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DATA GATHERING TOOLS AND USES
(QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH)
Flerida S. Pajarillaga
EPS II- HRD
By the end of this seminar-workshop, the
participants should be able to:
 Know what is data-gathering and its
importance
...
Let’s check what you know
about data gathering tools!
PRIMING ACTIVITY
Data-gathering in research
can be categorized either
Quantitative or Qualitative
YES
1
An observation checklist is
the most simplest device in
data gathering
YES
2
Observation schedule and
observation checklist are the
same
NO
3
Administration of interview
can be standardized
YES
4
Theme organization is a
method utilized to interpret
results of an interview
YES
5
Questionnaire can be
administered through mail
YES
6
Behavior cannot be measured
by written test
NO
7
The type of measurement
scale may be determined
with the kind of data-
gathering tool selected
YES
8
 Data can be defined as the quantitative
or qualitative value of a variable (e.g.
number, images, words, figures, facts
o...
 Translate the research objectives into
specific questions, the responses will
provide the data required to achieve the
r...
Methods of Collecting
QUALITATIVE Data
 Data collection usually involves direct
interaction with individuals on a one-on-...
Methods of Collecting
QUALITATIVE Data
QUALITA
TIVE
Data Collection
Tools
 Interviews
Methods of Collecting
QUANTITATIVE Data
 Geared towards numerical collection
 Interviews
Data Gathering
Tools
Observation Schedule
 A form on which observations of an
object or a phenomenon are
recorded.
 The items to be observed ...
Checklist
 The simplest of all the devices
 The presence or absence of
each item may be indicated by
checking 'yes' or '...
 Overt – subject is
aware
 Covert- subject is
unaware
 Field notes
 Informal approach
 Building rapport
 What to obs...
Interview Guide
 Usually non-directive and
serves as a suggestive
reference or prompter
during interview.
 Aids in focus...
 Structured (for
research)
 Semi-structured
(flexible but
structured)
 Non-directive (free
talk on issues)
 Focused(in...
 Yield rich, detailed
and new insights
 Face-to-face
contact
 Easy to Administer
 Expensive and
Time-consuming
 Recal...
Focus Group Discussions (FGD)
 It is an open discussion
group of about 6-8
participants led by a neutral
facilitator with...
Focus Group Discussions (FGD)
 Focus groups combine elements of both
interviewing and participant observation
 The hallm...
Interview vs. FGD
1. Group Interaction
2. Group Peer Pressure
3. Sensitivity of the
Subject Matter
4. Depth of Response
5....
Interview vs. FGD
6. Extent of Issues covered
7. Continuity of Information
8. Observation of
Stakeholders
9. Logistics Geo...
FGD: Most Applicable When
 Identifying and defining problems in
project implementation
 Pretesting topics
 Evaluation a...
Rating Scale
This is a recording form used for measuring
individual's attitudes, aspirations and other
psychological and b...
Questionnaire/ Survey
 An indirect interview where series of
questions are in written form
 Factual data are gathered on...
Types of Survey
 Open-ended
 Difficult to code due to variety of
response
 Close –ended
 May vary from Rating Scale (e...
 Objectivity
 Easily
administered to
large number of
people
 Inexpensive
 Flexibility of time
 Difficult to analyze
...
Test
 Tests provide a way to
assess subjects’
knowledge and capacity
to apply this knowledge
to new situations
 May take...
 Objective information on
what the test taker knows
and can do
 match to a given
curriculum or set of skills
 Easily sc...
On establishing a culture of research
“ Research has shown that it takes 31 days of
conscious effort to make or break a ha...
Data gathering tools and uses
Data gathering tools and uses
Data gathering tools and uses
Data gathering tools and uses
Data gathering tools and uses
Data gathering tools and uses
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Data gathering tools and uses

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3rd SDO_Pasay Research Festival 2016

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Data gathering tools and uses

  1. 1. DATA GATHERING TOOLS AND USES (QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH) Flerida S. Pajarillaga EPS II- HRD
  2. 2. By the end of this seminar-workshop, the participants should be able to:  Know what is data-gathering and its importance  Select from the list of collecting data tools by being informed of its benefits and drawbacks  Come-up with an appropriate tool for the topic research
  3. 3. Let’s check what you know about data gathering tools! PRIMING ACTIVITY
  4. 4. Data-gathering in research can be categorized either Quantitative or Qualitative YES 1
  5. 5. An observation checklist is the most simplest device in data gathering YES 2
  6. 6. Observation schedule and observation checklist are the same NO 3
  7. 7. Administration of interview can be standardized YES 4
  8. 8. Theme organization is a method utilized to interpret results of an interview YES 5
  9. 9. Questionnaire can be administered through mail YES 6
  10. 10. Behavior cannot be measured by written test NO 7
  11. 11. The type of measurement scale may be determined with the kind of data- gathering tool selected YES 8
  12. 12.  Data can be defined as the quantitative or qualitative value of a variable (e.g. number, images, words, figures, facts or ideas).  It is a lowest unit of information from which other measurements & analysis can be done What is data-gathering?
  13. 13.  Translate the research objectives into specific questions, the responses will provide the data required to achieve the research objectives  Provides descriptions of characteristics of individuals, institutions or other phenomena under study.  Useful for measuring the various variable to the study. Why is data-gathering important?
  14. 14. Methods of Collecting QUALITATIVE Data  Data collection usually involves direct interaction with individuals on a one-on-one basis or with individuals in a group setting  Characteristics  time consuming  collected from a smaller sample  more expensive.  Benefits of the qualitative approach is that the information is richer and has a deeper insight into the phenomenon under study
  15. 15. Methods of Collecting QUALITATIVE Data QUALITA TIVE Data Collection Tools  Interviews
  16. 16. Methods of Collecting QUANTITATIVE Data  Geared towards numerical collection  Interviews
  17. 17. Data Gathering Tools
  18. 18. Observation Schedule  A form on which observations of an object or a phenomenon are recorded.  The items to be observed are determined with reference to the nature and objectives of the study.  Grouped into appropriate categories and listed in the order in which the observer would observe them.
  19. 19. Checklist  The simplest of all the devices  The presence or absence of each item may be indicated by checking 'yes' or 'no' or multipoint scale.  The use of a checklist ensures a more complete consideration of all aspects of the object, act or task. P
  20. 20.  Overt – subject is aware  Covert- subject is unaware  Field notes  Informal approach  Building rapport  What to observe  Use of audio visual devices Types of Observation Considerations in Observation
  21. 21. Interview Guide  Usually non-directive and serves as a suggestive reference or prompter during interview.  Aids in focusing attention on salient points relating to the study and in securing comparable data in different interviews by the same or different interviewers.
  22. 22.  Structured (for research)  Semi-structured (flexible but structured)  Non-directive (free talk on issues)  Focused(in depth talk on an issues) TYPES of INTERVIEW
  23. 23.  Yield rich, detailed and new insights  Face-to-face contact  Easy to Administer  Expensive and Time-consuming  Recall Error  Prone to inconsistencies  Huge volume of data ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE
  24. 24. Focus Group Discussions (FGD)  It is an open discussion group of about 6-8 participants led by a neutral facilitator with ready questions that may or may not be in sequence  Focus groups combine elements of both interviewing and participant observation
  25. 25. Focus Group Discussions (FGD)  Focus groups combine elements of both interviewing and participant observation  The hallmark is the explicit use of the group interaction to generate data  Allows observation of group dynamics, discussion, and firsthand insights into the respondents’ behaviors, attitudes, language, etc.
  26. 26. Interview vs. FGD 1. Group Interaction 2. Group Peer Pressure 3. Sensitivity of the Subject Matter 4. Depth of Response 5. Data Collector Fatigue FGD FGD Interview Interview Interview
  27. 27. Interview vs. FGD 6. Extent of Issues covered 7. Continuity of Information 8. Observation of Stakeholders 9. Logistics Geographically 10. Cost of Training 11. Availability of Qualified Staff Interview Interview FGD FGD FGD FGD/ Interview
  28. 28. FGD: Most Applicable When  Identifying and defining problems in project implementation  Pretesting topics  Evaluation and recommendations  Interpretation of quantitative findings  Obtaining perceptions of project outcomes  Generating new ideas
  29. 29. Rating Scale This is a recording form used for measuring individual's attitudes, aspirations and other psychological and behavioural aspects, and group behaviour.
  30. 30. Questionnaire/ Survey  An indirect interview where series of questions are in written form  Factual data are gathered on large number, defying geographical limitations, minimum cost and less time  Popular programs to create online surveys are google forms, survey monkey and poll everywhere.
  31. 31. Types of Survey  Open-ended  Difficult to code due to variety of response  Close –ended  May vary from Rating Scale (e.g., rate a given statement from 1 to 4 on a scale from “agree” to “disagree”)  Category or Percentage of Time
  32. 32.  Objectivity  Easily administered to large number of people  Inexpensive  Flexibility of time  Difficult to analyze  Collection is a challenge  Ambiguous Advantages Disadvantages
  33. 33. Test  Tests provide a way to assess subjects’ knowledge and capacity to apply this knowledge to new situations  May take in many forms (e.g. Performance and Attitudinal Measures)
  34. 34.  Objective information on what the test taker knows and can do  match to a given curriculum or set of skills  Easily scored  Accepted by the public as a credible indicator of learning  Oversimplified and superficial  Time consuming  May be biased  May be subject to corruption via coaching or cheating ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
  35. 35. On establishing a culture of research “ Research has shown that it takes 31 days of conscious effort to make or break a habit. That means if one practices something consistently for 31 days, on the 32nd day it does become a habit. Information has been internalized into behavioral change which is called transformation. Shiv Khera

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