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Digital oil fields completion course work

  1. 1. COPPE/UFRJ Completion Course Work Digital Management of Oil FieldsExecutive Post Graduate in Oil & Gas March 13, 2007 / February 28, 2008 18ª Class Coordinator: Suzana Kahn Ribeiro Flávio Ferreira da Fonte
  2. 2. Summary of work submitted to the COPPE / UFRJ as part of the requirements forobtaining the Diploma of Specialization in Executive Post Graduate in Oil and NaturalGas. DIGITAL MANAGEMENT OF OIL FIELDS Flávio Ferreira da Fonte February/2008 Advisor: Prof. Gilberto Ellwanger This study aims to examine the emerging technologies being employed in theDigital Management of Oil Fields, which aims to maximize production, increase the rateof recovery of oil and optimize the costs of exploration and production. 2
  3. 3. Curriculum Summary The author, Flavio Ferreira da Fonte, has been working at Oracle since 2004 as aSenior Sales Consultant and expert in technology solutions from Oracle to customerssuch as Petrobras, PDVSA and PEMEX. In June 2007 attended the Oil & Gas OracleGlobal Industry Business Unit training. He also participed in the development of aBusiness Intelligence Dashboards for the Upstream area. Mr. Fonte worked at Petrobras in the Information Technology area from 2000 to2004 onn Downstream systems. He also participated in the implementation anddeployment of the Petrobras e-Marketplace, called Petronect and participated in theISO-9001 certification process at Petrobras IT. Graduated in Technologist in Data Processing, the author also completed thecourses of specialization of Systems Analysis and Post-Graduate at IAG Master, bothfrom Catholic University from Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RIO). The author is doing an MBA at IBMEC Business School at Rio de Janeiro. 3
  4. 4. Acknowledgements I want to thank my family and co-workers from Oracle, Andres Prieto, David Shimbo,Miguel Cruz, Eduardo Lopez, Elizabeth Faria, João Fernandez and Samy Szpigiel forthe support received. 4
  5. 5. Index1. Introduction ..........................................................................................................................62. Analysis of key technologies used in Digital Oilfields projects .....................................8 2.1.Gathering information in real time...............................................................................8 2.2.Information Management ...........................................................................................15 2.3. High Performance Computing ..................................................................................17 2.4. Centers of command and remote monitoring ........................................................18 2.5 Sistems for analysis and simulations of hydrocarbon reservoirs .........................20 2.6. Systems for analysis and decision support ............................................................223. Conclusions ........................................................................................................................28References .............................................................................................................................30 5
  6. 6. 1. Introduction The world`s geopolitical dependence on fossil fuels, the duration of hydrocarbonreserves, the rapid economic expansion of China and India, and a complex petroleumrefining and supply chain have caused oil prices to skyrocket. With the price of oil above US$125/Bbl, companies are investing more in researchand development of new technologies to improve recovery and reduce operating costs.Chevron has spent more than $5 billion of its budget in the past 5 years on industrialautomation and information technology. Despite this large capital investment, the oil industry still has a shortage ofoperational resources, such as drilling rigs and production platforms and associatedskilled oilfield workers. These scarce resources are now being leased or constructedand immediately utilized, thereby increasing the costs associated with exploration andproduction (E & P) operations. Given this competitive environment, oil companies need to optimize profitability andreduce operating costs. The major oil companies began increasingly to innovate andimplement projects with intensive use of automation and information technologies inthe area of E & P, aiming to mitigate operational risk, accelerate production, improverecovery of reserves and optimize costs. These projects which integrate operational, technical and financial data are called"Digital Oilfields" [1]. Examples are: Shell, with Smart Fields [2], BP [3] with the Fieldsof Future (which envisages achieving the goal of 1 billion barrels by incremental use ofnew technologies) and Chevron [4], with the i-Field. In Brazil, Petrobras is running a Digital Oilfield programme called GeDIg [5]. Thisprogram provides the integrated management of E&P production processes throughthe use of oilfield information, automation, modeling and simulation technologies to addvalue to E&P assets. In this project six pilot programmes are being evaluated, seeking to establishstandards and "benchmarks" which are most suitable and profitable for several different 6
  7. 7. types of oilfields – deepwater offshore, shallow water offshore, onshore brown field,heavy oil, etc. The main topics discussed by GeDIg are: the testing of software provided by oilfieldservice companies (Halliburton / Landmark, Schlumberger, etc.); recommending newoilfield procedures and workflows; implementation of remote centres of operations;assessment of intelligent completions; optimization of artificial lift, and management ofreal time operational data. The figure below shows the vision of technology of Chevron and Shell for theseDigital Oilfield projects [6], which includes obtaining information in real time, informationmanagement, high performance computing, visualization systems, reservoir simulation,centres of command and remote monitoring, analysis and decision support systems. FIGURE 1 7
  8. 8. Digital Oilfield projects are one of the major strategic initiatives for all oil companiesThe technologies used must be innovative and are often borrowed from otherindustries so this new technology must be analyzed and studied before being used. The next topic details the main technologies used in these Digital Oilfield projects.This information can be used as an initial guide for those who wish to study this issueor work on related oilfield automation projects.2. Analysis of key technologies used in Digital Oilfields projects2.1. Real Time Information Oilfield operational events, such monitoring the operation of a turbine, must becaptured and mapped in a technology platform that enables real time monitoring,analysis and decision-making. Several emerging technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID),sensors, Wi-Max, and satellites are being used to obtain real time information. For theacquisition of data from oil wells in real time, companies are upgrading their facilitiesinfrastructure, implementing process control systems and installing sensors and fibreoptic across platforms and risers. During the drilling of wells, the sensors are used to obtain information about drillingin real time. These real time drilling systems can read the pressures, formation density,torque, vibration and so on. Figure 2 shows LWD (Log While Drilling) equipment capable of obtainingpetrophysical information (well logs) during drilling. FIGURE 2 8
  9. 9. With real time logging and drilling information, engineers can identify geologicformations immediately and determine if that formation contains oil and/or gas. In this case, the operational challenges for downhole sensors include high wellboretemperatures/pressures, corrosive fluids that can damage the downhole sensors, andmechanical abrasion that can physically damage the equipment In the production phase, these sensors monitor the production of oil, gas and waterversus cumulative time and volume; differences in downhole pressure versus wellheadpressure; the flow efficiency of artificial lift systems; etc. The figure below shows two pressure and temperature sensors specificallydesigned for the monitoring of the bottom of oil well. This sensor is a version of thePDG conventional optical fiber (Permanent Downhole Gauge). 9
  10. 10. FIGURE 3 The fiber optic sensor technology has been developing rapidly in recent years. The main reasons for implementation of these sensors in the systems ofmeasurement are inherent characteristics of the optical fibres such as low weight,flexibility, long-distance transmission, low reactivity of the material, electrical insulationand electromagnetic immunity. Besides these, in many cases there is the possibility ofmultiplexing the signals from several sensors, including various ampliitudes along thesame fiber sensor. These technological advantages that contribute to the fibre-opticsensors will replace the conventional sensors in various applications. [7] As an example of the use of these sensors in the petroleum industry, theNorwegian company StatoilHydro [8] uses a system called Catamaran TurboWatch,supplied by the company Shipcom Wireless [9], which tracks more than 200 devices oneight oil platforms in the North Sea. This system collects operational information fromvarious machines and feeds other business and maintenance systems for thecompany. Figure 4 shows screens monitoring equipment from Catamaran TurboWatchsystem. FIGURE 4 Figure 5 identifies the eight Statoil platforms using the Catamaran TurboWatchsystem. 10
  11. 11. FIGURE 5 The sensors can be installed on the wellhead, in the production tubing and on otherwellbore equipment. The data collected by the sensors is transferred to supervisorysystems devices called SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Aquisition). In theSCADA system each sensor is seen as a single "tag", or a unique identifier, whichgather and stores operational data. In addition to the SCADA system, some companies use other layers of software tomaintain a history of these measures obtained. Usually the first interface with theSCADA system is made by a data historian. One of the historians systems currentlyused is called OSI / IP, from OSIsoft company [10]. 11
  12. 12. However, beyond this data historian layer, companies also use a relationaldatabase manager system (RDBMS), which stores all the information related to fieldsand wells into relational tables. Currently, Oracle’s RDBMS (Relational Database Manager System) [11] is the mostwidely used data base that stores critical E&P information for oil companies. Figure 6 shows the flow of information between the SCADA systems, OSI / PI andRDBMS. FIGURE 6 Figure 6 also shows that it is necessary to have a layer of applications that create auser-friendly experience. In this case, the use of a personalized portal on the companyIntranet is strongly recommended to unify all systems and applications that the userneeds as a single point of interaction. 12
  13. 13. This kind of information portal can be developed by the company customized tomeet specific oilfield requirements or can be provided by oilfield service companiessuch as Landmark [12] or Schlumberger [13]. Figure 7 shows an offshore process control centre, provided by the company ABB. FIGURE 7 Each type of well (mature, light oil, heavy oil, deep water, etc.) may have a differentlevels of automation, which can range from simple one way monitoring to complexsubsurface controls with intelligent completions [14]. The Petrobras GeDIg of Petrobras selected the Carapeba field as a pilot project. Itis a mature field composed of 3 wells located in the northeastern part of the CamposBasin which has installed automated subsurface sensors in the wells. Figure 8 details the configuration of the Carapeba field. 13
  14. 14. FIGURE 8 In the Carapeba pilot project, production rates, well pressures, total flow versustime, pressure/temperature versus depth, and operational alerts are measured usingRFID. The wells that use these technologies for monitoring, tracking and control are calledSmart Wells or Intelligent Wells.Smart Well technology benefits include: 1) Reduction of well maintenance time 2) Easier detection of abnormal conditions 3) Accelerated problem analysis 4) Reduction of mechanical failures 5) Prioritizes the scheduling of operational activities, 6) Optimization of the use of crew and equipment resource 7) Improved reservoir management 8) Mitigation of operational risk. 14
  15. 15. .2.2.Information Management Depending on the technology used in wells, the number of operational sensors, andthe ranges of measurements, more than 10 GB (gigabyte) of data per day is generatedfor a single offshore field. This is a large concern for CIOs (Chief Information Officers)of oil companies. Because of the rapid increase of Digital Oilfield data, Information LifecycleManagement is very important for oil companies. It is necessary to understand whichdata sets are dynamically changing (ex, SCADA) or static (ex. seismic) and whichdevice is best suited for storing this data. There are several types of storage deviceswith different technologies and different data management speeds. The figure below shows two types of storage equipment from EMC [15]. FIGURE 9 Storage systems with faster access to data cost more than those who offer sloweraccess to data. With a proper understanding of the data sources and their related applications, youcan save space and money on efficient use of storage. 15
  16. 16. Another major concern is the availability of such data to users, given the agreedlevels of service and security necessary. To ensure the high speed data access performance, regular studies of capacity andnew technology (hardware and software) should be carried out. Every user should have a customized security profile which includes a digitalcredential that is verified and authenticated (user identification, password, biometrics,etc.), Role-based security is also necessary to access restricted information. The figurebelow illustrates an authentification and authorization system designed by Oracle. FIGURE 10 Confidential information should be restricted and carefully monitored and, ifpossible, should be kept in encrypted form. Access to confidential data via the Internet must be conducted using the VPN(Virtual Private Network) or other secure protocols (i.e. HTTPS). System and data auditing must be archived so that if an illegal access takes place,alerts are rapidly fired to security administrators. Petroleum data management standards are critical to maintaining an open, flexible,best-of-breed system. Major E&P initiaitives include PPDM for an upstream data 16
  17. 17. model, Energistics for WITSML and PRODML data exhange formats, PODS forpipeline data, and MIMOSA for real time monitoring. Addtionally, IT standards such asSOA and web services should be evaluated for an oilfield architecture. It is also necessary that companies have solutions for disaster recovery, ensuringthe least possible time of interruption in case of a disaster in the main site. Today, Oracle provides solutions for data management, information security anddisaster recovery for various oil & gas companies.2.3. High Performance Computing The amount of data generated by Digital Oilfields projects and the need forgeophysicists and engineers to access huge amounts of information in real time, haveforced oil companies to use high-performance servers for data processing. These systems large multiprocessor systems are called High PerformanceComputing (HPC) systems. The term High Performance Computing refers to the useof parallel processors and clusters of computers linked to multiple processors on asingle grid. A high level of technical knowledge is required to assemble and use these systems,but they can be created from existing components in the market. Because of its flexibility, high processing capacity, and relatively low cost, the HPCsystems are increasingly dominating the world of supercomputing. The use of high performance computing has significantly improved performance ofE&P applications, mainly in the areas of seismic processing, velocity modeling, 3Dearth models and reservoir simulation. Landmark, Schlumberger, SGI [16], Oracle and Sun [17] have adopted highperformance grid computing as a key part of their technology strategy. 17
  18. 18. 2.4. Centers of command and remote monitoring The oil industry has undergone rapid growth in recent years but still lacks humanresources to meet the needs of these companies. Companies usually produce oil in inhospitable regions, such as deepwater offshore,in deserts, or in politically dangerous places that are difficult to access where not manyqualified people want work. There are a lot of situations where specialized knowledge is needed. Developmentefforts are often delayed because of the lack of skilled employees and the inability torelocate these experts to the oilfield work site. Oil companies are investing heavily in command centres and remote monitoring, sothat the operations specialists, engineers and geoscientists do not need to travel toremote oilfields. Cross-disciplinary teams composed of geoscientists, engineers, operationsmanagers and financial analysts now interact in remote command centres,encouraging teamwork and collaboration and solving problems faster. As an example of successful use of such technology is Statoil. At Kristin platformlocated 240 km off the coast of Norway, Statoil saved USD $36.5 million in yearlyoperational costs by minimizing the number of employees on the platform, reducing thenumber of shifts, reducing safety incidents, improving security, accelerating problemresolution and improving the quality of life for its employees. [18] Figure 11 shows the Center for operations managers at the Kristin platform, whichis connected continuously with the onshore command center. 18
  19. 19. FIGURE 11 In Brazil, Petrobras’ GeDig Digital Oilfield projects have already implemented twoCommand Centres using the command centre technology. In these centres, multidisciplinary teams work collaborate on monitoring production,detecting problems, developing solutions and using Best Practice decision makingprocesses. The teams from these centres interact with the teams that are on platformsin real time. Figure 12 shows one of the centers of remote control of Petrobras. FIGURE 12 19
  20. 20. Oil companies are using the name “Integrated Operations” for this new concept,where different offshore and onshore departments work in an integrated manner,increasing productivity and efficiency.2.5 Systems for Analysis and Simulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs The E&P industry is very advanced is the modeling and simulation of reservoirs butthe supporting systems are still in technology silos. Great improvements have beenincorporated into existing software, so that accurate geologic reservoir models can beeasily visualized, loaded, and modeled. The earth model of a reservoir is veryimportant because it is used for reserve estimates, production forecasts and fielddevelopment plans. Until very recently in the North Sea region, because of poor recovery analysis andinaccurate reservoir models, oil companies drilled more wells than necessary andconstantly revised their production forecasts, causing delays and extra costs for oil fielddevelopment. The earth model is built initially from the seismic data, then is refined to a geologicalmodel using seismic interpretation software. This geologic model is combined with 20
  21. 21. petrophysical and drilling data to build a 3D earth model which can be input into areservoir simulator. Because of its extreme importance with respect to production forecasting andreserves analysis, these models are updated with field data, which thwn use simulationsensitivities to understand the behavior of the reservoir under the influence of variousfactors. Most Digital Oilfield projects makes intensive use of software for visualization andsimulation of reservoirs during inital phases of field development. With the additon ofreal time operational information, these systems can be used for real time productionmanagement and well monitoring. Well operations and drilling data is loadedcontinuously into reservoir and well simulators, allowing more accurate computermodeling of production facilities and providing more realistic forecasts. From the existing models, different scenarios can be assembled to assessdevelopment sensitivities and their possible results. Historical data from analagousfields can be used to predict reservoir performance of undeveloped fields. The figure 13 exemplifies a typical reservoir simulation image from the Roxar Field[19]. FIGURE 13 21
  22. 22. 2.6. Systems for analysis and decision support The E&P industry is adopting several new concepts. One of the concepts is "Fast-Loop" versus "Slow-Loop" information processing, depending on the needs of businessoperations. For example, oilfield operations (flow, pressure, temperature, etc.) can be classifiedas "Fast Loop". This type of information must be displayed and analyzed as soon aspossible. "Slow Loop" processes may include longer term transactional information such asERP data or monthly costs of E&P projects. The use of real time information from producing oil wells, intervention status, lossdetails for each well, costs of materials and labour costs have become essential to E&Poperations and are the basis for many real time decisions. The volume of “Fast Loop” information is increasing exponentially and is creatingdata management problems for Digital Oilfield managers. The task of analyzing both 22
  23. 23. “Fast Loop” and “Slow Loop” data without specialized software can waste a lot of timefor engineers in the field. To provide the right information to the right people in time, the oil companies areinvesting heavily in Business Intelligence software projects for Fast Loop and SlowLoop information. According to Wikipedia [20], Business Intelligence is a business term, which refersto applications and technologies that are used to obtain, provide access and analysedata and information in accordance with the operations of companies. Business Intelligence can help companies understand the factors affecting itsbusiness, assist in decision-making via KPIs, and is currently one of the main needs ofE&P companies. A Business Intelligence solution is composed of a data warehouse("Datawarehouse", "DataMarts") and tools to analyse and display results to usersthrough analytical reports. There are several tools on the market for construction of these reports. Thesereports use web portals to display important KPIs (production of oil and gas, alarms ofproduction below the optimal point, etc.). The data for the assembly of these reports comes from many different sources,such as Landmark or Schlumberger, company databases and ERP systems (Oracle E-Business Suite, JD Edwards, SAP, etc.). British Petroleum, OXY, Marathon, Chevron, XOM, Shell and many other IOCshave already started Business Intelligence projects that analyze the rapid cycleinformation. BP’s Gulf of Mexico operation is using a Business Intelligence solution thatintegrates information from its various systems and publishes web reports that help inincreasing productivity and reducing costs. This system can be configured so that different people can have different visions ofoperational and corporate data, according to their work needs. Each employee using 23
  24. 24. the system has a customized profile that manages the transactions needed for theirdaily work. The figure 14 shows a web portal customized for the user that is used to monitorthe production of oil, gas and water. The user interacts with the plot and can drill downinto specific details if necessary. In this example, production is declining, and the user can drill down for more detail(Figure 15) by clicking on the line graph. The dashboard from figures 14 and 15 was built using the Oracle’s BusinessIntelligence software. FIGURE 14 24
  25. 25. FIGURE 15 Business Intelligence tools can also provide a series of graphs (Figure 16), whichcombine structured and unstructured data and help in understanding both operational,technical and financial information. FIGURE 16 25
  26. 26. Another important feature of such tools is the integration with Microsoft Office . Thereports and graphics built in Business Intelligence tool can be opened and used inExcel and Powerpoint (Figure 17). FIGURE 17 With these new Business Intelligence tools, the engineers can analyze the overallfield performance, identify which wells are not producing according to plan, analyzecosts and access real-time KPIs. These key indicators include revenue and profit perbarrel, lifting costs, etc. Spatial performance maps can significantly improve the understanding of manyDigital Oilfield operational situations. These portals allow operators to make decisionsbetter and faster, encouraging safer and more efficient operations. Information originating from different geographical locations and companydepartments which previously took weeks to be gathered, are now rapidly analyzedfrom a single control panel. Business Intelligence applications continue to evolve and are integrating GIS(Geographical Information Systems) systems of companies, making a spatialconnection between data and its specific location on a map. 26
  27. 27. With this type of GIS integration, intuitive applications are being built for hurricanetracking, personnel safety, production monitoring and facilities management. (seeFigure 18) FIGURE 18 Long cycle information can also be spatially visualized including actual vs budgetedAFEs, revenue versus expenditure, financial reports for government agencies and HSEcompliance reporting. For this types of information, there is specialized Business Intelligence softwarewhich facilitates the tasks performed by users, increases productivity and derivesdetailed management information for improved decision-making. Usually these systems are integrated with those previously used in the rapid cycleinformation. Another E&P need is detailed analysis of existing data to find patterns and predictsituations. Companies are using Data Mining to identify areas to be drilled, optimizeresults of well interventions, select candidates for hydraulic fracture versus chemicaltreatment and analyze exploration anomalies. There are two types of Data Mining - Descriptive and Predictive. 27
  28. 28. Descriptive Data Mining is used on exploration data to discover patterns andrelationships that are repeated in similar geologic structures. Predictive Data Minin is being used on maintenance data to anticipate possibleequipment failures [21]. Data Mining tools make intensive use of statistical algorithms. These includePrioritized Allocation, Classification and Prediction, Regression, Clusters, Rules ofAssociation, Extraction of Features, Text Mining, BLAST, Decision Models Trees andSVM.3. Conclusions The oil industry is going through a phase of unprecedented technologicaldevelopments with their rapid implementation of Digital Oilfields. Current advances are allowing oil companies to improve recovery and accelerateproduction but all of this information and technology is not being fully utilized. The exploitation of oil reserves has grown because of new oilfield technologies andbetter definition of existing fields. One of the companies that have achieved greatsuccess in this field is Saudi Aramco, which has had significant incremental productionincreases. Saudi Aramco increased its production from 10 million barrels per day in 2004 to 11million barrels per day in 2008. All new wells are equipped with permanent downholemonitoring, submersible pumps, intelligent completions and are connected to a centralremote command centre which have multidisciplinary teams managing productionoperations. More expensive energy sources, such as heavy oil from the Orinoco basin andCanadian Tar Sands, are now economically viable at prices greater than $60/Bbl. Companies such as Petrobras and Chevron, through the use of technologies citedin this work are already drilling in ultra-deep waters using fully automated Digital Oilfieldtechnology. 28
  29. 29. The IOCs and NOCs are focused on programs to reduce costs and increaseproductivity in order to achieve their operational and financial objectives. The net profitof Exxon Mobil was USD $40B in 2007, USD $18B for Chevron and USD $11B forConocoPhillips in 2007. [22] Use of the technology by itself does not guarantee a company better results. It isalso necessary to invest in human capital management and technology training. Onlywith a well trained and motivated workforce can deliver increased productivity at lowercosts. Currently one of the biggest challenges for the oil and gas industry is to attractand train skilled employees. The oil companies are investing heavily in trainingprogrammes, in partnerships with educational institutions and in joint ventures withoilfield service and technology companies. The exchange of experiences and collaboration on a global scale is causing anincreasing number of electronic communities geared to the oil and gas industry. Theuse of blogs and wikis for dissemination of oilfield knowledge and the use of virtualenvironments such as "Second Life" for promotion of companies and new technologiesis continuing to be adopted by progressive companies. Within this context the SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineers) [23], the IBP(Brazilian Institute of Oil Gas and Biofuels) [24] and COPPE / UFRJ (Luiz AlbertoCoimbra Institute of Post-Graduate Engineering and Research) have provided valuablecontributions. Oil companies must continue to develop the skills of their employees. They mustmerge engineering expertise, exploration and production skills, and informationtechnology to fully leverage the Digital Oilfield. According to the Vice President of Chevron, Donald L. Paul, there will soon be anew generation of applications for integrated seismic interpretation, earth modeling andreservoir simulation. He expects major advances in underwater robotics and theinevitable exploration and production of offshore oil in the Arctic [25]. With all these technological advances in Digital Oilfield projects, the amount ofinformation being processed will continue to expand exponentially, leading to advancedsoftware development and more complex integrated software applications. 29
  30. 30. Critical data can be cached in memory, thus allowing faster access. Software fromthe market such as "Oracle Times Ten (In-Memory Database)" [26], which can carryinformation from the database to the server memory will become widely used inindustry. In the field of technological research some companies are investing innanotechnology and biotechnology. In the field of nanotechnology one of the majorapplications is the creation of nano robots capable of being inserted into a petroleumreservoir to collect reservoir description information. In the field of biotechnology one ofthe lines of research is related to the development of bacteria capable of turning heavyoil into lighter oil while still in the reservoir. Another line of research is investigating theuse of enzymes to increase oil recovery. Another important technology research areaare Health/Safety/Environmental (HSE) issues, which require that companies maketheir operations safer and more eco-sensitive. I think the industry will continue to meet the growing global needs for energy.. IOCsand NOCs will seek out new technologies to improve recovery, find more reserves,explore new alternative sources, optimize the costs of E & P and work in a moresecure, collaborative manner. The Digital Oil Field will be deployed on a large scale by most of E & P companiesand the technologies used in these projects will be increasingly employed in thisindustry.ReferencesJacobs – “Digital Oil Field of the Future Lessons from Other Industries” CambridgeEnergy Research Inc (CERA)Lima e outros - SPE PAPER 112191 – GEDIG Carapeba – A journey from IntegratedIntelligent Field Operation to Asset Value Chain 30
  31. 31.é Eduardo Thomas – Book Fundamentos de Engenharia do Petróleowww.emc.comwww.sgi.comwww.sun.comDigital Energy Journal (Nov & Dec 2007 issue)Digital Energy Journal (Jun 2006 issue)Wikipedia – www.wikipedia.comShahab D Mohaghegh – SPE PAPER 84441 – Essential Components for a DataMining Tool for the Oil & Gas Industry.O Globo Newspaper – 04 March of Petroleum Technology - October 2007 – Special Commemorative IssueOracle Times Ten - 31