Omega 3 fatty acid Best Source is Flaxseed


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Fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long unbranched aliphatic carbon chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Most naturally occurring fatty acids have a chain of 4 to 28 carbons.
There are always even number of carbons.
First Carbon from carboxyl end is called α, second β, third γ, fourth δ ….. and last carbon is called ω or omega and the last end is called omega end.

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Omega 3 fatty acid Best Source is Flaxseed

  1. 1. Dr. O.P.VermaM.B.B.S., M.R.S.H. (London)President, Flax Awareness Society7-B-43, Mahaveer Nagar III, Kota (Raj.)
  2. 2.  Fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long unbranchedaliphatic carbon chain, which is either saturated orunsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have a chain of 4to 28 carbons. There are always even number of carbons. First Carbon from carboxyl end is called α, secondβ, third γ, fourth δ ….. and last carbon is called ω oromega and the last end is called omega end.Omega end Alpha endCarbon chain
  3. 3. Chain Length of Fatty AcidsVery Long chain FA 23 – 28 Carbons - A very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA)is a fatty acid with aliphatic tails longer than 22 carbons. Unlike mostfatty acids, VLCFAs are too long to be metabolized in themitochondria, and must be metabolized in peroxisomes.Long chain FA 13 – 22 Carbons - are most important fatty acids for us likeALA, LA, EPA, DHA etc.Medium chain FA 6 - 12 Carbons - MCTs are caproic acid (C6), caprylic acid(C8), capric acid (C10) and lauric acid (C12). Coconut oil is composed ofapproximately 66% medium-chain fatty acids.Short chain FA 4 - 6 Carbons - like Formic acid, Propionicacid, Isobutyric acid, Butyric acid, Isovaleric acid & valeric acid. Theseare produced in the large bowel as a result of bacterial fermentation ofsoluble fibre.
  4. 4. Fats & Fatty AcidsSaturated FatsAnimal fats, butter, LardMonounsaturated FatsUnsaturated FatsPolyunsaturated FatsOmega-3 fatty acidsAlpha linolenic acid :Flaxseed, walnut, chiaEicosapentanoic acid:fish, shellfishDocosahexanoic acid:Fish, shellfishOmega-6 fatty acidsSoybean oilCorn oilSafflower oilSunflower oilOmega-9 fatty acidsOlive oilAvocadosPeanutAlmonds
  5. 5. Triglyceride is an ester composed ofa glycerol bound to three fatty acids.
  6. 6.  Short Formula - 18:3 n-3 That means it has a chainof 18 carbons, 3 sisdouble bonds and firstdouble bond is locatedafter 3rd carbon fromomega end. Melting point -110 C3 Double bonds3th carbonCarboxyl endOmega endPi-electron cloud
  7. 7.  Short Formula - 22:6 n-3 That means it has a chainof 22 carbons, 6 sis doublebonds and first doublebond is located after3rdcarbon as usual. Melting point -500 C6 Double bonds3th carbonCarboxyl endOmega endPi-electron cloud
  8. 8.  Short Formula - 20:5 n-3 That means it has a chainof 20 carbons, 5 sis doublebonds and first doublebond is located after 3rdcarbon as usual. Melting point -560 C
  9. 9.  Short Formula - 18:2 n-6 That means it has a chainof 18 carbons, 2 sis doublebonds and first doublebond is located after 6thcarbon from omega end Melting point -50 C Double bonds6th carbonCarboxyl endOmega endPi-electron cloud
  10. 10.  Short Formula - 20:4 n-6 That means it has a chainof 20 carbons, 4 sis doublebonds and first doublebond is located after 6thcarbon from omega end Food sources - butter,animal fats, especiallypork, organ meats, eggsand seaweed.Double bonds6th carbonCarboxyl endOmega end Electron cloud
  11. 11. The two carbon atoms in the chain that are bound next toeither side of the double bond can occur in a cis or transconfiguration.Trans double bond Sis double bondNo electrons Live energy rich electronsX
  12. 12.  Cis configuration means that adjacent hydrogenatoms are on the same side of the double bond. The cis configuration causes the chain to bend by 350and cis fatty acids are thermodynamically less stablethan the trans forms. The cis fatty acids have lower melting points thanthe trans fatty acids or their saturated counterparts.
  13. 13.  Sis and natural Essential fats are rich in live, energyrich electrons. Electrons are key to health and longevity. This isbiggest “Anti-entropy Factor”. Electrons are extremely important to the body’soverall energy exchange potential “the flow of lifeforce.”Dr. Budwig
  14. 14.  A trans configuration, by contrast, means that thenext two hydrogen atoms are bound to opposite sidesof the double bond. As a result, they do not cause the chain to bend, andtheir shape is similar to straight saturated fatty acids. Most fatty acids in the trans configuration (trans fats)are not found in nature and are the result of humanprocessing (e.g., hydrogenation).
  15. 15.  Increase cancer risk factors. Elevate cardiovascular risk factors. Interfere with insulin function. Decrease testosterone. Change the fluidity of cell membranes. Interfere with the healing fats.
  16. 16.  Don’t heat any oil in the kitchen because hightemperature frying and deep frying produce transfatsand dangerous chemicals. Best medium for frying is water.Lothar Hirneice
  17. 17.  Trans fats are “anti-human”, electron-poor, directedinto the past, life functions are paralyzed, lacksenergy and strength because the electrons that are inharmony with the sun as “life-element” are missing. Trans fat is the biggest enemy of mankind.
  18. 18.  Anti-clotting (thrombolytic) effect – acts as NaturalAspirin. Lowering the risk of heart disease – heart attack(Coronary Artery Disease) and atherosclerosis. Lowering triglycerides in the blood. Lowering high blood pressure. Reduction in heart irregularities – Arrhythmia.
  19. 19.  Helping to alleviate mood disorders, such asdepression. Reducing aggression Helping patients with attention deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD), dyslexia and dyspraxia Helping to improve memory and learning skills, andprevent Alzheimers disease Improves immunity and Alleviates allergicdisorders
  20. 20.  Improving inflammatory skin disorders such aspsoriasis and eczema. Alleviating Osteoarthritis, gout and rheumatoidarthritis (RA). Alleviating Pre Menstrual Syndrome PMS. Alleviating Menopausal Symptoms – HotFlushes, Dry vagina, mood swing. Improvement of vision.
  21. 21. Linolenic Acid (ALA)Stearidonic AcidEicosapentaneoic AcidEicosatetraenoic AcidDocosapentaenoic AcidDocosahexaenoic AcidProstaglandinsSeries 3Thromboxane A3Leukotrienes B5Delta-6-desaturaseElongaseDelta-5-desaturaseElongaseDelta-4-desaturaseVit B6, Mg and ZincVita C, Niacin and ZincOmega-3 Metabolic PathwaysCox 1 and LoxOmega-3
  22. 22. Linolenic Acid (ALA)Stearidonic AcidEicosapentaneoic AcidEicosatetraenoic AcidDocosapentaenoic AcidDocosahexaenoic AcidProstaglandinsSeries 3Thromboxane A3Leukotrienes B5Linoleic acid (LA)Gamma Linolenic AcidArachidonic AcidDihomo-gamma-linolenic AcidProstaglandins Series 1Prostaglandins Series 2Thromboxane A2Leukotriene B4Delta-6-desaturaseElongaseDelta-5-desaturaseElongaseDelta-4-desaturaseVit B6, Mg and ZincVita C, Niacin and ZincOmega-6 / Omega-3 Metabolic PathwaysCox 1 and LoxCox 2 and LoxOmega-6 Omega-3Preferred path
  23. 23.  Localized tissue hormones. They do not travel in the blood like hormones. Prostaglandins are potent but have a short life andare either locally active (Paracrine) or act on the samecell (Autocrine) within which they are synthesized. The prostaglandins perform different functions inthe body.
  24. 24. Good – Anti-inflammatorySeries 3 prostaglandinsSeries 1 prostaglandinsBad – Pro-inflammatorySeries 2 prostaglandins
  25. 25.  Cause constriction or dilatation of blood vessels. Cause aggregation or disaggregation of platelets. Sensitize spinal neurons to pain. Constrict smooth muscle. Regulate inflammatory mediation. Regulate movement of calcium and other minerals &nutrients in the cell. Control hormone regulation. Control cell growth. Regulates cellular communication.
  26. 26.  The Series 3 prostaglandins are formed at a slowerrate and work to attenuate excessive Series 2production. Their response is "less vigorous". The omega-3 pathway might therefore be likened tothe "slow lane“. Adequate production of the Series 3 prostaglandinsseems to protect against heart attack and stroke aswell as certain inflammatory diseases likearthritis, lupus and asthma.
  27. 27.  Series 1 prostaglandins are Anti-inflammatory, Thrombolytic - Decreased plateletaggregation (blood clotting), pain reliever and controlcellular activities. The strong anti-inflammatory properties help thebody recover from injury by reducing pain, swellingand redness.
  28. 28.  Series 2 PG seem to be involved in swellinginflammation, clotting and dilation. Series 2 prostaglandins are "fast lane" i.e. involved inintense actions and play a role in swelling andinflammation at sites of injury. This is not at all a"bad" effect, but an important protective mechanism -the bodys way of immobilizing the affected site toprevent further injury and facilitate healing. Series 2 prostaglandins also seem to play a role ininducing birth, in regulating temperature, in loweringblood pressure, and in the regulation of plateletaggregation and clotting.
  29. 29. Good Prostaglandins Bad ProstaglandinsDecreased platelet aggregation(prevents blood clotting)Increased platelet aggregation(helps in blood clotting)Vasodilatation (widening of bloodvessels)Vasoconstriction (narrowing ofvessels)Anti-inflammatory effect Pro-inflammatory effectImmune system enhancement Immune system suppressionIncreased oxygen flow Decreased oxygen flowDecreased cell proliferation Increased cell proliferationDecreased pain Increased painWidening of respiratory passages Narrowing of respiratory passagesIncreased endurance Lowered enduranceGood and Bad Prostaglandins
  30. 30. It turns out that Both the omega-3 and omega-6 pathway utilizethe same enzymes, so both have to compete for these enzymes.The N-6 Dihommogamma-Linoleic Acid (DGLA) can beconverted to either the anti-inflammatory PG1 or intoarachidonic acid (AA). Conversion of DGLA into PG1 does notrequire any enzymes, but conversion of DGLA into AArequires the enzyme delta-5 desaturase.In diets high in omega-3, most of the delta-5 desaturase will beused in the omega-3 pathway; few delta-5 desaturase will beavailable to convert DGLA into arachidonic acid, andsubsequently, PG2. DGLA ends up being converted into theanti-inflammatory PG1.
  31. 31.  Both groups of prostaglandinsperform vitally importantfunctions and supplement eachother through complex andmulti-faceted interactions. For centuries ratio of Omega-6and Omega-3 was perfect e.g. 2:1or even 4:1 (very ideal ratio).Road to health & longevity…
  32. 32.  But after the global switch toindustrial agriculture and processedfoods it is 20:1 or more (!!!). This throws the body into the stateof chronic inflammation, giving riseto a whole array of clot- andinflammation-related chronicdiseases, includingthrombosis, arthritis, diabetes, atherosclerosis and coronary heartdisease (CHD, cancer and asthma.
  33. 33.  There is only one crucial condition that must befulfilled if the entire system is to work well andpromote health, rather than disease. This condition isBALANCE. For the prostaglandin pathways to run smoothly, theintake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids must bewell-balanced, within the 1:1 to 4:1 range.
  34. 34. Cold water fish and shellfish -salmon, sardines, mackerel, herring, andtuna.
  35. 35.  Fish is Contaminated with deadlypoisons like mercury,polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, andpesticide residues. Very high levels of mercury can damagenerves in adults and disrupt development of thebrain .
  36. 36.  Flaxseed has much more Omega-3 thanfish. Flaxseed had Alpha-linolenic acid, which isessential fatty acid and has ability to make allother omega-3’s our body needs. There is no risk of mercury contamination. Flaxseed also provides us lot of fabulousfiber, legend lignans, magic minerals likeselenium, zinc, Mg, potassium and vitamins. You get all this without killing a creature.
  37. 37. Flaxseed and walnut.
  38. 38. Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty levels in common dietary oils010203040506070Omega-3Omega-6
  39. 39. Don’t kill us eat flaxseedMarine Creatures Association