male character watching the female. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We watch the girl; we see the male watching the girl; we position ourselves within the text as a male objectively gazing at the female. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be applied to other media forms also. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hegemony (dominant ideology) </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone from the Collective Identity powerpoint </li></ul>
  9. 9. Audience <ul><li>Stuart Hall : Encoding and Decoding; Preferred/ negotiated/ oppositional readings </li></ul><ul><li>Denis McQuail – Uses and Gratification theory (audiences consume media texts for Surveillance; Personal Identity; Peresnal Relationships; Escapism/ Diversion. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Media Language <ul><li>Any of the theorists from the previous slides </li></ul>