Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

ANS Essentials

2,758 views

Published on

Decided to try a slideshow with audio for autonomic nervous system, so this is it.

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

ANS Essentials

  1. 1. Nervous 3 Essentials of the Autonomic Nervous System This is not the complete slideshow shown in class, but contains essential points, with audio
  2. 2. The ANS affects the following: <ul><ul><li>heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respiration rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>salivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diameter of the pupils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>micturition (urination) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual arousal </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Whereas most of its actions are involuntary, some actions of the ANS, such as breathing, work in tandem with the conscious mind. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The ANS is: <ul><li>Purely motor (though some references include visceral sensory as an arm of the ANS) </li></ul><ul><li>A functional, not anatomical, division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite is the somatic nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mostly working beyond our conscious awareness </li></ul>
  5. 6. Autonomic vs. Somatic <ul><li>A motor neuron within the ANS that lies between the CNS and a ganglion is what type of neuron? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-ganglionic - myelinated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A motor neuron within the ANS that lies between a ganglion and an effector is what type of neuron? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ganglionic - unmyelinated </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Autonomic vs. Somatic
  7. 8. ANS Divisions <ul><li>What are the 2 divisions of the ANS? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic division </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>The parasympathetic division is sometimes referred to as “rest and digest,” but also “craniosacral” because the nerves arise from the brain stem (mainly vagus, CN X) & sacral region </li></ul><ul><li>The sympathetic division is sometimes referred to as “thoracolumbar” because of the sympathetic neurons in the spinal nerves of these regions. </li></ul>
  9. 12. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>Where are the cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons for the parasympathetic division located? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S2-S4 (lateral gray matter of spinal cord) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>Where are the ganglia of the parasympathetic division found? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal ganglia - close to target organ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intramural ganglia - within wall of target organ </li></ul></ul>
  11. 15. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the oculomotor nerve? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ciliary muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupillary constrictor of iris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dilator controlled by sympathetic division </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 16. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the facial nerve? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Submandibular and sublingual glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacrimal gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands of nasal cavity, mouth, and palate </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the glossopharyngeal nerve? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parotid gland </li></ul></ul>
  14. 19. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>What specific regions of the spinal cord house the cell bodies of the parasympathetic division of the ANS? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral horns </li></ul></ul>
  15. 20. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>What nerves carry fibers of the parasympathetic division of the ANS through the pelvis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic splanchnic nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does ‘splanchnic’ mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral </li></ul></ul>
  16. 22. Parasympathetic Effects <ul><li>Increase saliva production </li></ul><ul><li>Constrict pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Constrict airways </li></ul><ul><li>Produce tears </li></ul><ul><li>Increase GI motility </li></ul><ul><li>Contract bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Erect penis/clitoris </li></ul>
  17. 23. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What is another term for the sympathetic division? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_____________ division </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From what regions of the CNS does the sympathetic division arise? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T1-L2 (lateral horns of spinal cord) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 24. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What part of spinal nerves do the preganglionic sympathetic axons travel within as they leave the lateral horn of the spinal cord? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior root </li></ul></ul>
  19. 25. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What sympathetic ganglia lie on the left and right sides of the vertebral column from T1-L2? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic trunk ganglia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paravertebral ganglia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What structure of the sympathetic division has the appearance of a pearl necklace? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic trunk (ganglia and axons) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 27. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What clusters of ganglia of the sympathetic division of the ANS lie within the neck? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical ganglia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the connections between spinal nerves and the sympathetic trunks? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rami communicantes </li></ul></ul>
  21. 29. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What structures carry preganglionic sympathetic axons from the T1-L2 spinal nerves to the sympathetic trunk? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White rami </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What structures carry postganglionic sympathetic axons from the sympathetic trunk to the spinal nerves? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gray rami </li></ul></ul>
  22. 32. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What structures are composed of preganglionic axons that do not synapse in a sympathetic trunk ganglion? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Splanchnic nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Splanchnic nerves of the sympathetic division of the ANS terminate in what structures? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevertebral (collateral) ganglia </li></ul></ul>
  23. 33. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What structures are singular rather than paired, are anterior to the vertebral column, and are located only in the abdominal cavity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevertebral ganglia </li></ul></ul>
  24. 34. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>List the 3 prevertebral ganglia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Celiac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior mesenteric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior mesenteric </li></ul></ul>
  25. 37. Sympathetic Pathways <ul><li>What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if it travels through a gray ramus that is at the same level as the ganglionic neuron to innervate blood vessels or arrector pili muscles or sweat glands? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal nerve pathway </li></ul></ul>
  26. 39. Sympathetic Pathways <ul><li>What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if the preganglionic neuron synapses with a ganglionic neuron in a sympathetic trunk ganglion, but the postganglionic axon does not leave the trunk via a gray ramus , but instead extends away from the sympathetic trunk ganglion and goes directly to the effector organ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway </li></ul></ul>
  27. 41. Sympathetic Pathways <ul><li>What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if the preganglionic axon passes through the sympathetic trunk ganglia without synapsing and extends to the prevertebral ganglia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Splanchnic nerve pathway </li></ul></ul>
  28. 42. Sympathetic Pathways <ul><li>What pathway is a sympathetic axon within if it goes to the adrenal medulla? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal medulla pathway </li></ul></ul>
  29. 44. Sympathetic Effects <ul><li>Pupil dilation </li></ul><ul><li>Airway dilation </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat production </li></ul><ul><li>Mass activation response to stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate and depth, dilate pupils, stimulate RAS </li></ul></ul>
  30. 45. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Usually both divisions of the ANS innervate organs. Where does this dual innervation not occur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutaneous region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes peripheral blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic only </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 46. Autonomic Plexuses <ul><li>What are collections of sympathetic postganglionic axons, parasympathetic preganglionic axons, and some visceral sensory axons? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic plexuses </li></ul></ul>
  32. 47. Autonomic Plexuses <ul><li>List the 5 autonomic plexuses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac plexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophageal plexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary plexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal plexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypogastric plexus </li></ul></ul>
  33. 49. CNS Control of ANS <ul><li>What part of the CNS has the greatest control over the ANS? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What part of the CNS holds nuclei which have a great deal of influence over autonomic function? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain stem </li></ul></ul>
  34. 51. CNS Control of ANS <ul><li>What division of the ANS may process and control certain functions at the level of the spinal cord without involvement of the brain? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Defecation and urination </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 53. <ul><li>How does the parasympathetic reflex for urination relate to potty training? </li></ul>
  36. 54. The End of Autonomic Nervous System 

×