эстетика интернета. горных, усманова

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эстетика интернета. горных, усманова

  1. 1. 80#$#3&' !"#$%"$#' 3 439(')*"-$ /-#%$7)$"3$: & 4-/%-0( - 0(:"-0#3 3 0/$;3,3&$ 2("$#' '3>:4F T8:3@G, '<E52:6 ,H5638=6 !"#$%"$# &'& &()*#(%"'+ ,-%.' 7D:3@4) ;8:5@, = ?878:@4 8N<4?6J7HL /-0#.-1$%"' 23;8:56K2833@4 B878?2 2 H763>6:73@4 H7:D?7D:@ 9<8N6<2C2:DJO498HL 52:6. &23456789:6;, 74<4=2>4324, %374:- 347 – 76?8=@ 7:2 A76B6 «=2CD6<E3898 B8=8:876», ?878:@F G6:6?74:2CD47 34 2'0/'1 "'%%'#34"-5 ,-%.6 B:8H78 =34I3JJ H543D >4?8:6K2F, 38 7:63H;8:56K2J H65898 L>:6 H8=:4543- "65@F 56HH8=@F 8B@7 %374:3476 – H7:6- 38F ?D<E7D:@. M8789:6;2L 2 ?23456789- 32K6 B82H?8=8F H2H745@. )65N<4: 2<2 :6; L=<LJ7HL N6C8=@52 ?D<E7D:3@52 R3>4?H, ?878:@4 ><L :DHH?8LC@P3898 ;8:5652 58>4:36, 6 56HH8=84 :6HB:8- B8<EC8=674<L L=<LJ7HL 8H38=3@52 B82H- H7:634324 74<4=2>432L C36543D47 H8- ?8=@52 H2H745652, B:4>H76=<LJ7 H8N8F N8F B8H758>4:32H7H?2F A76B :6C=272L H7:D?7D:3DJ 58>4<E, B8 ?878:8F = 78F C6B6>384=:8B4FH?898 8NO4H7=6: 38=DJ 2<2 238F 54:4 H7:827HL <JN6L C69:DQ6- H7DB43E 23>2=2>D6<2C6K22 2 =2CD6<2- 456L %374:347-H7:632K6. "65@5 HDO4H- C6K22 B87:4N<432L. %374:347, >8=8>L 7=433@5 H=8FH7=85 >6338F =2CD6<E38F >8 <892P4H?898 B:4>4<6 538924 B:8- ;8:5@ L=<L47HL 44 H7:D?7D:6, ?878:DJ K4HH@ (B8H7)58>4:32C6K22, H8>4:Q27 = 58Q38 N@<8 N@ 36C=67E «58C62P38-I2- H4N4 87?:@7@4 =8C58Q38H72 ?6P4H7=43- C8;:432P4H?8F». S4HL7?2 92B4:HH@<8?, 38 38=8F ?D<E7D:38F ;8:5@. N6334:8=, «8?83» = 23@4 H7:632K@. T4- #4G38<892P4H?2 ;438543 %374:3476 74:89433@F 36N8: «98<8H8=», ?878:@4 G6:6?74:2CD47HL, B:4Q>4 =H498, D=4- 98=8:L7 87 25432 H=82G «HDNU4?78=» 2 <2P43245 B<8738H72 23;8:56K28338- H7:45L7HL H767E 6?72=2:8=633@52, >8- 98 B878?6, :6HI2:43245 =8C58Q38H74F 5236373@52. B82H?6 2 B4:4>6P2 23;8:56K22. &8<2- P4H7=433@4 B8?6C674<2 36H78<E?8 =B4- P67<LJO2, P78 B8C=8<LJ7 98=8:27E 8 ?6P4H7=43385 H?6P?4 = B8=H4>34=3@G ?855D32?6K2LG 2, H887=47H7=4338, =8 =H45 8N:6C4 Q2C32. /N36:DQ27E 76?8F ?6P4H7=433@F H?6P8? 58Q38, B:4Q>4 =H498, = AH7472P4H?85 2C- 54:4322. !78 76 B8=4:G38H7E, B8 ?878:8F H?8<EC27 =C9<L>85 8N@P3@F B8<EC8=6- 74<E, 34 254JO2F B:4>H76=<432L 8 56HH4 HB4K26<E3@G C3632F 2 ;D3?K2F, H?:@- =6JO2GHL B8> 8N8<8P?8F. % 2CDP4324 A78F B8=4:G38H72 HB8H8N38 B:8<27E H=47 2'.7)$%: !"#$%&'"-(%#")*+'%&+,-%. 36 <8?6<E3@4 (36K2836<E3@4, HDN?D<E- !%*. !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 275
  2. 2. «"7:632K6» %374:3476 B:4>H76=<L47 5672P3@5 B:254:85 589D7 B8H<DQ27E H8N8F 38=DJ (8?83P674<E3DJ?) H7DB43E ;8:56<E3@4 B82H?2 = B8AC22 :DHH?898 :6HB6>6 B8=4H7=8=632L ?6? ?<6HH2P4H- 6=6396:>6, H 8N8H8N<43245 A=;832P4H- ?8F ?D<E7D:38F ;8:5@. M:4>:2? SQ4F- ?2G H7:D?7D: (C=D?8=@G «Q4H78=», «8N- 52H83 8B:4>4<L47 B8=4H7=8=6324 ?6? :6C8=») 34 78<E?8 87 B8=4H7=8=632L, 38 HB8H8N B:2=4>432L «:6C<2P3@G 2C54- 2 87 H456372?2. :432F 2 745B8:6<E38H74F» – A<454378= * 8NO45 =2>4, B8<69647 SQ4F52H83, H65898 :6C<2P3898 D:8=3L, 23>2=2>D- AH7472?6 58>4:36 “B:89:6552:D47” H8- 6<E38F N289:6;22 2 H8K26<E38F 2H78- C36324 P27674<L 36 HP27@=6324 AB2- :22, 52?:8:2758= B8=H4>34=38H72 2 B8- C8>2P4H?898, ;:6954376:3898, =B<87E <272?8-A?83852P4H?2G 56?:8:2758= 2 >8 H65@G A<454376:3@G ;8:56<E3@G 7.>. – ? 4>238F ;8:54 [Jameson 1988, 4>232K =34 ?6?2G-<2N8 :658? 8NO498 29]. 08=4H7=8=6324 (34 B:8H78 ?6? <2- [Jameson 1990, 205]. Y2:4, AH7472P4H- 74:67D:36L ?67498:2L, 38 ?6? >85232- ?2F 8B@7 ?83K6 XIX–B4:=8F B8<8=23@ :DJO6L M8:56) 8NU4>23L47 :6C<2P3@4 XX =4?8= =8HB:82C=8>27 N6C8=DJ 58- ;8:5@ – ;83472P4H?24, 9:655672P4H- >4<E 2>4372P38H72 C6B6>3898 8NO4H7=6 ?24 2 H2376?H2P4H?24 H7:D?7D:@, HJ- – «6=78385384 A98»: H658>8H7678P3@F 2 Q473@4 HG45@, Q63:8=@4 ?83=43K22 2 C65?3D7@F 23>2=2>. «'=78385384 A98» B:. – ><L B:82C=8>H7=6 78F 8NO4F B4:- H7638=27HL 678585 38=898 H8K26<E3898 HB4?72=@, = ?878:8F 87>4<E3@4 A<4543- B8<L, B:474:B4=6JO498 B:8K4HH@ :4- 7@ H8:6C54:LJ7HL >:D9 H >:D985 2 8N- 2;2?6K22 2 :6K2836<2C6K22 [T8:3@G :476J7 H=8J C36P258H7E. * A785 H5@H<4 2001]. X8>4:32C5 DH2<2=647 – =B<87E 2 B:L56L B4:HB4?72=6 = Q2=8B2H2, 2 >8 H6582C8<LK22 2 :6HB6>6 – «6=7838- H25;832P4H?6L 5DC@?6<E36L ;8:56 36- 52J» A98 36:L>D H 6=7838524F H658F :L>D H :856338F ;8:58F ?6? 362N8<44 GD>8Q4H7=4338F ;8:5@. H<8Q38F :6C38=2>38H7EJ B8=4H7=8=6- M:63KDCH?2F <274:67D:8=4> -JHE43 32L 76?Q4 589D7 :6HH567:2=67EHL = ?6- T8<E>563 = H=84F ?3294 «& H8K28<8922 P4H7=4 36::672=3@G ;8:5. :85636» [Goldmann 1964] :4?83H7:D2- * AB8GD 58>4:36 >85232:DJO4F AH74- :D47 A=8<JK2J C6B6>384=:8B4FH?898 72P4H?8F M8:58F H7638=27HL =2CD6<E36L <274:67D:3898 94:8L ?6? ;8:5@ 6=78- ;8:56, 8H38=6336L 36 B:23K2B4 58376- 3853898 A98. /7 :434HH63H38F 38=4<- Q6. X8>4:3 B8H<4>8=674<E38 :6CN2=647 <@ – H 44 B:4>B:225P2=@5, 6?72=38 :46<2H72P4H?2F 36::672=3@F ?83723D- B:48N:6CDJO25 52: = H887=47H7=22 H8 D5, B:4=:6O6L =@=4>433@4 2C B8=4H7- H=8252 ?8:@H73@52 2<2 B<D78=H?25 =8=674<E38F B4:HB4?72=@ A<45437@ = 2374:4H652 23>2=2>85 – >8 ?<6HH2P4H- C65?3D7@4, H658>8H7678P3@4 8N:6C8- ?898 Q63:6 :85636. )6332F ?6B276<2C5 =632L, «?6:723?2» (87 58>4:32H7H?8F – P6H736L 232K2672=6 B4:=@G :@3?8=, <274:67D:38F ;:6C@ >8 ?:DB3898 B<636 8NO4H7=433@4 D32=4:H6<22 H=8N8>@ 2 = ?238), 58372:DJO24HL 54Q>D H8N8F :6=43H7=6, B:6= <2P38H72 – B8:8Q>647 2 ?8<<6Q38 C6H7:4=6JO24 = B65L72. 38=@F <274:67D:3@F 72B6Q: «B:8N<45- (6N8?8=H?84 8B2H6324 G8<8>2<E32?6 = 3898 23>2=2>6». 0:8N<453@F 23>2=2> «-8<274» («83 C<8N38 D:P6< 36 543L, – 87 S83 &2G876 >8 94:84= S8H784=H- B8?6 L D>6<L< <4> 2C 498 H4:>K6»), B8 ?898 – 94:8F, 4O4 34 8B:4>4<2=I2FHL 5@H<2 SQ4F52H836, L=<L47HL B:254:85 = «H=82G» K4<LG = H5@H<4 2G =H48NO- 58>4:32H7H?8F, 6=7838538F 87 8NO498 38H72, 54:@ D32=4:H6<E38H72, 36G8>L- G8>6 B8=4H7=8=632L, ;:6C@ - 3436::6- O2FHL = «>45832P4H?85 B82H?4» H76=- 72=3898 «8N:6C6». $O4 N8<44 H25B78- I2G H?:@7@52 36H78LO2G K4338H74F. 276 T/)(VW, ,"X'(/*'
  3. 3. "DO4H7=433@5 ?:274:245 B:6=>8B8>8- !76 «7:47EL HDO38H7E» – AH7472C2:8- N2L :46<2H72P4H?898 :85636 L=<LJ7HL =63384 B:8H7:63H7=8 2C8<LK22 2 I8- BH2G8<892P4H?24 5872=2:8=?2 :6C=272L ?2:DJO498 H78<?38=432L – H7638=27HL HJQ476: 29:6 2374:4H8= 23>2=2>8= H8 745 54H785, = ?878:85 :46<2H72P4H?6L «H<8Q38F BH2G8<8924F» C6H76=<L47 H8- BH2G8<892L 7:63H;8:52:D47HL = «>4- N@72L B<6=38 B4:474?67E >:D9 = >:D96. 9D5632C2:8=633DJ», 87PDQ>433DJ 58- "=LC63384 H 58>4:32C6K24F 36:6H76324 >4:32H7H?DJ HDNU4?738H7E. ;:6954376K22 8NO4H7=6, 6383252C6K22 X8376Q36L ;8:56 ?238 B8>:@=647 498 ;:6954378=, B:2=8>27, B8 T8<E>56- :6N87D 36::672=3898 6BB6:676. />36- 3D, ? 785D, P78 H 36P6<85 XX =4?6 – 87 ?8 «9<6=384» 58>4:32H7H?84 2H?DHH7=8 &6;?2 >8 )8N-T:2F4 2 «(8=898 :85636» – ?23456789:6; – 87 :6332G A?HB4:2- – «B:8N<453@F 23>2=2>» B8H74B4338 54378= = 8N<6H72 ?238B8=4H7=8=632L >8 DH7DB647 54H78 94:8J, PDQ>85D <JN85D ?<6HH2P4H?898 98<<2=D>H?898 ?238 4O4 = B:89:4HH2=385D B82H?D, 87PDQ>4338- C36P274<E38F 54:4 8H38=@=647HL 36 <2- 5D 87 =34I3498 52:6. * ?834P385 HP4- 74:67D:3@G B8=4H7=8=674<E3@G HG456G. 74 «38=@F :8563», 6:72?D<2:D47 «:6- S6Q4 74<4=2>4324 = B4:=@4 >4HL72<4- >2?6<E384 2HP4C38=4324 B4:H836Q6 2 72L H=8498 HDO4H7=8=632L 4O4 H8>4:- H887=47H7=4338 34 54344 C36P274<E384 Q27 = H4N4 8B:4>4<433@F 36::672=3@F DH2<4324 6=7838522 8NU4?78=» [765 Q4, B8743K26< (=HB85325 G87L N@ 6NH8<J7- 288]. '=783852L A98 8N8:6P2=647HL 6=- 38 34;8:5673@4 H498>3L 7467:6<E3@4 7838524F =4O2: = 87HD7H7=22 94:8L 36- 74<4HB4?76?<2). 08CQ4 B8=4H7=8=6324 P236J7 «>4FH7=8=67E» =4O2, 8N:6CDL DG8>27 H 74<4=2>432L, DH7DB2= 54H78 6NHD:>2H7H?24 63H65N<2 8738I432F (= 9474:89433@5 ;8:565 – 74<4B:89:655@ P45 58Q38 :6C9<L>47E 348Q2>633@F N4H?834P38 B:4:@=6J7HL :4?<653@52 ND?=6<2C5 78=6:3898 ;472I2C56). =H76=?652 2 :6HH@B6J7HL 36 87>4<E3@4 &23456789:6; =@=8>27 ?:2C2H 6=78- HJQ47@ 2 2H78:22. (8 4O4 2 789>6 74<4- 3853898 A98 36 38=@F D:8=43E. &234- =2>4324 B:8>8<Q6<8 B:2>4:Q2=67EHL 56789:6;2P4H?2F, 58376Q3@F HB8H8N 36::672=3898 DH78L ?<6HH2P4H?8F :4B- :6HH?6C@=632L 2H78:2F L=<L47HL H=84- :4C4376K22 – 4>23H7=6 54H76, =:45432 8N:6C3@5 6372B8=4H7=8=63245 B8 87- 2 >4FH7=2L = :65?6G ?6Q>8F 52C63HK4- 38I432J ? ?<6HH2P4H?8F <274:67D:38F 3@, 58376Q3898 ?6>:6. ;8:54. &238H2376?H2H 34 H78<E?8 «BH2- %C8N:474324 BD<E76 >2H763K2833898 G8<892P4H?2» H=LC@=647 A<45437@ = 34- DB:6=<432L 2 B:6?72?6 CABB2396 B:2=4- :6C:@=3DJ 327E 2H78:22, H?8<E?8 =2CD- <2 ? 38=8F H74B432 >436::672=2C6K22 6<E38 H76<?2=647 C36?2 54Q>D H8N8F, H8=:454338F =2CD6<E38F ?D<E7D:@. +:2- 8N4HB4P2=6L >4FH7=4338H7E C:4<2O6. 74<E H65 B8H78L338 B4:458372:D47 :6C- X8376Q3@F B:23K2B, 36P236L H !FC43- <2P3@4 HJQ47@, B:8>DK2:DL 6NH8<J738 I74F36, B8<69647 M:4>:2? SQ4F52H83, 34 5872=2:8=633@4 H8>4:Q63245 ?6>:6 58376Q3@4 H7@?2, 34 D>4:Q2=6LHE = «7:4ND47, = B4:=DJ 8P4:4>E, :4>D?K22 ?6Q- B:4>4<6G 8>3898 B8=4H7=8=632L, >:4F- >898 ?6>:6 ? 498 H658F 23743H2=38F 7836<E- 38H72 ><L 7898, P78N@ DH2<27E LC@? ?837- ;DL 36 36::672=3@G 8N:@=?6G. (8 >6Q4 :6H76 2 I8?6 87 H78<?38=432L A7898 ?6>:6 A76 38=6K2L, 8?83P674<E38 B4:4=4>L H B8H<4>DJO25. …#8 36B:LQ4324 2<2 H7@? 74<4=2>4324 = :6C:L> B8H758>4:32H7- 54Q>D >=DG ?6>:8=, ?878:@F L=<L47HL ?83- H727D72=3@5 ><L 58376Q6, :6H?:@=647HL 2 H?2G ;4385438=, 34 D32P78Q2<6 B:2- B:28N:47647 H767DH H658H78L74<E3898 2C8N- 3K2B26<E3898 4>23H7=6 2 985894338H72 :6Q432L, 7:47E4F HDO38H72, =8C32?I4F ?6? B4:4G8> 54Q>D B4:=@52 >=D5L …». [Jameson ?6>:6: :65?6 ?6>:6 =H4 4O4 H<DQ2<6 1990, 212] 78F H452872P4H?8F 9:632K4F, ?878:6L !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 277
  4. 4. 34 >8BDH?6<6 =?<JP432L 8N8H8N<433@G 0:8?8554372:D45 A7D HG45D H 78P?2 ;:6954378= 238:8>3@G 74?H78= = 8H38=- C:432L 38=898 B8=8:876 = «HD>EN4» 38F =2CD6<E3@F 74?H7. :65?2, H=LC633898 H %374:34785. )65- ?6 = 7:6>2K28338F 2?838B2H38F 7:6- >2K22 29:6<6 :8<E, 636<892P3DJ :8<2 <%-7)$.' «9'&'1%-4-=-» /%-- 9:632K@ 52:6 = 52;8<892P4H?2G 2<2 0#%'"0#4' >:4=32G 367D:;2<8H8;H?2G B8H7:84- 32LG. *H4 H8>4:Q6324 52:6 C6?<JP6- "JQ47384, ?85B8C2K283384, H72<2H- <8HE = A78F 9:632K4 76?25 2HP4:B@- 72P4H?84 4>23H7=8 =3D7:2:658P3898 =6JO25 8N:6C85, P78 345@H<25 N@< B:8H7:63H7=6 GD>8Q4H7=433898 B:82C- >6Q4 =8B:8H 8 785, P78 B:8H72:647HL =4>432L L=<L<8HE 8>325 2C 8H38=3@G C6 34F – 765 347 32 N@72L, 32 34-N@- B:23K2B8= :46<2H72P4H?8F :4B:4C4376- 72L. K22. )46<2C5 B:4>B8<696< =C6258>4FH- S<L H8=:45433898 5@I<432L 9:632- 7=24 =3D7:2:658P3898 B:8H7:63H7=6 2 K6 – A78 <232L, ?878:6L B:236><4Q27 B:8H7:63H7=6 C6 :65?8F. 8>38=:454338 >=D5 B:8H7:63H7=65 2<2 (6>8 H?6C67E, :65?6 = ?6P4H7=4 6HB4?- 74<65, 36G8>LO25HL = B8H78L3385 ?83- 76 B:8N<45@ H452872P4H?8F 9:632K@ 76?74 2<2 «=C6258B4:4=8>4»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«[":4>34=4?8=6L] ?6:7236 ?6? N@ H656 H4NL 89:632P2=647, H656 H4NL 2HP4:B@=647, 2 C6 44 B:4>4<652 DQ4 347 32P498… 04:=@4 B:2C36?2 =8C58Q3898 B:8>8<Q432L ?6:72- 3@ – C674?632L ;8:5@ C6 :65D – B8L=<L- J7HL DQ4 = AB8GD *8C:8Q>432L, = 8H8N43- 38H72 = 16 =4?4. S6<44, B8 54:4 7898 ?6? D9<DN<L47HL B:8H7:63H7=4338H7E ?6:723@, A76 8H8N4338H7E B8H7:8432L 36P23647 B:8- 9:4HH2:8=67E, 2 36?834K =8 =78:8F B8<8=2- 34 19 =4?6 B8L=<L47HL 2H?DHH7=8 GD>8Q32- ?8= «25B:4HH2832H78=», B:8=8C9<6H2=I2G H8=4:I4338 38=@F B:23K2B: ?6:7236 – 34 N8<44 ?6? ?DH8? B:2:8>@, 8?38 = 52:… +>4HE B:8H7:63H7=4338H7E Q2=8B2H2 32P45 34 H>4:Q2=647HL, B6HH2=38 :6H74?647HL =8 =H4 H78:83@ – C6 B:4>4<652 :65@ B:8- H72:647HL N4CN:4Q3@F =8C>DI3@F 8?463, N4H?834P36L B:8H7:63H7=4338H7E.» [Z4923 Imago mundi: -$*/$ !%*$ 01"2$''% 3+- 1970, 66] $*4". 278 T/)(VW, ,"X'(/*'
  5. 5. %C5434324 H8873I432L 23>2=2>D6<E- 384/?8<<4?72=384, ?6P4H7=8 B8=H4>34=- 3@G ?6B276<2H72P4H?2G 7:63H;8:56K2F = 8NO4H7=4338F Q2C32 XV-XVII =4?8=, B:8L=<L<8HE 36 D:8=34 AH7472P4H?8F ;8:5@ – 36B:254:, = 2C5434322 ;D3?- K22 :65?2 ?6? H452872P4H?8F 9:632K@. X2: <2346:38F, B:89:4HH2=38F, N4H- ?834P38F 2H78:22, = ?878:85 23>2- =2>@ H76<?2=6J7HL >:D9 H >:D985 ?6? :@38P3@4 ?837:69437@, B8H74B4338 DBDH?6L 2C =2>D =8C58Q38H7E ?6?898- <2N8 ?8<<4?72=3898 B:84?76 (= H5@H<4, 36B:254:, H:4>34=4?8=898 "B6H432L) :4B:4C4372:D47HL DQ4 34 ?6? =3D7:2- :658P384 B:8H7:63H7=8, 6 ?6? «=2> 2C 8?36». )434HH63H384 «8?38» 58Q47 N@7E B83L78 76?Q4 ?6? =8B<8O4324 B8- A72?2 89:632P4338F, P6H738F B4:HB4?- 72=@ 36 H8K26<E3@F 52:, ?878:@F ?6? =34I3LL, «8NU4?72=36L» :46<E38H7E !9-7%'>$"3$ 4$?"-0#3: %-"'$ 5'4*+6 B:8H72:647HL C6 9:632K652 :65?2, H76- 789:+2$. 38=27HL H8NH7=4338 «B:8H7:63H7=85» (6372P38H7E =88NO4 34 C36<6 ?67498- 0:2543274<E38 ? 2?834 A78 87H@<647 ? :22 B:8H7:63H7=6, 836 5@H<2<6 52: = 36N8:D 2 ?85B8C2K22 ;29D:, C6=LC63- <8?6<E38-52?:8?8H52P4H?8F ?67498:22 3@5 53898P2H<433@52 ;8:56<E3@52 []^, «54H78-H7:636»). B:245652 2 H25=8<2?8F =8 =3D7:4334 08 54:4 58>4:32C6K22, D9<DN<432L 2 4>23@F 52?:8?8H5. :6HI2:432L :@38P3@G 8738I432F 8N- R>:8 A7898 52?:8?8H56 – ;29D:6 "6?- <6H7E H=8N8>@ ?<6HH2P4H?898 B:4>B:232- :6<E3898, B8>8N38 K437:D 9:6=276K22, 5674<L (36P236L H 54<?898 <6=8P32?6), H7L92=647 ? H4N4 =4O4H7=8 52:6. * 7:6>2- 38H274<L P6H738F 232K2672=@ = B:4>4- K2833@G ?6:789:6;2P4H?2G imago mundi <6G 34N8<EI8F 98:8>H?8F 8NO23@ :6C- = =2>4 2>46<E3898 ?:D96 9:632K@ 52:6 5@=647HL 53898P2H<433@52, =H4 N8<44 C6P6H7DJ =@H7DB647 34 P78 2384, ?6? =:4- DH?8<EC6JO252 87 3498 C6=2H258H7L52 5L = 498 H65@G :6C388N:6C3@G K2?<6G. H2H745@ HB:8H6 2 B:4><8Q432L. M438543 08>8N36L M8:56 =2CD6<E38F :4B:4- C6?6>:8=898 B:8H7:63H7=6 6:72?D<2:D47 C4376K22 52:6 N6C2:8=6<6HE 36 4>2- %384 B:8H7:63H7=8 – «B:8H7:63H7=8» P4- 385 H6?:6<E385 08=4H7=8=6322 (X2;4, <8=4P4H?2G 8738I432F, 9<8N6<2C2:DJ- &3294 N@72L). *H4 B:82HG8>LO44 = 52:4 O2GHL 2 87PDQ>6JO2GHL = ;8:54 78=6:- 7:6?78=6<8HE ?6? 34:6C:@=36L P6H7E 3898 ;472I2C56. 08 8738I432J ? :65?65 34?878:8F 8NO4F %H78:22, 2 44 B4:H8- 7898 Q2C3433898 52:6, = ?878:85 8N276- 36Q45 8ODO6< H4NL ?6Q>@F 23>2=2>. 47 23>2=2> 58>4:36 = B8=H4>34=38H72, !76 &8<<4?72=36L %H78:2L 254<6 H=84 A78 38=84 B:8H7:63H7=8 H7638=27HL 4H<2 (6P6<8 2 H=8F &834K, = H=474 ?878:@G 34 N8<44 =2>25@5, 78 N8<44 8OD725@5 2 8N:476<HL H5@H< B:82HG8>LO498 H ?6Q- B:87LQ433@5, =3DI6JO25 HB4K2;2P4H- >@5 «B4:H836Q45». ?DJ ><L H8=:454338H72 «7:4=89D». !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 279
  6. 6. (4 ? A785D <2 8B@7D 87H@<647 X. X4:- 36 H498>3L – 8 B8H7-2H?DHH7=4 >2C6F36. <8-08372, 98=8:L 8 ?83K4 «362=38F S2C6F3 B:2>647 «P4<8=4P38H7E», C6- =4:@» = 8?:DQ6JO2F 52: ?6? ?6:723D, =4:I4338H7E 2 D>8NH7=8 78F 2<2 238F B:2C@=6L 87?6C67EHL «=8HB:232567E B:6?72P4H?8F ;D3?K22. %374:347 8;8:- ?6?8F-78 DP6H78? 52:6, 8P4:P433@F 5<43 >2C6F34:652. %374:347 34 >8<- P47?252 9:632K652, 8?:DQ433@F 34- Q43 N@7E AH7472P3@5, 83 >8<Q43 N@7E ?8F C838F P4:387@, 36B8<3433@F N4C ;8:5673@5. ' «;8:567» = H498>3LI345 B:8BDH?8= ?6P4H7=652» 2 B:23L7E =8 H<8=8DB87:4N<4322 – A78 8B7256<E3@F =3256324 C6?6>:8=84 B:8H7:63H7=8, ?8- HB8H8N ><L ?83?:473898 B:8>D?76 (56- 78:84 «>8=8<E38 7:D>38 8B2H67E, LH38 74:26<E3898, 23;8:56K2833898 2<2 78<E?8, P78 838 34 L=<L47HL 32 P4:3@5, «?:4672=3898») H B858OEJ <89872B6 2 32 H4:@5. #D7 25447HL 34?84 348B:4>4- :DN:2?678:6 =8F72 = ?6? 58Q38 N8<44 <43384 C:4324, =2>4324 P4:7-74 P498 2, I2:8?2F ?:D9 B87:4N274<4F. 4H<2 DQ 2>72 >8 ?83K6, >6Q4 78, P78 D />325 2C H65@G C65473@G 2 C36P25@G 543L C6 HB238F, 34 <2I438 C:274<E3898 H25B7858= A72G 2C543432F H76<6 7:63H- B:2HD7H7=2L» [X4:<8-08372 1999, 28]. ;8:56K2L H767DH6 B:8H7:63H7=4338F (4 36 A785 <2 N6C8=85 6;;4?74 8H38- :65?2. * ?6P4H7=4 D32=4:H6<E3898 ?85- =@=647HL AH7472?6 ;2<E58= DQ6H8= 2 B8C2K2833898 B:2456 = %374:3474 5@ 7:2<<4:8= – 36 B:2HD7H7=22 C6 ?6>:85, 36N<J>645 34 8BB8C2K2J, H?8<E D98>38 B8 H65@5 ?:6L5 :65?2 «P4:7-74 P498», B:8N<45672P3DJ, 54Q>D =3D7:2- 2 C6- BD96JO498 H=825 B4:2;4:2F3@5 B:2- ?6>:8=@5 B:8H7:63H7=85, 6 >4?83H7:D?- HD7H7=245 B:L58 C6 HB238F H65898 =2- K2J A78F 8BB8C2K22. T2B4:74?H78=@4 >LO498, ?878:@F <2I647HL H=84F B:2- «8?36» = ?6P4H7=4 >6<4?898, 38 B:L58- =2<492:8=6338F B8C2K22 =H4=2>LO498 98 B8785?6 :434HH63H3898 Q2=8B2H3898 :434HH63H3898 36N<J>674<L. «8?36» 8N:6CDJ7 7876<E38H7E, 34 8H- 76=<LJODJ 54H76 P45D-<2N8 =34I345D H4N4. «/?38» %374:3476 B:4>H76=<L47 @3/$%#$&0#-46$ «-&"'» H8N8F 36N8: 56<43E?2G 8?83, «C658P- 3@G H?=6Q23» = >:D924 8?36, ?878:@4 $H<2 :46<2H72P4H?84 B8=4H7=8=6324 76?Q4 254J7 58C62P3DJ H7:D?7D:D. * N@<8 B:8H7:63H7=85 6=783853898 A98, A785 N4H?834P385 =C625887?:@=6322 78 ?238B:8H7:63H7=8 – B:8N<45672C2- 8?83 >:D9 = >:D96 36G8>27 H=84 C6=4:- :8=6<8 A7D 6=783852J. %374:347 Q4 I4324 ?:2C2H ?<6HH2P4H?8F :4B:4C43- B:4>H7647 54H785 :6HB6>6 6=7838538- 76K22. />325 2C B4:=@G H25B7858= 98 A98. +>4HE 58>4:32H7H?6L «7:4=896» A7898 ?:2C2H6 N@< H=LC63 H N6:8P38F H325647HL B:6?72?652 N4H?834P3898 AH7472?8F C4:?6<, :6C>=296JO2G, B8 =2CD6<E3898 B87:4N<432L. T<DN233@4 H<8=65 -875636, 7:63H;8:56K22 H88738I432L 23>2=2- >D6<E384/?8<<4?72=384, ?878:@4 94- «H8NH7=4338 6:G274?7D:384 B:8H7:63H7=8 :6>2 H8C>632L 2<<JC8:38F N4H?834P38H72 34:2:8=6<2 A7D «7:4=89D», B:2=8>L7 ? (87:6Q4324 C4:?6<6 = C4:?6<4), D>=8432L 2HP4C38=432J H65898 ;4385436 «6=78- GD>8Q4H7=433898 B:8H7:63H7=6 BD745 87:6- Q432L ?6:723 = C4:?6<6G 2<2 =C<65@=632L 38522». * ?8374?H74 ?83K6 (?6? 6=78- 9:632K@ «=3D7:43344/=34I344» BD745 87:6- 3853898 A98, 76? 2 6=7838522 2H?DHH7=6) Q432L = C4:?6<6G 8?83.» [-87563 1992, 116] =H7:82=I498HL = A?83852P4H?DJ H2H74- 5D B8C>3498 ?6B276<6, 5@ =88NO4 >8<Q- * %374:3474 :65?6 B4:4H7647 N@7E 3@ 98=8:27E 34 8N «AH7472?4» %374:34- H76N2<E38F H452872P4H?8F 9:632K4F, 76, 6 8 «=6Q34FI45 2C =H4G 2H?DHH7=» ?878:6L :49D<2:D47 H5@H<8B8:8Q>6- 280 T/)(VW, ,"X'(/*'
  7. 7. JO2F 8N543 =34I3498 2 =3D7:433498 *H4 «H8>4:Q6324» 52:6, 23;8:56K2J 8 B:8H7:63H7= H4528H;4:@. * ?6P4H7=4 345 58Q38 36F72, N4H?834P38 87?:@=6L 6=7838538F LP4F?2 G:63432L 23;8:- =H4 38=@4 8?36 =34 8BB8C2K22 =3D7:43- 56K22 :65?6 C65@?647 8B:4>4<433@F 344/=34I344, >6 2 =88NO4 =34 ?6?898- ;:695437 «52:6» = H4N4 2 =H7:62=647 <2N8 /N:6C6 52:6 2<2 %H78:22. /N A785 = N4H?834P3@F :L> HG8Q2G H763>6:7- 8B@74 %374:3476 08<E *2:2<E8 B2I47 3@G LP44?. "<8=38 = ?8<EK4 X4N2DH6, = 74:5236G ;D3>654376<E38F B874:2 =<8Q433@4 :65?2 = B:8K4HH4 :46<E38- 8:24376K22: 98 B8<EC8=632L %374:34785 B8H78L338 543L47HL 54H7652: 78, P78 N@<8 =<8- «*54H74 H B8H7:843245 23;8:56K2833@G HDB4:5692H7:6<4F 5@ H78<?3D<2HE H 38=@5 Q433@5 ;:4F585 23;8:56K22 = 8>385 ;43854385: B874:4F 8:24376K22. MD3>6543- 8?34, :6H?:@=6LHE = H658H78L74<E384 76<E38F B874:4F 8:24376K22, >8B8<3LJO4F 2 8?38, H8>4:Q27 = H4N4, 36:L>D H >:D92- B8>@78Q2=6JO4F [B:8K4HH@] 8NO4H7=4338F <2N4:6<2C6K22 2 D543EI432L :49D<2:8=632L 52, B:4>@>DO44 8?38, ?878:84 B:4=:6- ;2363H8=@G :@3?8=, PE2 34P4H72=@4 B8H- O647HL = 6383H 2<2 HH@<?D. <4>H7=2L G8:8I8 2C=4H73@.» [Virilio 2001, 24] «+6?6>:8=84» B:8H7:63H7=8 ?6? 76- ?8=84 2HP4C647 = %374:3474. S<L 92- * B8C>345 23;8:56K28338-;2363H8- B4:-:65?2 347 32P498 =34I3498 – A78 =85 ?6B276<2C54 H656 34=8C58Q38H7E HG=67@=647HL DQ4 = H<8=8H8P476322 23>2=2>D6<E3898 8B:4>4<432L ?88:>2- «=2:7D6<E36L :46<E38H7E», 8N8C36P6- 367 = H8K26<E385 B:8H7:63H7=4 H7638- JO45 H8=8?DB3@F A;;4?7 %374:3476 =27HL AH7472P4H?25 ;6?78:85. * H=845 = 8738I4322 B8<EC8=674<L – B8743K2- «<-0#.-1$%"39.$» [1991] M:4>- 08H758>4:32C5 6<E38 836 =?<JP647 = H4NL =H4 >:D924 :2? SQ4F52H83 B8?6C@=647, P78 76- 156, 240 :65?2. )6=3@5 8N:6C85, ><L 92B4:-:65- ?6L D7:676 HB8H8N38H72 ?893272=3898 ?2 347 2 =3D7:433498 – B:8H7:63H7=8 = ?6:789:6;2:8=632L = B<634 AH7472?2 8?34 %374:3476 H8H7827 2C 6=783853@G B:2=8>27 ? B8>:@=D H88738I432L =3D7- 5836>, 76LO2G = H4N4 K4<@4 52:@. $H7E :43344/=34I344 2 P6H7E/K4<84; ? :6H- «>D:36L N4H?834P38H7E» 58C62P3898 B6>D H=LC38H72 =4:N6<E3898 2<2 =2CD- =C6258B4:4?:@=632L ;:4F58= 23;8:- 6<E3898 74?H76. %54338 A72 B:23K2B@ 56K22. %374:347 H7638=27HL 76?25 «>8- H7638=L7HL ?83H7:D?72=3@52 ><L B8H- 585 N@72L», = ?878:85 4H7E 538Q4H7=8 758>4:32H7H?8F AH7472P4H?8F ;8:5@, 8?83 2, H887=47H7=4338, =2>8= 36 :46<E- 2 :46<2CDJ7HL = I2:8P6FI45 HB4?7:4 38H7E, 38 347 =8C58Q38H72 =@9<L3D7E ;4385438= H8=:454338F ?D<E7D:@ – 87 2C 8?36 2 D=2>47E 8NO44 ><L =H4G A72G I2C82>38F <274:67D:@ >8 ND?=6<E3898 P6H73@G =2>8= B:8H7:63H7=8. "DNU4?7 «B:8H7:63H7=433898 C654I674<EH7=6» = C6>=23D7 = 9<DN23D B:2=673898 «23- >4?83H7:D?72=2H7H?2G 6:G274?7D:3@G 74:E4:6», B8H758>4:32H7H?898 =6:263- B:8H7:63H7=6G. 76 B<67838=H?8F «B4O4:@», 87?D>6 83 ,B<8734324 2 9474:83852C6K2L 23;8:- 36 :6HH78L322 36N<J>647 >:4F;DJO24 56K22 36 74<4=2>4322 B:2325647 8P4:- ;:695437@ «=34I3498 52:6», C6?<J- 7632L, HN<2Q6JO24 498 H "47EJ. !78 P433898 = 92B4:74?H78=DJ :65?D. #6?8- ?6H647HL, B:4Q>4 =H498, H8B:2HD7H7=2L =6 72B2P36L 98<<2=D>H?6L :4B:4C4376- = ?6>:4 34H?8<E?2G «98<8H8=», ?636<8= K2L =H4=8C58Q3@G 94:84= ?2N4:B63?6 2 23;8:56K22. S6Q4 36 H?63>6<E38 2C- G6?4:8=: 832 34 87:@=6LHE H587:L7 36 =4H7385 H=84F :47:89:6>38H7EJ N4<8- 54:K6JO24 A?:63@ = 369<DG8 C6?:@7@G :DHH?85 74<4=2>4322 = 38=8H7LG =32CD 87 =34I3498 52:6, B4O4:88N:6C3@G ?6>:6 H 34>6=3498 =:45432 B8L=2<2HE B:8H7:63H7=6G. >=4 H7:8?2, N49DO2G H :6C3@52 H?8:8- !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 281
  8. 8. H7L52 – 54><4336L B8<8H6 B8<4C38F 23- 49 2 Q6<47E 8 =@?23D78F 40 <47 36C6> ;8:56K22 (B898>6, H78258H7E N43C236, 36 B858F?D 74<4=2C28338F <23C4»; «= ?D:H@ =6<J7 2 B:.), N@H7:6L B8<8H6 – 32Q345 <4=85 D9<D 36=LCP2=8 54<E74- 38=8H72, 34 =8I4>I24 = 8H38=38F ?6>:, I27 ?6?6L-78 34B83L736L 9:6;2P4H?6L = 8H38=385 <JN8B@73898, 348;2K26<E- ?83H7:D?K2L 342C=4H73898 B:4>36C36- 3898 H=8FH7=6. 08H758>4:32H7H?84 74<4- P432L» 2 7. >. =2>4324 2HB8<ECD47 :6C<2P3@4 HB8H8N@ >4?83H7:D?K22 8BB8C2K22 «=3D7:2 :65- ?2 – C6 :65?8F»: 87 727:8= >8 :6C388N- :6C3@G ?6>:8=-=-?6>:4. (8 =H4 A72 «8?36» 2HB8<ECDJ7HL = ?6- P4H7=4 B:2<8Q432L, ?8554376:2L 2<2 A5;6C@ (B8>P4:?2=632L C36P258F >4- 76<2, =@>4<432L 6?K4376) ? 8H38=38F ?6:723?4. S476<2, :6?D:H@, H<8=6 2 K2;:@ 76? 2<2 236P4 :6N876J7 36 8H- 38=384 H8N@724, ?878:84 8B:4>4<L47 =3D7:2?6>:8=84 B:8H7:63H7=8. #6?25 8N:6C85, 832 34 L=<LJ7HL H8=4:I4338 9474:89433@52 ;:695437652, «8?3652» = 23@4 H:4C@ :46<E38H72. * B:8>=2- «A'.$1"3»: %,/"*%6 ;;;7 3. <$*)+'"2$. 3D7@G 58<8>4Q3@G 2<2 23;8:56K283- 3@G B4:4>6P6G ?6:723?6 =4>DO498 58- (6 36I =C9<L>, :4PE C>4HE 58Q47 2>72 Q47 8N:65<L7EHL >:D9252 ?6:723?652 34 8 HB8:4 H2H745 AH7472?2, 6 8N 8>38F (B:L5@4 =?<JP432L, HG45@, 63256K22 2 78F Q4 <892?4 B8C>3498 ?6B276<2C56 2 B:.), N49DO252 H7:8?652 N2:Q4=@G – 36:6H76324 ;:6954376:38H72, 2374:- ?872:8=8? 2<2 H78<N2?652 H5H-H88NO4- 6?72=38H72, 34<234F38H72, 7:63H;8:- 32F. #4<4?6:723?6 8N36:DQ2=647 743- 52:DJO4F B:4>H76=<432L 8 «B:4?:6H- >43K2J ? 58C62P38-I2C8;:432P4H?8F 385» =88NO4. #4<4=2>4324 342CN4Q38 H7:D?7D:4, ? B:4=:6O432J 8H38=3898 ND>47 B@767EHL N@7E «?6? %374:347», ?6>:6 = 4O4 8>23 ?6>:-=-?6>:4 36:L>D :6=38 ?6? 2 ?238 =H4 N8<44 8N36:D- H >:D9252 (76?8=6 38P36L C6H76=?6 8>- Q2=647 743>43K2J N@7E N8<EI25 ?<2- 3898 #* ?636<6 – 8>38=:45433@F B8?6C B85. 36 >4HL7?6G 56<43E?2G ?6>:8=-=-?6>:4 />36?8 H=8J :46<2C6K2J 58C62P- B:89:655 H >:D92G ?636<8=). 38-I2C8;:432P4H?6L H7:D?7D:6 8N- "25B785672P36 :46?K2L 36 74<4AH- :47647 78<E?8 %374:3474. %374:347- 7472?D -. 06:;438=6, H8>4:Q6O6LHL «H4:;239» B:4>H76=<L47 H8N8F 38=84 = %374:347-BDN<2?6K22 '. "52:38=6 ?6P4H7=8 CABB2396. $H<2 B4:4=4H72 78, «%374:347 36 74<4=2>4322» [2000]. P78 B:82HG8>27 = 8?34 N:6DC4:6 (38=8- /H38=@=6LHE 36 HDQ>4322 :46<2H72P4H- H73898 H6F76, %374:347-5696C236 2 7.>.) ?898 =?DH6 8738H274<E38 4>23H7=6 ?6>- = B<8H?8H7E 74<4A?:636, 78 H8N@72L 36 :6, 6=78: :6HK432=647 44 ?6? 34D>6P- A?:634 58Q38 B:4>H76=27E H<4>DJO25 3DJ, 34?:6H2=DJ ?6<E?D H %374:3476: 8N:6C85. * ?6>: ?6?898-32ND>E H4:26<6 «%C8N:6Q4324 =H4 =:45L :6C54O647HL =N49647 94:8F >:D9898 H4:26<6 (34 =34- 36 56<43E?85 ?DH8P?4 A?:636, ?878- I325 :4?<653@5 6383H85, B4:4N2=6J- :@F B8H78L338 C6H76=<L47 =HB852367E O25 74P4324 >6338F 2H78:22, 6 254338 B4:=434K H8=47H?898 74<4=2>432L &*( =8 =3D7:43344 B:8H7:63H7=8 >633898 282 T/)(VW, ,"X'(/*'
  9. 9. 74<4B8=4H7=8=632L) 2 ?:2P27: «6 = A78 <892P4H?8F H7:D?7D:8F H6F76 2 :4;<4?- =:45L = 584F 2H78:22 567E 36?834K-78 H2=3@5 87N8:85 23;8:56K22 B8<EC8=6- 36G8>27 B874:L33898 50 <47 36C6> :4- 74<45. 08> «=2CD6<E3@5 B87:4N<43245» N43?6»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«36 54H74»), 6 ?:D9 94:84= 87?:@7 2 34H76N2<43. %374:347 L=<L47 H8N8F 254338 76?DJ B8H7-74<4=2C2833DJ «?6:723?D». *3D7- :2 «58376Q3898 H4954376» (%374:347- H7:632K@) 34 HDO4H7=D47 N8<44 >6Q4 8738H274<E3898 4>23H7=6 54H76, =:454- 32 2 >4FH7=2L. 08=4:G38H7E «?6>:6» = %374:3474 :6H?8<876 H658H78L74<E3@52 ;:4F5652 23;8:56K22, 8BK2L52, :4?- <653@52 N634:652 2 HH@<?652. 04:4G8> 87 8>3898 ;:4F56 ? >:D985D 8HDO4H7=<L- 47HL 34 B8H:4>H7=85 58376Q3898 H7@?6 H H8G:6343245 H237695672P4H?8F H7:D?7D- :@ 54Q>D ?6>:652, ?6? = ?23456789:6;4 2 36 74<4=2>4322 7:6>2K2833898 72B6, 6 6?72=2:8=63245 =H4 38=@G «98<8H8=» 2 87?:@7245 =H4 38=@G 8?83 = «785 Q4 H6- 585» B:8H7:63H7=4. !78 B:8H7:63H7=8 <2- I438 =34I3498 2C54:432L, :6=38 ?6? 2 9<DN23@ ?6? 6<<498:22 H8K2D56, = ?878- :85 34 H78<E?8 HDO4H7=D47, H?8<E?8 «B8- C2K2832:D47HL» H8=:45433@F 23>2=2>. !"#$%"$# &'& ,-%.' 439(')*"-- =- /-#%$7)$"3+ 14CDH<8=38, B8> «B87:4N<43245» 5@ 25445 = =2>D 34 H78<E?8 K4<436B:6=- <433@F B82H?, 8:24372:8=633@F 36 HB4K26<E3@4 B:8;4HH2836<E3@4 H6F7@ (A<4?7:833@4 36DP3@4 QD:36<@, N6C@ >633@G 2 B:.), = ?878:@G 69:4HH2=38H7E 8%-#3?$0&'+ =')$%$+: "/ "*=$#!$ - "*- =2CD6<E3898 92B4:74?H76 H>4:Q2=647HL =$#!8. !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 283
  10. 10. 082H? N@78=8F 23;8:56K22 (?6?, 36- :6N87647 36 8H38=3@G 38=8H73@G H6F- B:254:, =@N8: 58>4<2 58N2<E3898 74<4- 76G: T6C476.ru, -4376.ru, S32.ru (H6F7@ ;836), P74324 38=8H74F 2<2 H8NH7=4338 ><L 636<2C6 =@N:63@ B8 23>4?HD K272- B4:4N2:6324 B8:389:6;2P4H?2G H6F78= :D458H72 36 R3>4?H4). – =H4 A72 ;8:5@ B8<EC8=632L %374:34- 785 8H38=63@ 36 HB4K2;2P4H?85 B8H7- 58>4:32H7H?85 :6HH4L385 =8CNDQ>4322, B:89:6558F 2 H<4>85 ?878:898 L=<L47HL AH7472P4H?6L B8=4:G38H7E %374:3476. !H7472?6 54:K6JO2G, B:287?:@7@G «?6:7238?-2H78:2F», :6C38H?8:8H73@G 2 :6C3836B:6=<433@G N49DO2G H7:8? L=<L47HL A<454376:3@5 H725D<85 2, 8>- 38=:454338, 34B8H:4>H7=433@5 87:6Q4- 3245 38=8F B8H7-36::672=38F 6?72=38H- 72 B87:4N274<L 23;8:56K22. S<L 3498 K4338H7E 87?:@78F H7:632K@ H8H7827 34 = 785, P78N@ B:8P2767E, B:8H587:47E 44 B"3.%(: %,>":?#86 >"*'"=*$)%&+,-%. >*%- >8 ?83K6. _4338H7E N4C87P4738 H8H7827 = '@%>. 785, P78N@, C6K4B2=I2HE C6 ?6?DJ-<2N8 92B4:74?H78=DJ HH@<?D, C69<L3D7E = 38- &85B8C2K28338 38=8H738F H6F7 H7:827- =84 «8?38», 2, H<4>DL 234:K22, H8H?8<E- HL ?6? 96<4:4L H B:4>B:8H587:6 H 34- C3D7E ? P45D-78 «38=85D». S4 ;6?78 32 N8<EI252 6383H2:DJO252 74?H7652 ? 8>36 :6H?:@76L 38=8H7E 2<2 ?6:723?6 38=8H73@5 «thumbnails» (2 78P38 76? DQ4 34 B:4>H76=<LJ7 2374:4H6 H652 B8 Q4 :6H?:@724 HH@<?2 36 8>3D 38=8H7E H4N4, 38 78<E?8 ?6? 87H@<?2 ? P45D-78 58Q47 B:2=4H72 =6H 34 ? :6C=4:3D78F «>:D985D», (B:6=>6, 8?6C@=6JO45DHL 38=8H72, 38 ? >:D98F 38=8H738F 96<4- 745 Q4 H65@5). (6 A785 8H38=636 AH- :44). '383H2:DJO24 74?H7@ H8>4:Q67 7472?6 «B:4>B:8H587:6» (thumbnails), 34P78 =:8>4 ?:67?8F ;8:5D<2:8=?2 B8H78L338 B8>B27@=6JO6L =D6F4:2H7- 7898 2<2 23898 H8N@72L, ?878:6L H<D- H?84 :6HH4L3384 =8CNDQ>4324 87 C69<L- Q27 2 ?:JP?85, K4B<LJO25 :6HH4L338- >@=632L = 2374:3473@4 8?36. 98 B87:4N274<L %374:347-23;8:56K22, #8, P78 A78 =8CNDQ>4324 34 36B:6=- 2 7:2994:85 ><L H?8<EQ432L B8 >:D925 <438 ? ?6?8F-78 K4<2, P78 :6HH4L33@F H8N@72L5. %N8 = N8<EI23H7=4 H<DP64= B4:4N8: H7:D?7D:3@G =6:26K2F = N4H- 6383H H?<8343 = 78F 2<2 238F 54:4 >:6- ?834P385 :L>D C65?3D7 36 H4NL, B:4- 5672C2:8=67E H27D6K2J, B8>=4I2=67E ?:6H38 B83L<2 «2>48<892» 56HH8=898 8Q2>632L P276JO498. $H<2 6383H 9<6- =2:7D6<E3898 B8:38, 2HB8<ECDL A78 ><L H27, 36B:254:, P78 «:8?-C=4C>6 '. 8H- «C67L92=632L» = H47E. /32 H=LC@=6J7 ?8:N2<6 B8B-C=4C>D 1.», 78 A78 C36P27, H ?6:723?8F 2C 96<4:42 B:4>B:8H587- P78 B8B-C=4C>D 1., B:2I4>IDJ 36 ?83- :6 34 44 D=4<2P43384 2C8N:6Q4324, 6 K4:7 '., 2 =88NO4 <2P38 34 8NO6=IDJ- >:D9DJ 96<4:4J B:4>B:8H587:6, ?6Q- HL H B8H<4>34F, B:8H78 B8?8:8N2<6 44 >@F A<45437 ?878:8F H N8<EI8F >8<4F 5634:6 2HB8<3432L. (4D>8=<47=8:43- =4:8L738H72 B:2=4>47 34 ? H8NH7=4338 3@F 32C?25 D:8=345 «H8N@72F38H7EJ» «B:8H587:D», 6 ? 8P4:4>385D «B:4>-». B8<EC8=674<E 7D7 Q4 ?<2?647 36 >:D9DJ, X4344 8N36Q4338, 4H<2 76? 58Q38 =@- 8N4O6JODJ N@7E «98:LP4F», 38=8H7E. :6C27EHL, B8:389:6;2P4H?2F B:23K2B (* H<DP64 92B4:HH@<?2 2C <437@ 38=8- 284 T/)(VW, ,"X'(/*'
  11. 11. H74F =4:8L738H7E B8B6>632L = 8Q2>6- %?83?6 H8N@72L D>4:Q2=647 36H = =2- 4584 «54H78», ?834P38, 98:6C>8 =@I4, CD6<E385 :L>D HG8Q2G 2?838?, 34 >6=6L 34Q4<2 = H<DP64 N6334:6, 87H@<6JO498 D9<DN27EHL = ?6?DJ-<2N8 8>3D 2H78:2J. ? H7:632K4, 36 ?878:8F 4O4 3DQ38 36F- -89872B2C6K2L C6543L47 D32?6<E38H7E 72 348NG8>25DJ 23;8:56K2J – 4H<2 H8N@72F 2G 72B6Q38H7EJ, >4<647 8NODJ 836 765 =88NO4 4H7E). <892?D 2G H=LC2 34 N8<44 8P4=2>38F, (8 H6584 G6:6?74:384, H 78P?2 C:432L P45 «<892?6» :6C54O432L ?:8HH8=8? =2CD6<E38F AH7472?2 38=8H73898 H6F76, = 89:85385 :L>D :6C<2P3@G N:43>8= L=<L47HL 78, P78 58Q38 36C=67E )-- = 58<<4. 087:4N274<J B:4>UL=<LJ7- -89872B2C6K2L =-#3/39';3$5 H8N@72L. & N8<EI23H7=D HL DC36=645@4 <898 H8N@72F, ?878:@4 61 H8N@72F = ?6P4H7=4 «8?36», =@=8>LO498 =@H7:62=6J7HL = N4H?834P3@4 B87:4- ? 345D 36B:L5DJ, B:2?:4B<43@ 2?83?2 N274<EH?24 H4:22, 34 8N:6CDL 32?6?8F – H=848N:6C3@4 <89872B@ H8N@72L, =2CD- %H78:22. 6<E3@4 C36?2 ><L 5938=433898 «DC36=6- %?83?2 H8N@72F = 8>385 N<8?4 23;8:- 32L» H8N@72L ?6? 2C>4<2L G6:6?74:38F 56K22, ?6? B:6=2<8, 254J7 6NH8<J738 78:98=8F 56:?2. * H6585 :6HB:8H7:6343- 8>236?8=@F ;8:567 – :6C54: 2 =2CD- 385 H<DP64 76?25 <89872B85 L=<L47HL 6<E3@F H72<E 2C8N:6Q432L (?:6H8P3@F ;8789:6;2L <2K6, H ?878:@5 34P78 B:8- «63;6H» H8N@72L). _4338H736L H2H7456 2C8I<8. -89872B85 H8N@72L 58Q47 N@7E 23;8:56K22 B:6?72P4H?2 34 B:2=LC636 >:D96L ?6:723?6, 8N<6>6JO6L DC36=6- ? B:2=@P385D B8:L>?D P7432L H<4=6 36- 458H7EJ (36K2836<E3@F ;<69, C>6324 B:6=8 2 H=4:GD =32C. (8=8H73@4 H8N@- 2<2 =4OE). M8782?83?6 L=<L47HL ?6? N@ 72L DB8:L>8P43@ =34I325 8N:6C85, B8 525472P4H?25 H<4B?85 H8N@72L – =87 52- =:45432 B8H7DB<432L 2<2 :6HH76=<43@ 32H7: = 585437 B8<DP432L 369:6>@ (B8- = >8H7678P38 H=8N8>385 B8:L>?4: A?8- O4P23@), =87 C=4C>6, N:8H2=I6L (HB6H- 3852?6 H8H4>H7=D47 H B:82HI4H7=2L52, I6L) HDB:D96, 6 =87 D:6963 = '54:2?4. 6 B8<272?6 – H I8D-N2C34H85. "88NO4- "7:D?7D:6 38=8H73898 «<89872B6» 324 8 9D563276:38F ?676H7:8;4 = ?6- 2>4372P36 ;2:543385D <89872BD: H<4=6 ?8F-<2N8 P6H72 52:6 58Q47 36G8>27EHL DC36=645@F 9:6;2P4H?2F C36? ;2:5@ 54Q>D 8P4:4>3@52 H?63>6<E3@52 «38- (;8782?83?6), HB:6=6 =@I4 – 36C=6324 =8H7L52» B:8 B8B-C=4C>D 2<2 B8<272?6, ;2:5@ (36C=6324 38=8H72 = 8>385 B:4>- = 785 Q4 H6585 ;8:5674. * 27894 2 76, <8Q4322), HB:6=6 32Q4 – 72B >4L74<E- 2 >:D96L 38=8H7E H7638=L7HL = 4>23@F 38H72 (?:67?6L :6HI2;:8=?6 H8N@72L). :L> «?D:E4C8=» B8H758>4:32H7H?898 &83K437:6K2L H8N@72F-«<89872B8=» 36 38=8H73898 92B4:74?H76. /32 = :6=38F H6F74 )D3476 =@I4, P45 36 C6B6>3@G 54:4 32 ? P45D 34 8NLC@=6J7 :L>8=8- 636<896G (BBC 2<2 CNN), B8>6JO2G 23- 98 B87:4N274<L 38=8H74F. S43E C6 >345 ;8:56K2J = N8<44 636<272P4H?85, >4- B:82HG8>L7 H?63>6<@ = H=47H?8F Q2C32, <8=85 H72<4. `78 B8C=8<L47 98=8:27E 8 =@BDH?6J7HL =H4 N8<44 B:8>=23D7@4 785, P78 8NO6L, 36 36I =C9<L>, 743>43- B:8>D?7@, 2CN2:6J7HL 38=@4 B:6=274- K2L <89872B2C6K22 =@:6Q436 = )D3474 <2 – =H4 A78 34 25447 2H78:22, (6P6<6 2 N8<44 L=38. &83K6. (6H78LO44 ND>47 ><27EHL =4P38. %54338 A7D 745B8:6<E3DJ H7:D?7D:D = 8NO45 B:8>=29647 AH7472?6 %374:3476. !78 B8G8Q4 36 8NDP4324 36H HB8H8N- 38H72 N@H7:8 HG=67@=67E «HD7E» H8- N@72L 2 76? Q4 N@H7:8 C6N@=67E 498, B- 3 /-0)$: 3"=" -"!>$'%% AB,/-C$,". B4:4F>L ? >:D985D. * :D3478=H?2G 38- !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 285
  12. 12. =8H73@G H6F76G «<4376 38=8H74F» >647 <8=8F 34B:832K6458H72, 87?:@78H72 2 G:838<892P4H?2F B878? :6C:8C3433@G 346:72?D<2:D458H72. * H767E4 «#:472F H8N@72F. (8 A76 «<4376» 34 36567@- H5@H<» ). 16:7 [Barthes 2002, 502-503] =647HL H237695672P4H?2 36 8NODJ N8- H<4>DJO25 8N:6C85 8B2H@=6< =2CD6<2- N23D 2H78:22. "8N@72L ?6? B:6=2<8 C6K2J 2H78:22 36 D:8=34 76?898, = 498 G:63L7HL = «6:G2=4», ?878:@F H?8:44 74:5236G, «7:47E498 H5@H<6» (B85258 B8G8Q 36 G6872P4H?2F H4:@F ;83 ><L 23;8:5672=3898 2 H25=8<2P4H?898): «=HB@I4?» H=4Q2G H8N@72F. S4FH7=2- 74<E38, 8BK2L 6:G2=6 36 38=8H73@G «%H78:2L (:6HH?6C) 34 L=<L47HL DQ4 78<E- ?8 B8<38=<6H738F H2H7458F (7@HLP4<4734F H6F76G 8N36Q647 787 ;6?7, 36H?8<E- 36::672=38F H2H7458F), 38 H7638=27HL 76?- ?8 34C36P256 ><L H498>3LI3498 >3L Q4 – =8B:4?2 A785D – 8N@P38F B8=4:G38H- 7EJ (un simple espace), B8<45 B8H78L3H7= 2 N8<EI6L P6H7E H8N@72F – = 785 P2H- B4:5D76K2F, H7638=27HL 78F B8=4:G38H7EJ <4, :4B:4C4372:8=633@G = %374:3474. 2 78F HK438F, PE2 <8Q3@4 9:632K@ D538- 0:82C8I4>I24 H8N@72L, ?6? B:6=2<8, Q6J7 «B4:5D76K2833DJ» 29:D C36?6… 836 4H7E 787 N4C:6HHD>3@F B8:L>8?, ?878:@F 34 254J7 32?6?2G B8H<4>H7=2F ><L 36- B8C=8<L47 :6C=2=67E 8B:4>4<433DJ P2H- H78LO498 – B8<272?2 B:4>H?6C@=6<2 7DJ H4:2J, 6<4678:2P4H?DJ ?85N236K2J… 34H8H78L=I24HL ?676H7:8;@, ?676H- (65 H<4>D47 B4:4=4:3D7E B:2=@P384 ?<2I4 «P45 N8<44 B8N8P3@5 L=<L47HL H5@H<, 745 7:8;@ B:82HG8>2<2 = >:D92G 54H76G N8<44 B6:6C276:3@5 83 L=<L47HL B8 8738I4- 2 7D7 Q4 =@74H3L<2HE H88NO432L52 8 32J ? :6HH?6C@=6458F 2H78:22»: 368N8:87, >:D92G ?676H7:8;6G 2 B:82HI4H7=2LG, A78 2H78:2L H7638=27HL = 34?878:85 H5@H<4 B4:454338F (paramétrique) B8 8738I432J ? I8D-C=4C>@ H?63>6<2<2 2<2 H ID585 [=2CD6<E385D] 8C36P6JO45D, = ?878:85 836 B:4>H76=<L<2 8P4:4>3@4 «B:84?7@», =@H7DB647 =H498 <2IE B8<45 H54O432F, ?83- H727D72=38F 349672=38H7EJ 2<2, 236P4 – B8- 8 ?878:@G H498>3L DQ4 32?78 34 B85- BD7P2K4F.» 327 2 7.>. T2B4:-6:G2=36L 2H78:2L 29:647 :8<E ;836, H 34F 34=8C58Q38 S8=8<E38 <JN8B@738, ?6? N6:78=H?84 8H767EHL 364>234 – >6Q4 4H<2 =@ B@- 2C36P6<E38 H25B672C2:DJO44 8B2H6- 76474HE DC367E 8 H8N@72LG B:8I<898, 324 =2CD6<E3898 «7:47E498 H5@H<6» ?6? = =6I45 8?34 B:8>8<Q6J7 36=LCP2=8 HDNH763K22 H8NH7=4338 «;2<E52P4H?8- B:2HD7H7=8=67E H498>3LI324 N6334:@ 98», ?6? ?23874?H7D6<E38H72, B:254- 2 98:LP24 38=8H72. /32 =?:6B<43@ = 3274<E38 ? %374:347D (= P6H738H72, ? :6C<2P3@G 54H76G 6:G2=3898 87:@=?6 <89872B2C6K22 H8N@72L 36 38=8H73@G 38=8H738F <437@. !76 745B8:6<E36L H6F76G) 36P23647 =@B8<3L7E ?:272- H54HE =@>=29647 36 B4:=@F B<63 H4- P4H?24 ;D3?K22. %374:347 34 «:6HH?6- 98>3LI324 H8N@72L – = N8<EI23H7=4 C@=647 2H78:2F» – 32 8NO4F %H78:22, H=845 8>3872B3@4 DQ4 B:82HG8>2=I4- 8NU4>23LJO4F =H4G Q2=DO2G 36 BD72 5D – 254338 N<698>6:L 2G H2J523D7- ? ?6P4H7=4338 B:48N:6Q43385D ND>D- 38F 8B8C36=6458H72. O45D, 32 >6Q4 2H78:2F P6H73@G. *2CD- "8N@724 HG=67@=647HL =2CD6<E38 6<E3@F C36? 2C 2<<JH7:6K22, 2C «B6- – C>4HE 34P498 2374:B:472:8=67E 2<2 :6C276» 36 B8<38?:8=385 74<4 2H78:22 B832567E. 08>8N38 785D, ?6? = 74<4B:8- B:4=:6O647HL = 23H763K2J, 6NH8:N2- 9:6556G 72B6 «*@ 8P4=2>4K» 2 = 38=8- :DJODJ 2H78:2J, = «N4C:6HHD>3@F H7LG 36 74<4?6:723?4 =@>4<L47HL ?:DQ- B8:L>8?», «P2H7DJ H4:2J, 6<4678:2- ?85 «H8N@724» 2 >2?78: A58K2836<E38 P4H?DJ ?85N236K2J». ((4 H<DP6F38 B8>P4:?2=647 – H587:274, H587:274, )8N4:7 16:3477 2 SA=2> X6:I6<< D7- =87 P4<8=4? =@B6>647 2C 8?36. % C:2- =4:Q>6J7, P78 8B:4>4<4324 H474=8F 74<E, C6762= >@G6324, :6HH567:2=647 AH7472?2 34=8C58Q38 = B:23K2B4, B8H- B8=4:G38H7E H8N@72L =8 =H4F 44 H5@H- ?8<E?D HDO38H7E %374:3476 H8H7827 = 286 T/)(VW, ,"X'(/*'
  13. 13. 785, P78 <JN84 H8>4:Q6324 34523D45o *4O2. * 56:?H2H7H?8-G6F>4994:263H?85 :6H7=8:L47HL = H8NH7=4338F H7:D?7D:4 ;D3>654376<E385 H5@H<4 87PDQ>432L, [Burnett, Marshall 2003]). ?89>6 =4OE B4:4H7647 N@7E «B:8-2C=4- % 254338 = A785 «N4C:6HHD>385 B8- >43245». &89>6 H72:6J7HL =H4 H<4>@ :L>?4» =8C58Q38 HG=6727E :6K28- (6P6<6, 2C ?878:898 A76 =4OE 7=8:P4H- 36<E38H7E %374:3476 ?6? ;8:5@ – 34 ?25 DH2<245 =@=8>27HL. H78<E?8 :6C38=2>38H72, H?8<E?8 B8- "<4>@ ?83?:473898 B:82C=8>LO498 :8Q>6JO4F 58>4<2 – =2CD6<E3898 7:D>6, H B858OEJ ?878:898, B8 5@H- B87:4N<432L. (4 787 <2 H65@F 36=@? <2 18>:2F6:6, P4<8=4? B:2=LC@=6< >85232:D47 = 36I4F B8=H4>34=38H- =4O2 ? H=845D =88N:6Q64585D 8N<2- 72 B87:4N<432L, ?89>6 H :6HH4L33@5 ?D. "4FP6H Q4 54Q>D =4O652 2 P4<8=4- =8CNDQ>43245, H?8<ECL B8 =27:2365 2 ?85 «H=8N8>38 29:647 B:8H7:63H7=8»: N4H?834P3@5 :L>65 78=6:8=, 5@ =@N2- «0:8H7:63H7=8 >638 45D ?6? :6HB:4>4- :645 78 78, 78 – A78? <274<E36L H7:D?7D:6, 2 P4:4C ?837:8<E 0:2 A785 =@N8:, B8?DB?6 L=<L47HL P45- 36> B:8H7:63H7=85 83 >4:Q27 = H=82G 78, P78 B:8=8K2:D47 >6<E34FI44 H?8<E- :D?6G =H4 =6:2637@ =C62588738I432F Q4324 =C9<L>85 B8 :L>65 H7:D?7D:3@G 54Q>D =4O652» [18>:2FL: 1995, 21]. :6C<2P2F. *4>E H498>3L 5@ B8?DB645 34 "8=:45433@F P4<8=4? H8NH7=4338 34 =4OE, 6 H7:D?7D:3DJ B8C2K2J = 78=6:- B87:4N<L47 =4O2, 34 8N<6>647 252: 83 38F H4:22. * 5696C234 B4:4> 3652 «96- 2G DB8:L>8P2=647, 8N:476L H4NL «= 56- <4:4L B:4>B:8H587:6» =@<8Q433@G 2<2 32BD<2:8=6322 H2H7458F, B8>>4:Q2=6L =@=4I433@G =4O4F 76?, P78N@ = :L>D 44 = 76?72P4H?85 :6=38=4H22» [#65 Q4, H7:D?7D:3@G =6:26K2F – H74B432 C6- 22]. %374:347 4H7E 2>46<E384, «AH7472- 93D78H72 38H?6 8ND=2 2<2 K=478=@G 87- P4H?84» B:8H7:63H7=8 76?898 5632BD<L- 743?8= 8>3898 2 7898 Q4 ;6H836 B<67EL 72=3898, H25D<L72=3898 8N<6>632L. – 5@ =@N:6<2 H=8J. ";8?DH2:8=6=I2HE "<4>@ «=4O4H7=4338H72 =4O4H7=6», 36 =4O2, D=4<2P2=, :6H?:@= 44 «?6:- 2C ?878:898 836 H>4<636. &6? H?6C6< 723?D» = B:254:8P38F, 36?834K, ?DB2= N@ W6F>4994:, 2C B<6H72?8=8F ND7@<?2 44, 5@ H38=6 87B:6=<L45HL C6 «745 Q4 H =8>8F D<47DP2=647HL <8?6<E38-52- H65@5»: C6 4O4 8>38F 56F?8F, 38 DQ4 ;8<892P4H?6L «74536L >:456 C45<2», >:D9898 K=476, C6 4O4 8>38F H7:D?7D:- H=8N8>38 87>6JO6L A7D =8>D, = H=8J 38F =6:26K24F, 254JO4F 8738I4324 34 8P4:4>E B:23L=I6L A78 ?6? >6: «:8H@ ? 36I45D 74<D, 38 ? >:D925 78=6:65. X@ 34N6». =8C=:6O645HL 36 8H38=3DJ H7:632KD, S<L W6F>4994:6 36>=296JO6LHL AB8G6 = 96<4:4J B:4>B:8H587:6 ?8:2>8:8= 9<8N6<E3898 :@3?6 74<4?855D32?6K2F, 58<<6, = ?878:85 :6C<2P3@4 =27:23- 8754P436 745, P78: 3@4 23H76<<LK22 2 36>B2H2 7L3D7 36H = H=8J H78:83D ?6? N6334:@ 2 =2CD6<E- «*H4 =:45433@4 2 B:8H7:63H7=433@4 >6<2 HQ256J7HL. … 0:4>4< DH7:63432L 56<4FI4- 3@4 HH@<?2 36 >:D924 «H7:632K@» 2 98 3654?6 36 >2H763K2J >8H729647HL 74<4- «H6F7@». % B87:4N274<E H =8CNDQ>432- =2C28338F 6BB6:67D:8F, ?878:6L H?8:8 B:8- 32Q47 2 H?:4B27 H8N8F =HJ 53898A76Q3DJ 45 :=47HL = :6C3@4 H78:83@, 54P47HL 87 56G23D ?855D32?6K22.» [1993, 316] =4O2 ? =4O2, =@N2:6L H4N4 =88N:6Q6- 45DJ 2>4372P38H7E, =@G8>LODJ 2C-B8> % 254338 A78 36=LCP2=84 H7:45<4324 ? ?837:8<L H25=8<2P4H?898 H7:D?7D:2:8- DH7:63432J >2H763K22 L=<L47HL H25- =632L. Y8BB239 – A78 6372-36::672=- B78585 34=8C58Q38H72 N<2C8H72 H =4- 36L 6?72=38H7E par excellence. 0:6?72?6 OEJ. %3@52 H<8=652, =4OE B:4=:6O6- C6N=432L 34 78<E?8 %H78:22, 38 2 H658F 47HL = B<8H?DJ «?6:723?D», 6 H2H7456 !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 287
  14. 14. 76?2G «=4O4F» – = 92B4:74?H7, ?D<E72- P4:4C 36C36P4324 = «=@N8:3@4» 8:963@ =2:DJO2F B8:389:6;2P4H?2F =C9<L>: («H8=47@» :6C<2P3@G D:8=34F) 2 7.>. 7@ 58Q4IE D=2>47E «=H4», =H4 P78 B8- "8=:45433@F :8HH2FH?2F <2>2:DJ- Q4<64IE N4C 87H:8P?2, C654><432L, N4C O2F ?<6HH ;8:52:D47HL 2C H65@G :6C- «BH2G8<8922», 2>46<E38 =2>25@5 (?6? <2P3@G «8N<85?8=» H76:8F H2H745@. :4?<653@F 8N:6C). (8 7@ 58Q4IE «=2- (6DP3@4 :6N8732?2, 87?:@=I24 = H4N4 >47E» B:2 DH<8=22, P78 34 ND>4IE 8H- N2C34H-76<637@, 76? 36C@=645@4 «N@=- 7636=<2=67EHL 36 =2>2585, 6 87?:@=67E I24 ?85H858<EK@» (58<8>6L P6H7E =H4 38=@4 2 38=@4 «?6:723?2»: B8?D- ?855D32H72P4H?898 2H7AN<2I54376, B67E, 34=:872P4H?2 B4:4N2:67E =H4 38- =4>DO25 ?6P4H7=85 ?878:8F N@<6 DQ4 =@4 2 38=@4 78=6:@. 34 «DN4Q>4338H7E», 38 «232K2672=- 38H7E»), <496<2C8=6=I24HL B:4>H76=2- 74<2 H8=47H?8F «7434=8F A?83852?2» 2 A$0&%-."-$ -7'+"3$ 2("$#' ?:25236<2747, H?6P?85 B:48>8<4=I2F ;6CD «B4:=836P6<E3898 36?8B<432L», R>:8 :4K4B72=38F 6D>278:22 B8H758- >472 38=8F =@HI4F NJ:8?:6722, 6 76?- >4:32H7H?8F AH7472?2, 36G8>LO4F 8>38 Q4 38=6L 9434:6K2L HB8H8N3@G 58<8- 2C H65@G C6=4:I433@G H=82G =8B<8O4- >@G <J>4F, D>6P38 36I4>I2G H=8J 32F = %374:3474, H8H76=<L47, B8 534- 32ID = H8=:454338F :8HH2FH?8F A?8- 32J "?8776 -AI6, «B8H723>DH7:26<E- 3852?4. %G 8N:6C8=6324 – 87 34B8<- 3@F H:4>32F ?<6HH» [Lash 1990, 20]. 3898 H:4>3498 2 C6P6H7DJ =4HE56 H85- 08H723>DH7:26<E3@F H:4>32F &)'00 3274<E3@G >2B<858= 53898P2H<433@G – A78 <J>2, :6N876JO24 = H;4:4 54- B8H7B4:4H7:84P3@G 3498HD>6:H7=433@G &<6HH 269 >26, =@HI498 8N:6C8=632L, ;2363H8=, =DC8= >8 DP43@G H74B434F =4>DO2G C6- :4?<65@, 56:?472396 2 54Q>D36:8>3@G B6>3@G D32=4:H27478=. +6 B<4P652 D H=LC4F. !787 58<8>8F (= 2H78:2P4H?85 2 N8<EI23H7=6 2C 32G – B8H78L336L H54- =8C:6H7385 H5@H<6G) ?<6HH G6:6?74:2- 36 :8>6 >4L74<E38H72, N4H?834P36L P4- CD47HL :6C<2P3@5 8N:6C8=63245 (2 A78 :4>6 :6C8=@G B:84?78=, H5436 8NU4?78= H8=H45 348NLC674<E38 A<276:3@4 =DC@) N2C34H-6?72=38H72. 2 N8<EI8F B8>=2Q38H7EJ = N2C34H4. %54338 ><L A7898 ?<6HH6 )D347 H7638- (8=@5 :8HH2FH?25 – P276F 58H?8=H?25 =27HL 78F 8NO4F B<8O6>?8F, 36 ?878:8F – LBB2 A72 G6:6?74:2H72?2 B:2HDO2 H =@:2H8=@=647HL 34P78 =:8>4 H72<2H- 4O4 N8<EI4F H74B43EJ ?837:6H738H72. * 72P4H?898 4>23H7=6 A78F 9474:894338F DH<8=2LG 87HD7H7=2L 7:6>2K2F DH78FP2- H8K26<E38F 9:DBB@, = ?878:8F B:82H- =898 H454F3898 N2C34H6 (72B6 «%=638= G8>27 8NU4>23274<E3@F A;;4?7 4H<2 2 H@38=EL») H65@4 DHB4I3@4 2 6?72=- 34 36 D:8=34 H8>4:Q632L, 78 36 D:8=34 3@4 H8K26<E3@4 H<82 B:8G8>2<2 H?=8CE B8>6P2 23;8:56K22, H658F 6:G274?78- H278 B6:72F38-38543?<67D:38F H2H745@. 32?2 92B4:B:8H7:63H7=6. 0:8H7:63H7=8 08H<4>3LL ;8:52:8=6<6 8738H274<E3DJ %374:3476 B:4>H76=<L47 H8N8F 9858<89 985894338H7E «L>:6» N4C:6C54:3898 H8- 7898 H8K26<E3898 B:8H7:63H7=6 2 78F =47H?898 B:8<476:2676 H=8252 HB4K2- H8K26<E38F 58N2<E38H72, ?878:@52 G6- ;2P4H?252 H:4>H7=652 – 8N:6C8=6324 = :6?74:2CD47HL Q2C3433@F 52: B8H723- =4>DO2G B:8;2<E3@G =DC6G, B8H7-D32- >DH7:26<E3898 H:4>3498 ?<6HH6. =4:H2747H?6L 2>48<892P4H?6L B8>9878=?6 ). W8DA<<H H:6=32=647 N6C8=DJ «6:- (= P6H738H72 H2H7456 «=@HI2G B6:72F3@G G274?7D:D» 2 AH7472?D %374:3476 H B:8- I?8<»), B8Q2C34336L «:6N876 B8 HB4K2- G8>3@5 98H723@5 G8<<85 («<6D3>Q45», 6<E38H72», DP6H724 = BDN<2P38F Q2C32 87 639<. «lounge»): 288 T/)(VW, ,"X'(/*'
  15. 15. «*G8>L 36 =4N-H6F7, 5@ ?6? N@ =G8>25 = ?8- 44 B:4>H76=274<2, A?8385L =:45L 2 >4- :2>8:, 2C ?878:898 5@ 58Q45 =@F72 ? B2HE- 5433@5 74?H7D, ;8789:6;22, 6D>28;:69- 3E92, 34 B:8H78 36G8>L7 = )D3474 =HJ 5437D, ;2<E5D 2<2 =2>48?<2BD, ?6:723?4 H 348NG8>25DJ 23;8:56K2J 8738H274<E- Q2=8F ?654:@. &8:2>8: 58Q47 N@7E =@B8<- 38 ?D<E7D:3@G H8N@72F 2<2 ?83UJ3?7D- 343 H72<E38 2 36 H6585 >4<4 2338=6K28338, 38 = 78 Q4 =:45L =4N-H6F7 ;D3?K2832:D47 :@ :@3?6, 38 H658H78L74<E38 B<632:D- 78<E?8 ?6? B8H78L33@F 7:63C273@F G8<<» J7 BD74I4H7=2L, 36B:L5DJ C6?6C@=6L [Howells 2003, 233]. N2<47@ 2 :4C4:=2:DL 874<2, B8?DB6J7 ?3292 2 DVD, C36?85L7HL. -6D3>Q ?6? 8H8N84, B8<D-BDN<2P384 )D347 =8 HDO4H7=433@G 6HB4?76G 58- B854O4324 – A78 54H78 87>@G6 2 =H7:4P Q47 N@7E B83L7 ?6? ;8:56 «=2>432L <J>4F, =@I4>I2G 2C H=82G B:2=673@G 52:6» =8HG8>LO498 ?<6HH6 :8HH2FH?898 C83 (>856I32G ?85367 2<2 3854:8= 8NO4H7=6. «*2>4324 52:6» – B83L724, 874<L), 38 34 >8I4>I2G >8 B:8H7:63H7= :6C:6N67@=64584 -JHE4385 T8<E>56- H8NH7=4338 BDN<2P3@G, 9>4 =H7:4P6J7- 385 2 8B2H@=6JO44 =2>4324 34 ?6? HL «PDQ6?2». -6D3>Q – A78 B8H78L336L PD=H7=43384 =8HB:2L724, 6 ?6? H8K2- 7:63C2736L C836, 54H78 B:6C>3@G I6- 6<E3DJ 8B72?D, P4:4C ?878:DJ H587:27 7632F, = ?878:8F <J>2 B4:4H4?6J7HL = 36 52: 23>2=2>. /B72?D, 9434:2:D45DJ >:4F;DJO45 :4Q254 «7DH8=?2», H=8- 745 H65@5 ?<6HH85 (498 2>4L52, 2374- N8>38F N894538F H472 8738I432F. :4H652, B:2=@P?652, 36>4Q>652), ? ?8- &855D32?6K2L = H72<4 <6D3>Q – A78 78:85D B:236><4Q27 23>2=2> 2 ?878:6L 34-=2:7D6<E3@F N@78=8F «%374:347», B:872=8B8H76=<L47 498 >:D925 H8K26<E- = ?878:85 D>8=8<EH7=24 87 «H4:;2396» 3@5 9:DBB65 [T8<E>563 2001, 1964] B8 H<DP6F3@5 B4:4H4P432L5 B878?8= M8:56 «=2>432L 52:6», B:236><4Q6- 23;8:56K22 HB8H8N38 B:234H72 =B8<34 O6L :8HH2FH?85D B8H7-23>DH7:26<E38- 8OD725DJ B8<ECD: B8B6>6324 = 8P4:4>- 5D H:4>345D ?<6HHD, H 8>38F H78:83@, 38F «B:84?7» 2<2 «745D»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«783», 36 36I =C9<L> C6>6J7 254338 832. * DH<8=2LG, ?89>6 B8H78L33@F, «N@H7:@F» %374:347 ><L B8>6=<LJO498 N8<EI23H7=6 36H4<432L )8HH22 L=<L47HL 4O4 :8H?8IEJ, :8H- H2FH?2F B8H723>DH7:26<E3@F H:4>32F ?<6HH B8P72 K4<2?85 B4:454H72<HL = 92B4:B:8H7:63H7=8. (6<2K8 743>43K2L – H656L 6?72=36L 2 DHB4I36L P6H7E 36H4<432L (8H8N4338 B8H<4 H?63>6<6 H (#*) =H4 543EI4 H587:27 98HD>6:H- 7=433@4 74<4?636<@ 2<2 P27647 ND56Q- 3DJ B:4HHD, B:4>B8P276L 2374:3473@4 2$&)'.': 7",,%.,-$6 >",/-%'48,/*$:?'$6 38=8H73@4 2 636<272P4H?24 :4HD:H@; B,/+/%-$ ,*+4'+=" -:$,,$. !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 289
  16. 16. !76 AH7472?6 =8C32?647 36 36>@3>2=2- <J>4F HG8Q498 H8K26<E3898 B:82HG8Q- >D6<E385 B4:4H4P4322 =?DH8=, B87:4N- >432L, 8N:6C8=632L, DN4Q>432F, :8H- 38H74F 2 ;6376C2F 9474:894338F 38=8F H2FH?6L 38=6L ND:QD6C2L «HB<6P2=6- ND:QD6C22. *B4P67<4324 =2CD6<E38F 47HL» = 38P3@G ?<DN6G, 9>4 36 B4:=84 B4:49:DQ4338H72 – B4:=@F H25B785 38- 54H78 =@G8>27 76 H78:836 =2CD6<E3898 =898 «=2>432L 52:6». !76 B4:49:DQ43- B87:4N<432L, ?878:DJ 58Q38 36C=67E 38H7E – A;;4?7 34H?8<E?2G ;6?78:8=. 252>Q4=@52 23=4H72K2L52. />4Q>6, *8-B4:=@G, Nó<EI6L, B8 H:6=3432J H 56I23@, HBD732K@ (:4Q4 HBD732?2) C6B6>3@52 8N:6CK652, B<8O6>E, C632- – 8NU4>23LJ7 38=DJ ND:QD6C2J B8=4:G 56456L :4?<658F: A78 8738H27HL ?6? ? :8>6 C63L72F, H8K26<E3898 H767DH6 2 ?8<2P4H7=D 2HB8<ECD45@G :4?<653@G B:. *2CD6<E36L B4:49:DQ4338H7E )D34- N6334:8=, 76? 2 ? 2G N8<EI25 :6C54- 76 =B<87E >8 =2CD6<E38F 69:4HH2=38H72 :65. !76 A?H743H2=36L G6:6?74:2H72?6 C=DP27 AG85 6758H;4:@ 38P3898 ?<DN6. DH2<2=647HL C6 HP47, H 8>38F H78:83@, 23743H2=38H72 =2CD6<E3@G 8N:6C8= – )D347 87<2P647 H2H745672P4H?84 2HB8<E- C8=6324 gif- 2 flash-63256K2F, C6P6H7DJ B8 34H?8<E?D = 8>385 8?34, P78 H8C>647 =B4P67<4324 =2CD6<E38F 69:4HH2=38H- 72. " >:D98F H78:83@, :4?<656 =?<232- =647HL = H65@4 :6C<2P3@4 H7:D?7D:3@4 B8C2K22 %374:347-8?83 – B8 B4:2547:D, 38 76?Q4 «N4HK4:458338» :6C>=296L 56HH2=@ 8H38=3898 H8>4:Q632L = 98:2- C8376<E385 2 =4:72?6<E385 36B:6=<4- 32LG, P78 B:6?72P4H?2 34 36N<J>647HL 36 H4:E4C3@G C6B6>3@G H6F76G. C-0&-40&35 ;$"#%: 9%#'+, 4":1+' 2%#8- *2CD6<E36L 69:4HH2=38H7E – 34P78 =:8- $:?'" «(8!+/? % -*%&$/?». >4 8:48<6, = ?878:85 :6C<2P3@4 H<82 874P4H7=433@G LBB2 8N:476J7 H=8J =2- $H74H7=4338, A78 34 2H?<JP274<E3@F >258H7E = BDN<2P385 B:8H7:63H7=4. (6 ;6?78:, ?878:@5 8NULH3L47HL =2CD- B:4>547385 D:8=34 A78 =8B<8O647HL 6<E36L 69:4HH2=38H7E )D3476. #45, ?78 = H=848N:6C385 ?D<E74 G2O3898 «new B8H4O647 :8HH2FH?24 2 8H8N4338 58H- look» 1X*. * 74P4324 34?878:898 =:4- ?8=H?24 :@3?2 36 8?:6236G 98:8>6 (B2- 5432 H7436 H38H258F 98H7232K@ «X8H?- O4=@4, B:8578=6:3@4 2<2 H7:8274<E- =6» = H6585 K437:4 :8HH2FH?8F H78<2K@ 3@4) 34 58Q47 34 N:8H27EHL = 9<6C6 H<DQ2<6 O2785 ><L 929637H?898 :4?<65- 8N2<24 ?:2P6O2G =@=4H8?, 34H8:6C54:- 3898 2C8N:6Q432L 38=8F 58>4<2 1X*. 3@G 78:98=@5 78P?65 32 B8 56HI76ND, &D<E78=@F B8H7H8=47H?2F ;2<E5 «1D- 32 B8 H72<J (36B:254:, 36>B2HE «_4- 54:» 2 34>6=32F G27 «`4:3@F ND54:» 5437» :8C8=@52 ND?=652 :6C54:85 H – H :6C3@G H78:83 8N8C36P6J7 B4:4H4- B8<8=23D ?8374F34:6, = ?878:85 25 P4324 =?DH8= H8H78L74<E3@G 2 HB8:72=- 78:9DJ7). * DH<8=2LG 4O4 58<8>898 2 3@G 58<8>@G <J>4F, >23652P3@G B:4>- 8P43E B8>=2Q3898 :8HH2FH?898 :@3?6, B:2325674<4F 2 ?:25236<27476. ?89>6 «54H76» C6 N2C34H85 4O4 34 C6- *34 A<276:38F 7:6>2K22 ?<6HH88N:6- ?:4B<43@ (=H4 A72 B6<67?2, ?8374F34- C8=632L, = P6H738H72, B8 58>4<2 639- :@, =:45433@4 B6=2<E83@ 2 B:.), =2- <2FH?898 72B6 ?<DN8=, 8NU4>23L=I2G CD6<E38 «?:2P67E» 8 H4N4 B:2G8>27HL 290 T/)(VW, ,"X'(/*'
  17. 17. 9:85P4. !78 78Q4 P6H7E 348ND:QD6C38F 3245 H6F76 589<6 N@7E 8P43E C654738F 6758H;4:@ :8HH2FH?898 98:8>6, ?878:6L (>2H;D3?K22, «BDH7@4» ?38B?2 2 B:.). =<2L47 36 AH7472?D )D3476. 1D?=6<E384 B4:43256324 )D34785 C6B6>3@G 58>4<4F B:2=8>27 ? «24:89- <2;2P4H?8F» =2CD6<2C6K22 C36P432L, 2("$#: /-D#3&' 9'3.0#4-4'"3+ B:4=:6O432L =4:N6<E3@G C36P432F = 34P27645@4 9:6;2P4H?24 A<45437@. %374:347 = B8H7H8=47H?85 B:8H7:63H- E%#$.35 F$7$1$4 8B2H@=647 A;- 7=4, B:4Q>4 =H498 )D347, DH?8:4338 ;4?7@ 76?898 ?<832:8=632L = H=845 126, 233 -4N4>4= 36=4:H7@=647 DBDO43384 C6 98>@ <2K4- «&8=8>H7=4» H<4>DJO25 8N:6C85: 54:3898 8778:Q432L C6B6>3898 8N:6C6 Q2C32. "74B43E 498 =78:2P38H72 76?8=6, «*HL A76 H237472?6 34 B:4>36C36P436 ><L DH73898 2HB8<EC8=632L. 0:4><8Q432L 7D7 P78 B8:8F B4:4G8>27 = HB4K2;2P4H?DJ 29:6J7 :8<E 9:6;2P4H?2G N<8?8=, ?878:@4 8:29236<E38H7E. &6? 2C=4H738, B4:=84 B:23L78 2547E. +6P45, B8P45D, ><L ?898 – 34=6Q38. !78 =H4 B:254:@ ?8:B8:672=38F B8?8<4324 :8HH2FH?2G =4N->2C6F34:8= 9<DB8H72 – 4H<2 K437:6<E3@F 8;2H B:2?6C6< = 8H38=385 H8H78L<8 2C B:89:6552H- 2HB8<EC8=67E H<8963, 36B2H633@F ?D:H2=85 78=, ?878:@4 B8H<4>8=674<E38 B4:438- B8> <89872B85, 78 2 = )8HH22 36>8 H>4<67E 78 Q4 H6584.» [-4N4>4=, 2005] H2<2 9878=@4 C6B6>3@4 :6C:6N87?2 4$7-139'5"' 36 54H73DJ «B8P=D» ><L &<6HH2;2?678:@ B82H?8=@G H2H745 *4N->2C6F3 DB6?8=@=632L H8NH7=433898 B:8>D?- DH2<2=6J7 =B4P67<4324 I2C8;:432- 209 76. #6?, P78 ?6?8F-32ND>E :D3478=H?2F P4H?8F 58C62P38H72 9<8N6<E3898 52:6. %374:347-5696C23 N@< 78P38F ?8B24F +>4HE 347 24:6:G22 2<2 H2H745@ = ?6<2;8:32FH?898 H8N:676. "4:94F &DC- H5@H<4 6:G62P4H?2G ?<6HH2;2?6K2F 34K8=, 8>23 2C «>238C6=:8=» )D3476, 52:6, 36H<4>32?652 ?878:8F 832 L=<L- =HB8523647, P78 = 1996 98>D («98> 23- J7HL. &D<E7D:6 87>4<436 87 8NO4H7=6, 74:3478=H?898 ND56», ?89>6 =H4 N8<EI4 N63?2 87 N2C34H6. /NO4<274:67D:3@4 38=@G H7:632K H8C>6=6<8HE = )8HH22, 6 :DHH?24 H<8=6 (>85, :6N876, DP4N6) H8- 34 = '54:2?4 2<2 %C:62<4, ?89>6, 36- H4>H7=DJ7 H8 H<A3985 («Q4<4C8»), ?6<E- P23647 6?72=38 :6C=2=67EHL 348;2K2- ?2 H 639<2FH?898 (56:?47, B:8=6F>4:@) 6<E3@F )D347 – = P6H738H72, C6L=2<2 8 – H H8NH7=4338 639<2FH?252 H<8=652 H4N4 B:84?7@ «#43476» 2 «Zhurnal.ru»), (hi-tech) 2<2 6NN:4=267D:652 («MP3», 2>4L «B8H587:25 36 '54:2?D 2 H>4<645 «"X%»). 78 Q4 B8-:DHH?2», 8?6C6<6HE 36?834K =8H7:4N8=636. «(6>8 H?6C67E, – B2I47 &DC34K8=, – =H4, ? P45D N@<2 74G32P4H- ?24 =8C58Q38H72, = )8HH22 N@<8 H?8- B2:8=638 2 54H7652 >6Q4 D<DPI438» [&DC34K8= 2004, 28]. />36?8, = H2<D 7898, P78 C6 5389252 :D3478=H?252 B:84?7652 = B8>6=<LJ- O45 N8<EI23H7=4 H<DP64= 34 H78L<8 32 23;:6H7:D?7D:@, 32 8B@76 (>6 2 H474=84 H88NO4H7=8 H8H78L<8 N8<EI4F P6H7EJ 2C <J>4F, «34 =H49>6 B:8;4HH2836<E- 38 C63256JO2GHL ?85BEJ74:652 2 745 N8<44 H47L52» [#65 Q4, 29]), :6C32K6 Yandex.ru: -:$,,%)%-$@%6 ">*+4+:6+/,6 54Q>D 8N8<8P?8F 2 :46<E3@5 H8>4:Qa- >" /*+9"2$'%D. !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 291
  18. 18. 08P72 ?6? = «34?8F ?276FH?8F A3K2?<8- >4?8 >8 H8=47H?898 ?83H7:D?72=2C56), B4>22», ?878:DJ B:2=8>27 = B:254: X. ;<AI-63256K24F 2 7:4G54:3@52 58>4- MD?8 = «"<8=6G 2 =4O6G», 87>4<E3@F <L52. )6HG8Q44 DN4Q>4324 «P45 H<8Q- BD3?7 ?<6HH2;2?6K22 8N:6CD47HL =H45 344 >2C6F3, 745 83 B:8;4HH2836<E344» 745, P78 34 =8I<8 = >633DJ ?<6HH2;2- B:2=8>27 ? 785D, P78 C654738 H32Q647HL ?6K2J («0:8P44»). D>8NH7=8 B8<EC8=632L (usability); N8<E- -892?6 B8>8N38F ?<6HH2;2?6K22 C6- I2F :6C:@= 54Q>D 8B@73@5 2 348B@7- >647HL 34 X2;85-36::672=85, 6 H76- 3@5 B8<EC8=674<45 = ?8<2P4H7=4 I698=, 72H72?8F C6B:8H8=, H7672H72P4H?252 348NG8>25@G ><L 7898, P78N@ >8N:67EHL 743>43K2L52 H<4B898 HB:8H6 36 23;8:- >8 3DQ38F 23;8:56K22 36 38=85 H6F74 56K2J. %374:347 = ?6P4H7=4 H8N<6C32- 76?Q4 H8H76=<L47 87<2P274<E3DJ 8H8- 74<E38F =8C58Q38H72 >647 I63H DC367E N4338H7E )D3476. 8 52:26>6G 87>4<E3@G =4O4F C6 HP47 * 87<2P24 87 A<454378= >458?:672C56 D7:67@ B8C36=6458H72 H65898 52:6. 2 H6582:8322 C6B6>3898 =2CD6<E3898 *H48NO6L =C6258H=LCE 2 =8C58Q38H7E H72<L funky business, )D347 342C543- H65@G >6<E32G 2 H=8N8>3@G «6HH8K26- 38 :4B:4C4372:D47 H4:E4C38H7E 38=8- K2F» – = %374:3474 A76 G6:6?74:2H72?6 98 ?6B276<6 2 >4:Q6=3DJ H8<2>38H7E ?6? N@ B8 D58<P632J =H7:8436 = N4H- =<6H72. * 8H38=385 Q4 AH7472?6 )D3476 ?834P38H7E B4:4N8:6 ;:6954376:38F C6?<JP647HL = 785, P78 36 6NH8<J738 23;8:56K22 = :4Q254 23>2=2>D6<E38- H763>6:73@F ?6:?6H – 36P236L H B:4- B6HH2=3898 «B8:389:6;2P4H?898» 8N- H<8=D7898 ;8:5676 ?38B8? 88 36 31, <6>632L. >=DG-7:4G N6C8=@G :6C54:8= 2?838? 2 )D3478=H?2F =4N->2C6F3 8754P43 B4- >=DG-7:4G H78<NK8= =4:72?6<E38F B:8- P67EJ H8K26<E38F >2;;4:43K26K22 ?:D7?2 – 367L92=6J7HL B8=4:G38H72 H :8HH2FH?898 8NO4H7=6. " 8>38F H78:8- H65@52 :6C388N:6C3@52 ?6:723?652 3@, =H4 4O4 B8BD<L:3@ 23>2=2>D6<E3@4 54H738F HB4K2;2?2 = ?83HEJ54:2H7- =4N-H7:632P?2, =@B8<3433@4 = AH7472- H?8F B6:6>2954 H5433@G B634<4? 74- ?4 >856I3498 ;8786<EN856, ?DH76:3@F <4;836 2<2 ?6H7856FC2396 [87 639<. =4N->2C6F3 A37DC26H78=, H658H78L74<E- «customizing» – 23>2=2>D6<E36L 36- 38 8H=82=I2G A<454376:3@4 36=@?2 H7:8F?6]. 0:2 A785, 8N:6O4324 )D34- :6N87@ = 9:6;2P4H?2G :4>6?78:6G. +6- 76 ? AH7472?4 H8=47H?8F 7:6>2K22 34 B6>3@4 B8:76<@ 6?72=38 ?636<2C2:DJ7 H78<E?8 >4<647 HB4K2;2P3@5 )D347, A7D H658>4L74<E38H7E = B:4><69645@4 H?8<E?8 B:4=:6O647 :6C388N:6C3@4 N4HB<6738 9878=@4 B:8;4HH2836<E3@4 H25=8<@ «6372ND:QD6C38F 2>48<8922»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
  19. 19. 73@G 74G38<892P4H?8-?855D32?672=3@G 8H38=3@4 38H274<2 P4<8=4P4H?2G ?6- =8C58Q38H74F %374:3476. )6HH587:4324 P4H7=). >6338F ?D<E7D:38F ;8:5@ = I2:8?8F 2H78:2P4H?8F B4:HB4?72=4 2 = ?8374?H74 3. *8C58Q38H7E 3436B:6=<L45898 2 34- H8=:45433898 B8C>34?6B276<2H72P4H?8- K43CD:2:D45898 >8H7DB6 ? 89:853@5 98 8NO4H7=6 HB8H8N38 B:4>8H74:4PE 36H 56HH2=65 23;8:56K22, HB8H8NH7=DJ- 87 38=898 =27?6 =4:@ =8 =H4B8N4Q>6- O44 B8=@I432J B:8;4HH2836<2C56 2 JODJ H2<D 36DP38-74G32P4H?898 B:8- N8<44 8H8C363385D 2 87=47H7=43385D 9:4HH6. B:23L72J :4I432F. 08743K26<E3@4 =8C58Q38H72 %374:- 3476 36 H498>3L =:L> <2 589D7 N@7E 8G- 4. (8=@4 ;8:5@ B:82C=8>H7=6 2 56H- =6P43@ H <JN8F P6H738F 78P?8F C:432L. H8=898 :6HB:8H7:63432L ?D<E7D:38F X8Q38 H?6C67E, P78 %374:347 – A78 H76- B:8>D?K22 –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«H6F7@» 5436 9<8N6<2C2:8=6338F, 23;8:56K2- B:82C=8>H7=6 H25=8<2P4H?8F 2>43- 8338F ?D<E7D:@, )D347 B:4>H7647 ?6? 72P38H72, B83L78F = <6?638=H?85 ?6P4H7=4338 N8<44 ?8H58B8<272P384, H5@H<4, ?6? L>:8 «DP:4Q>6JO2G 36>36K2836<E384 8N:6C8=6324, 34Q4<2 H<8=», 23>2=2>D6<E3@F B8:L>8? =@- B:4>I4H7=DJO24 36K2836<E3@4 AH74- N8:6 H<8= = H25=8<2P4H?85 ?837D:4 72P4H?24 ;8:5@ (H?6Q45, =4<2?6L :DH- 9:DBB8=898 >2H?D:H6 (87 =@N8:6 H2- H?6L )3#$%'#(%'). -274:67D:6 383258= >8 5476;8: 2 H239D<L:3@G 225 H<8=88N:6C8=632F). (6 A72G BD7LG , )D3476 4H7E 8B:4>4<4336L HB4K2;2- H25=8<2P4H?6L HDNU4?72=38H7E – 87 ?6 254338 = H=LC2 H <274:67D:8F: 52; «32?8=» >8 6=78:H?898 H72<L – B:8- 8 «<274:67D:8K437:2P38H72» :DHH?8F 72=8H7827 =88N:6Q6458F 2>4372P38H- ?D<E7D:@ B:8>8<Q647 H=84 HDO4H7=8- 72, 36 B:2563?D ?878:8F = 56HH8=85 =6324 36 <274:67D:3@G H6F76G )D3476, B8:L>?4 <8=27HL H8=:45433@F B87:4- 636<896 ?878:@5 347 = >:D92G H49543- N274<E («=34I38H7E», «252>Q» ?6? 76G %374:3476. [(676<EL &83:6>8=6] !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 293
  20. 20. S6, =8C58Q38, A78 B8H<4>32F =C>8G <2- 385 – >34=32? 2C36P6<E38 «2372543», 74:67D:8K437:2P3898 52;6, H B858OEJ B2I47HL ><L H4NL 2 ><L =4P38H72, 6 34 ><L 74?DO498 23;8:52:8=632L K4<4=8F ?878:898 N8<44 =4?6 =8C=8>2<6HE :DH- 6D>278:22 8 H=84F Q2C32. !787 8?HJ58- H?6L 2>4372P38H7E. 0:8>8<Q6L ;:6CD :83 H8>4:Q27 = H4N4 K4<DJ H8K26<E3DJ T:2I?8=K6 – «= X8H?=4 =H49>6 36F- H25B785672?D, ?:67?2F 2H78:2P4H?2F >47HL 34H?8<E?8 H87 <JN274<4F P498- 636<2C ?878:8F 589 N@ B858PE H8H7@?8- 32ND>E»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«8N36- 34=@38H258 87PDQ>433@4, 34B8><23- Q432L B:2456» (*. Y?<8=H?2F), 8N36- 3@4, 24:6:G2P4H?24. *4>4324 >34=32- Q432L <892?2 B8H758>4:32H7H?898 =2- ?8= G6:6?74:38 B:4Q>4 =H498 ><L >=DG CD6<E3898 B87:4N<432L. H8K26<E3@G 72B8=, HG=6P433@G = <274- :67D:3@G 72B6Q6G – 7D:9434=H?2G >4- =DI4? 2 B4P8:23@G =H4G 56H74F. /N6 B-/-)"$"3$ – C$"#+7%* 2007 A72G 72B6, =8 =H45 8H76<E385 H?8:44 >26547:6<E38 B:872=8B8<8Q3@G, B@- J34-5 >(%"'): 0$#$4'+ D0#$#3&' 76J7HL =@>4<27E ><L H4NL = B:6?72?6G 0)-4$0"-=- #4-%?$0#4' 237253898 B2HE56 G87E ?6?DJ-78 C83D H=8N8>@ 87 B67:26:G6<E3898 8NO4H7=6, * %374:3474, ?6? H7638=LO4FHLHL ?D<E- 87 498 34B:8H=4O4338H72, «9<DG87@» ? 7D:38F ;8:54, HDO4H7=DJ7 538Q4H7- >:D985D, B8I<8H72, 36H2<2L. S34=32? – =433@4 8P692 H8B:872=<432L H4N4 ?6? A78 <274:67D:36L 23H727DK2836<2C6K2L H2H7454 – ?6? 9<8N6<E385D 23H727D7D HDNU4?72=38H72; 83 B2I47HL =@H8?25, =2CD6<E3898 B87:4N<432L, ?6? =H4<43- 2HB8=4>6<E3@5 H<8985 – 8H8N898 H<8L H?8F B8:3896<4:44. * H472 =8C32?6J7 D9347433@G =3D7:2 ND:QD6C3898 8NO4- A<45437@ B8H7?<6HH2P4H?8F BDN<2P38F H7=6 (>474F, >4=DI4?, «N4>3@G <J>4F») H;4:@, = ?878:8F 34C36?85@4 <J>2 2<2 ND376:4F, B:6?72?DJO2G Q4H7@ :6C<2P3898 B8<8Q432L 2 B:82HG8Q>4- N6F:838=H?898 87:4P432L 87 8NO4H7=6. 32L 589<2 N@ 8N5432=67EHL 53432L- !787 AH?2C H8K28<8922 >34=32?6 D?6- 52 2 =H7DB67E = H=8N8>3DJ B8<452?D. C@=647 365 G6:6?74:3DJ P4:7D 94346- 0:6?72?2 «Q2=@G QD:36<8=» = B8H<4>- <8922 H8=:45433898 23>2=2>6 =88NO4, 344 =:45L H7638=L7HL 8>325 2C =6Q34F- :8Q>6JO498HL 2C ;:9654376:2C6K22 2 I2G A<454378= =2:7D6<E38F BDN<2P38F B8<L:2C6K22 H8K26<E3898 52:6, 2C :6H- H;4:@. 7DO4F 6??85D32?672=38H72 54Q>D 5DQ- "658 36C=6324 «Q2=8F QD:36<», 54- P238F 2 Q43O238F, 87K652 2 >47E52, >2F3@F >34=32? L=<L47HL 8?HJ58:8- B8>P23433@52 2 98HB8>H7=DJO252. 294 T/)(VW, ,"X'(/*'
  21. 21. %3>2=2>6, ?85B43H678:38 =8C32?6JO4- /32 N4HP4H7L7 <2:2P4H?898 94:8L = 9<6- 98 ND?=6<E38 36 54H74 :6C:@=6 B:2=67- C6G 8NO4H7=6 – 8N36:DQ2=6J7 34Q4<6- 3898 2 BDN<2P3898, H7:6>674<E38H72 2 74<E3DJ 498 2C363?D. /32 :6C:@=6J7 :4=8<JK28338H72, «Q43H?898» 2 «5DQH- H652 DC@ B67:26:G6<E3898 8NO4H7=6, ?898». *4>E H4:>K4=236 HDNU4?72=38H72 «8BD7@=6JO24» 23>2=2>6. * =2>4 >34=- 23>2=2>6 58>4:36 ;8:52:D47HL B8 58- 32?8= 8NO4H7=8 H76<?2=647HL H P45-78, >4<2 <2:2P4H?898 94:8L – 34H=8>258F D7=4:Q>6JO25 H4NL = 34>:6G 8NO4H7=6 D32?6<E38H72 H658=@:6Q6JO498HL R. ' P4:4C H8NH7=433DJ 6H8K26<E38H7E, H C8- = H452872P4H?2G 74:5236G <2:2P4H?6L 38F B:8=6<6 BDN<2P38H72, D>=84338F B8AC2L 8B2H@=647HL ?6? :6C38=2>38H7E 6??85D32?672=38H7EJ, H 2C54:43245 6=78?855D32?6K22 [-87563 1992], ? ?8- «H4N4-36-D54» 23>2=2>6. !78 B82H7234 78:8F B:236><4Q27 2 >34=32?. %3@52 34=@38H2584 =2>4324 ><L :6334ND:- H<8=652, 87P6L336L B8B@7?6 B:2=6738- QD6C3898 8NO4H7=6, ?D<E72=2:DJO498 98 >2H763K2:8=632L 87 PDQ>898 8NO4- <2N4:6<E3DJ BDN<2P3DJ H;4:D, = :65- H7=6 = Q63:4 >34=32?6 2 7:2D5;6<E384 ?6G ?878:8F <JN84 =3D7:4344 >=2Q4324 BDN<2P384 DP:4Q>4324 H4NL ?6? <2:2- – 38=6L 5@H<E 2<2 7=8:P4H?84 8C6:4324 P4H?898 94:8L L=<LJ7HL «8:<85 2 :4I- – H 78P?2 C:432L 2>46<6 9:6Q>63H?898 ?8F» HDNU4?76 58>4:36. 8NO4H7=6 >8<Q3@ B:4>EL=<L7EHL 36 34- "8K26<E36L H25B785672?6 B8L=<432L ;8:56<E3@F HD> BDN<2?2 P4:4C H2H74- >34=32?6 D?6C@=647 36 =8C32?6JO2F 5D H6<838=, ?8;443 2 >:D92G 87?:@7@G ?:2C2H 23749:2:8=6338H72 23>2=2>6 >2H?DHH2833@G «B<8O6>8?» [Habermas = H7:D?7D:@ ?<6HH2P4H?898 8NO4H7=6 2006]. (B67:26:G6<E3DJ H45EJ, 8NO23D, =843- 08A785D B:8P74324 >34=32?8= >4=DI- 384 N:67H7=8 2<2 =@HI2F H=47). *4<2?6L ?2 B8C8:27 >4=DI?D, :6H?:@724 >34=- H8=:454336L B:8N<456 2>4372P38H72, 32?8= B:89:4HH2=3898 P4H78<JNK6 («(6 ?6? A;;4?7 58>4:32C6K22 ?<6HH2P4H?8- =HL?898 5D>:4K6 >8=8<E38 B:8H787@» 98 8NO4H7=6, B4:=836P6<E38 =@H7DB6- /H7:8=H?898) B:2=8>27 ? B8C8:385D 2C- 47 = 8N<2P24 7:4=8Q3@G :6C5@I<432F 93632J 498 2C «8NO4H7=6». «/NO4H7=6» 8 «P4H72» – = ;8:54 P4H72 >4=2PE4F ?6? 9:DBB@, ?878:6L =:45L 87 =:45432 2<2 8;2K4:H?8F, ?:4H7EL3H?898 2<2 H8N2:647HL =HL =54H74 2 8HDO4H7=<L47 Q4 6:2H78?:672P4H?898 «>8H7823H7=6». :27D6<@ 4>23H7=6 – 87 H454F3@G 8N4- !72 :6C5@I<432L 8N:6CDJ7 H74:Q34- >8= 2 >=8:L3H?2G H8N:632F >8 B4:=@G =DJ 36::672=3DJ H7:D?7D:D >34=32?6. 6?K2834:3@G 8NO4H7=. * B:23K2B4 H6- `78 76?84 P4H7E, ?6? 44 34 B874:L7E, 584 N8<EI8F 63728NO4H7=433@F – B8 P45 9:8C27 B874:L P4H72? *4>E 74:LL 8738I432J ? A785D 8NO4H7=D – Q4H7, «P4H7E», 74:L4IE 34 B:8H78 8>23 2C A78 34 8B:4>4<433@4 54H76 H8>4:Q632L H=82G 67:2ND78= – B4:4H764IE N@7E H8- >34=32?6, 6 H65 ;6?7 498 =4>432L, H65 N8F, 74:L4IE H=84 H7:D?7D:384 54H78 Q63:. = H88NO4H7=4. «0892N B8A7, 34=8<E32? )6C=2724 54>26, B:4Q>4 =H498 96C47, P4H72» – A78 34 78<E?8 8 0DI?234: =H4 B:2=8>27 ? =C:@=385D :6HI2:432J P<43@ ?<6HH2P4H?898 8NO4H7=6 L=<LJ7- C83@ H=8N8>3898, ?:272P4H?898, P6H738- HL «34=8<E32?652 P4H72», ?878:@5 B:8- 98 53432L. -JN84, H6584 >2H?85;8:7384 O4 B892N3D7E, P45 44 B874:L7E. ><L <8?6<E3@G H88NO4H7= 534324 =@- (6 A785 ;834 H7638=27HL B83L738, B8- =8>27HL 2C HD54:4P38F C83@ >34=32?6 P45D >34=32?2 – ?8<E H?8:8 :638 2<2 36 H=47 54>2F38F BDN<2P38H72. /H7:876 B8C>38 832 ?85D-32ND>E B8B6>6J7HL 36 348NG8>258H72 =4H72 B6:6<<4<E3DJ 2H- 9<6C6 – 34 589D7 34 N@7E N4HP4H73@52. 78:2J Q2C32 H325647HL =8C58Q38H7EJ !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 295
  22. 22. =:45L 87 =:45432 «=@H?6C@=67E» H=8J "DNU4?72=38H7E «Q2=898 QD:36<2H76» 78P?D C:432L B8 745 2<2 23@5 B8=8>65. =@H7:62=647HL 34 78<E?8 2 34 H78<E- X4>26 H8C>6J7 =8C58Q38H7E N@7E P<4- ?8 2C 6=78?855D32?672=38F H<8=4H38F 385 8NO4H7=6 B88>6<E 87 H65898 8NO4- AH7472?2 B:8I<@G 2H78:2P4H?2G 72B8= H7=6 (5476;8:8F P498 58Q47 H<DQ27E >34=32?6 (=8C=@I433@4 B6HH6Q2 5L7D- 639<2FH?2F ?<DN, 9>4 H8=54H738 P276J7 O4FHL >DI2 2<2 N4HHJQ473@4 B:878?8- 96C47@ = B8<385 58<P6322). <@ P6H738F Q2C32), H?8<E?8 2C :46?K2F S34=32? = AB8GD 58>4:36, H 8>38F H78- 36 B:82HG8>LO44, ?878:@4 589D7 N@7E :83@, =H7:62=647HL = 54>2F3@4 Q63:@ :6C>4<43@ 2<2 8HB8:43@ :6C85?3D7@5 BD74=@G C65478?, B2H45 P27674<4F, :4- ?:D985 <J>4F, 2C =8B:8H8= 2 B:L5@G 9D<L:3@G 6=78:H?2G ?8<838? 2 B:. " B:8HEN, 8N:6O433@G ? 745, ?78 58Q47 >:D98F, B8H74B4338 56:9236<2C2:D47HL 87=4727E 2 B858PE, ?6? N@ >6<4?8 = B:L- ?6? Q63:, B4:4H7647 N@7E =8C=@I43- 585 2 B4:438H385 H5@H<4 83 87 6=78:6 3@5, <274:67D:3@5, A563H2B2:DJO25 34 36G8>2<HL. Q4H785 2 =@74H3L47HL 36 N@78=DJ B4:2- 0:2 A785 LC@? D>4:Q2=647 ;8:5D 34- ;4:2J – «>4B:8;4HH2836<2C2:D47HL»: B8H:4>H7=433898, 34;8:56<E3898 8NO4- I?8<E32K@, 34D>6P32?2, 9:6;8563@ 2 32L. "76=L B8> H8534324 74C2H ,5N4:78 B:. = >34=32?6G B<8G25 H72<45 B8=78:L- !?8 8 785, P78 %374:347 C36543D47 H8- J7 ?<6HH2P4H?24 <274:67D:3@4 I765B@ N8F =8C=:6O4324 ? AB8G4 TD7743N4:96 2<2 B:8H78 ;2?H2:DJ7 =34I3JJ H8N@- ? B2HE5D, >8?78: ;2<8<8922 $=9432F 72F3DJ ?63=D Q2C32. S34=32? >436::6- *8>8<6C?23 8N:6O647 =3256324 36 78, 72=2C2:D47HL – «B8C6=7:6?6< L2P32K4F, P78, 368N8:87, B:82HG8>27 DH?8:4336L >345 =2>4< B72P?D, =4P4:85 9:DH72<» 8:6<2C6K2L :DHH?898 LC@?6 = N<896G, – H=8>LHE ? B:878?8<D H8N@72F H=84F P676G, ;8:D56G 2 7.>. (6P236L H B:2- Q2C32 =8 =H4F 2G N4HHJQ4738F P6H7- 3K2B6 «?6? H<@I27HL, 76? 2 B2I47HL», 38H72. &6? 76?8=8F 7:63H;8:52:D47HL H 8N2<2L 54Q>85472F 2 5389878P2F, = 54<63G8<2P4H?DJ B8B@7?D B:8H78- ?83P6L 9:655672P4H?25 >85232:8=6- 98 P4<8=4?6 8B4:47E H4NL 36 P78-<2N8 3245 B:8H7@G 36C@=3@G B:4><8Q432F, = :6C=278F 98:8>H?8F B8=H4>34=38H72, 87HD7H7=245 B:2>678P3@G B:4><8Q4- 36ODB67E ?6?DJ-78 «5674:2J» H=8498 32F [*8>8<6C?23 2007]. #6?, ?6? 4H<2 HDO4H7=8=632L, B:2>67E 4F G87E ?6?DJ- N@ :6C:@=@ =8 =:45432 2 B:8H7:63H- 78 C36P258H7E. 7=4 =8C58Q3@G P27674<4F =4N->34=2- «Z2=8F QD:36<» ?6? 7:47EL, B8H758- ?6 34 254<2 N@ 32?6?898 C36P432L. (8 >4:32H7H?6L 2H78:2P4H?6L ;8:56 >34=- A78 98=8:27 34 8 785, P78 74B4:E <JN8F 32?6 58Q47 H<DQ27E 56:?4:85 B8L=<4- B8<EC8=674<E 58Q47 H767E N<2Q325 ><L 32L 38=8F HDNU4?72=38H72, = ?878:8F 6=78:6 «QD:36<6», 36B:872=, 58Q38 78B8<892L BDN<2P384-P6H7384 =@=4:- H?6C67E, P78 D 6=78:6 Q2=898 QD:36<6 3D76 362C363?D: BDN<2P38H7E 36P236- = B:23K2B4 N8<EI4 347 «N<2Q32G» = 47 B:8:6H767E 2C3D7:2 P6H738F Q2C32. 7:6>2K283385 H5@H<4 A7898 H<8=6 – :4- Z2=8F QD:36< – A78 HB8H8N B:48>8<47E 6<E3@G N<2Q32G, H ?878:@52 7@ 36G8- 787 :8=, ?878:@F =@:@7 B8 ?:6L5 23>2- >2IEHL = 8738I432LG 8:9632P4H?898 =2>D6<E3898 HDO4H7=8=632L = :65?6G H88NO4H7=6, B:23K2B ?878:898 8B8A72- 58>4:32C2:8=633898, «=88N:6Q645898 C2:8=63 ;8:5D<8F «8>23 C6 =H4G, =H4 C6 8NO4H7=6» ['3>4:H83 2001], ?878:84 8>3898». «*H4 :6=38, – ?6? N@ 98=8:27 DQ4 B:6?72P4H?2 34 B8>>647HL =88N:6- 6=78: Q2=898 QD:36<6, – R – A78 584 Q432J = H2H7454 B8H758>4:32H7H?898 H88NO4H7=8, H8H78LO44 = 785 P2H<4 2C 9<8N6<E3898 8NO4H7=6. B874:L33@G 538F 2C =2>6 2<2 4O4 34 296 T/)(VW, ,"X'(/*'
  23. 23. B:28N:47433@G >:DC4F». Z2=8F QD:36< 324 H72G8=). Z2=@4 QD:36<@ 87?:@=6J7 A78 HB8H8N :6C98=6:2=67E P4:4C 98<8=D =8C58Q38H7E 8N:47432L 38=8F «HB8H8N- 87HD7H7=DJO2G «N<2Q32G». 38H72 ? :6C98=8:D» (8N D7:674 ?878:8F % >4<8 34 B:8H78 = 785, P78 36I2 >:D- B2H6< T6>654:), 9>4 <JN@4 =88N:6Q64- CEL, ?8<<492, :8>H7=4332?2 N8<EIDJ 5@4 N236:3@4 8738I432L =H7:62=6J7HL P6H7E =:45432 «34>8H7DB3@» – 832 = = 34?2F H25=8<2P4H?2F ?837D: Q2=@G ?8563>2:8=?6G, 36 87>@G4, C69:DQ43@ HDO4H7=, 9>4 R – A78 78, ?6? 36 582 H<8- :6N878F, C63256J7HL I8BB23985, N8<- =6 H25=8<2P4H?2 :4692:DJ7 >:D924, 8N- 76J7 B8 58N2<E32?D 2 B:. – 76?, P78 5432=6L 2G 36 «H=82» H<8=6. =4>4324 Q2=898 QD:36<6 58Q47 G87L (6:L>D H ;8:D5652, P67652, Q2=@4 N@ =2:7D6<E38 B8>>4:Q2=67E H=LC2 H QD:36<@ 8N:6CDJ7 «H6F7@» B:82C- N<2Q325 ?:D985 <J>4F, N@7E = ?D:H4 2G =8>H7=6 H25=8<2P4H?8F 2>4372P38H72. >4<. S4<8 = 785, P78 76?25 8N:6C85 832 %>4372P38H72, B83L78F = <6?638=H?85 N<2Q324, DQ4 B4:4H76=I24 N@7E :46<E- H5@H<4 ?6? L>:8 «DP:4Q>6JO2G H<8=», 3@52, B4:4H76J7 N@7E =88N:6Q645@52 23>2=2>D6<E3@F B8:L>8? =@N8:6 H<8= B8 B:425DO4H7=D, :6H?:@=6L H=84 H25- = H25=8<2P4H?85 ?837D:4 9:DBB8=898 =8<2P4H?84 2C54:4324. /32 B4:4H76J7 >2H?D:H6 (87 =@N8:6 H2383258= >8 5476- N@7E «?6:723?652», ?878:@4 7@ B:2=@? ;8: 2 H239D<L:3@G H<8=88N:6C8=632F). =2>47E = 8B:4>4<433@G 54H76G 2 = 8B- (6 A72G BD7LG H25=8<2P4H?6L HDNU4?- :4>4<43384 =:45L, 2 ?878:@5 7@ 98=8- 72=38H7E – 87 32?8= >8 6=78:H?898 H72<L :2IE: «#@ B8GD>4<», «#4N4 2>47 38=6L – B:872=8H7827 =88N:6Q6458F 2>4372P- B:2P4H?6» 2<2 P78-78 =:8>4 A7898. /32 38H72, 36 B:2563?D ?878:8F = 56HH8=85 H7638=L7HL 34=2>25@52, B8H78L33@52 B8:L>?4 <8=27HL H8=:45433@F B87:4N2- H8N4H4>32?652 B8 7D H78:83D 36:K2HH2- 74<E («=34I38H7E», «252>Q» ?6? 8H38=- P4H?2G ;2?H6K2F. 3@4 38H274<2 P4<8=4P4H?2G ?6P4H7=). #6?, 6=78: Q2=898 QD:36<6 B8> 32?85 * :65?6G Q2=898 QD:36<6 23>2=2> 34 «02Q56» = 8>385 2C B8H78= B:2C3647HL C65@?647HL = H8NH7=433@G ;6376C56G 2 = 785, P78 «7:@3>4<6» H N<2C?25 P4<8- ;8N2LG, 6 B@7647HL H767E 78P?8F ?:2H- =4?85 =4HE =4P4: 32 8 P45 – B4:4> 498, 76<<2C6K22 A?H74::278:26<E3@G 9:DBB, =8C58Q38, 8?83P674<E3@5 87U4C>85 2C 34 «=88N:6Q645@G», 38 H25=8<2P4H?2G H7:63@ – =54H78 7898, P78N@ H?6C67E 45D 9:DBB HG8Q25 B8 8N:6CD Q2C32, 2/2<2 8 785, ?6? 836 498 <JN27. &85D B:4>36- B:8;4HH2836<E3@5 2374:4H65, HDO4H- C36P647HL A78 H88NO4324? "4N4, P78N@ 7=DJO2G =34 ?8>8= B8<27?8::4?738H72 87>67E 87P47, H?6C67E, 36?834K, B:6=>D? 2<2 ?8:B8:672=38F A72?2. "?8:44 – A78 =H4-76?2 HB8H8N H?6C67E «L <JN<J» A785D P4<8=4?D ?6? «>6<E- 345D». !78 B:6?72?6 «<JN=2 ? >6<E34- F3#$%'#(%' (B-/-)"$"3$) 5D», ?89>6 ;:6C6, H?6C6336L «= <2K8», H7638=27HL 34H?:8538F, 34D>8N38F, '3>4:H83 1. (2001). *88N:6Q645@4 H8- 2C<2I34F. & 785D Q4 A78 =8C58Q38H7E 8NO4H7=6. )6C5@I<432L 8N 2H78?6G H?6C67E 8N H=845 8738I4322 BDN<2P38, 2 :6HB:8H7:634322 36K2836<2C56. = :65?6G =2:7D6<E3898 H88NO4H7=6, 9>4 X.: &'(/(-B:4HH-_, &DP?8=8 B8<4. 7=82 H<8=6 589D7 8N:4H72 34A98K437:2- *8>8<6C?23 $. (2007). #:D>38H72 :DHH- P4H?DJ >23652?D – N@7E B8>G=6P43@ ?898 LC@?6 // (8=6L T6C476. "=8N8>- >:D9252, 9>4 K4BE 8C36P6JO2G HB8H8N- 384 B:8H7:63H7=8. a 29. ". 4. 36 36:6O2=67EHL =34 A98K437:2P4H?898 -87563 b. (1992). / >=DG 58>4<LG ?85- «B:82C=8<6» (?6? H8=54H7384 36B2H6- 5D32?6K22» // -87563 b., %CN:63- !"#$#%&' %(#$)($#' % *%+,'-.(/$ 0/#)$1-$(%$ 297
  24. 24. 3@4 H767E2 = 3-G 7. #6<<233: '<4?- H63>:6. ". 76-89. Habermas J. (2006). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Polity. ". 32-35. 298 T/)(VW, ,"X'(/*'

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