The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period (c. 2000 BC to 250 AD), according to the Mesoamerican chronology, many Maya cities reached their highest state development during the Classic period (c. 250 AD to 900 AD), and continued throughout the Post-Classic period until the arrival of the Spanish.
There were large but low buildings. These were homes to nobles and other important people. On the top of these structures were roof combs. Roof combs went from the high point of the roof. Roof combs made the building seem taller. Decorating these architectural wonders were murals in the inside of the structures, and carvings outside. Some of the carvings were called friezes. They also carved stone statues called stela. The stelae are records for historical events, including dates in heiroglyphics, and monuments honoring important people. They carved these scuptures without metal tools. They used stone tools instead.
Some individual followers of Maya religion count the protection of spirit guides, which provide luck and tutelage. For this reason, the observation of a fish, bird, or quadruped in an unusual circumstance can be an augury, signaling that the spirit guide has &quot;touched base&quot; and that change or blessing is imminent. As in many North Ameican tradtions, the coyote is the most desirable spirit guide, for the wisdom and luck he purports
The Mayan script is logosyllabic combining about 550 logograms (which represent whole words) and 150 syllabograms (which represent syllables).
The Mayans used three separate calendars. The Long Count was pricipally used for historical purposes, since it can define any date for millenia in the past and future. The Haab was a civil calendar based on a year of 360 days consisting of 18 periods of 20 days. Five days were added at the end of the Haab year to approximately synchronize it with the solar year. The Tzolkin calendar was used for ceremonial purposes, which had 20 periods of 13 days. The Tzolkin calendar went through a complete cycle every 260 days. The signficance of this cycle is unknown; it may be connected with the orbit of Venus, which has a period of 263 days. The Haab and Tzolkin dates did not have a year component; however, a combined Haab and Tzolkin date specify a unique day within a 52 year cycle
Mayan Civilization By Ariella da Costa
<ul><li>The Mayan civilization started in 300 to 500 B.C </li></ul><ul><li>250 A.D was the rise of the Mayan Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>It was founded in Mesoamerica (southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize </li></ul>Origin of the Maya's
<ul><li>Maya pyramids were made of limestone. These hard-to-climb buildings had temples on top. Mayan priests and rulers were buried under these temples, basically right inside the pyramids. The first large pyramid built by the Mayans was made between 600 b.c. and 400 b.c . </li></ul>Architecture
<ul><li>Theism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polytheism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main gods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Itzamná; Kukulcán (Quetzalcóatl); Bolon Tzacab; Chac </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Astronomy, divination, human sacrifice, elaborate burial for royalty, worship in stone pyramid-temples </li></ul></ul>religion
<ul><li>There were also about 100 glyphs representing place names and the names of gods. About 300 glyphs were commonly used. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of the script have been found carved in stone and written on bark, wood, jade, ceramics, and a few manuscripts in Mexico, Guatemala and northern Belize. </li></ul><ul><li>Many syllables can be represented by more than one glyph </li></ul><ul><li>The script was usually written in paired vertical columns reading from left to right and top to bottom in a zigzag pattern. </li></ul>Languagae
<ul><li>The Mayans had a number system consisting of shells, dots, and lines. You could write up to nineteen with just these symbols. The Maya were one of the only ancient civilizations that understood the concept of zero. This allowed them to write very large numbers. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Number System The # 0 The # 1 The # 2 The # 3 The # 4 The # 5 The # 6 The # 7 The # 8 The # 9 The # 10
<ul><li>The Mayans along with there other accomplishments also created the calendar . </li></ul><ul><li>The Maya calendar uses three different dating systems in parallel, the Long Count , the Tzolkin (divine calendar), and the Haab (civil calendar). Of these, only the Haab has a direct relationship to the length of the year. </li></ul>Calendar