DEFINING CRITERION OF LANGUAGE Second group :1.Elya Eka Septiani 1134110192.Irma Nur Khasanah 1134110213.Laila Fathiyyah 1134110224,Nita Kurniati 1134110095.Nurul Hidayah 1134110356.Maria Ulfah 113411005
Language as human criterionMan is a social being, who always needs company in hislife. It can hardly be imagined that he should live allalone by himself without anyone to acompany him.In order to facilitate their efforts to provide themselveswith the necessities of life, human beings have tocooperate with one another, which can only be carriedout in a community.It is for the purpose of this cooperation that members ofa social group needs a means of communication, whichis called ‘language’. With language man can express hisideas and wishes to other people such as when heneeds their help.
The three elements mentionedabove, namely humanbeings, community, and languagevery closely related and not easilydivisible.Thus, language is considered asa criterion which is used toidentified human beings.
The question arises whether the means of communication used by animals can also be called alanguage as used by human being?
Both of human beings and animalsproduce the sounds to convey amessage.The differents :1. the message imparted by animalsis limited to their biological needs.2. human communicate not only aboutthings connected with his biologicalneeds, but also about any other thingwhich he may deem necessary.
Characteristics of HumanLanguageThe defining characteristics of humanlanguage can be easily deduced from thefollowing definition made by an Americanlinguist, John B. Carrol, in his book entitled‘The Study of Language’ (1953) : Language is an arbitrary system ofspeech sounds or sequences of speechsounds which is used or can be used ininterpersonal communication by anaggregation of human being, and whichrather exhaustively catalogsthings, processes, and events in thehuman environment.
From the definition of languagequoted above one can drawsome basic characteristics ofhuman language, among othersthat language issystematic, arbitrary, spoken,social and complete.
1) It is systematic ; thismeans that it implies orderly arrangement of the signalingunits used by language andorganized according to patterns. 2) Language is said to be ‘arbitrary’ which means that itis based on social agreement
3) Language is always spoken. This means that people always have a way of communicating ideas by manipulating sounds that are produced by their vocal organs. 4) Language is said to besocial, because it is only used in socialgroup which involves at least two persons, thespeaker and the hearer. Language is a specialcharacteristics of human or it can also beregarded as a human criterion becauseonly human being speak a language.
5) Language is said to be complete, not like animal’s means of communication. The use of human language is not limited to biological needs. It is more complete in that it canalways be used to communicateabout the culture of its nativespeakers.