Textile training

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  • There are four main steps in the production of finished fabrics. First step is producing fibers, next is the mill for production of yarns. Then manufacturing plants make the fabrics and finally fabric finishing process is applied. All those processes involve highly specialize machinery and great skill.
  • Fiber is a component of materials which is used to make different products. In textile industry , fibers are often used in the manufacture of yarn. Basically there are two type of fibers. First one is natural fibers and second one synthetic fibers. Main raw material for synthetic fibers polyester is made of oil. And viscose is made of wood pulp. Small left over of wood.Natural fibers are the components which are grown in the nature. They are so sensible to weather conditions or harvest situation. For example if the output of cotton harvest is less due to flooding, cotton prices will be up automatically and will effect the cost of final product. For example between 2008-2011, there was a huge cotton price increased that most of the retailers like GAP, HM, Uniqlo changed their products material from cotton to polyester gradually. It was so unstable time period for all steps in supply chain.Synthetic fibers can often be produced very cheaply and in large amounts compared to natural fibers, but for clothing natural fibers can give some benefits, such as comfort, over their synthetic versions. There are some fibers like viscose , lyocell which the main composite is wood and they need to be processed to become fiber so those are also called synthetic. The rest of synthetic are based on petrochemicals so their prices were effected by petrochemical prices easily.
  • Yarn mills spin fibers into yarn. Several fibers are twisted together to form long strands of yarn to make fabric. This chart shows steps of natural fiber yarn manufacturing process. If it is synthetic yarn manufacturing , they pass directly into third process .
  • Yarn mills spin fibers into yarn. Several fibers are twisted together to form long strands of yarn to make fabric. This chart shows steps of natural fiber yarn manufacturing process. If it is synthetic yarn manufacturing , they pass directly into third process .
  • Textile mills purchase cotton and receive the bales from gin yards or cotton warehouses. These mills start with raw bales of cotton and process them in stages until they produce yarn (fibers twisted into threads used in weaving or knitting) or cloth (fabric or material constructed from weaving or knitting).The first stage is in the opening room. Here, bales are opened and laid in a line on the floor, side by side, near a cotton opening machine. This machine travels along the line of opened bales, pulling fibers to be sent to a mixing machine and then on to the carding system. Pictures are from Indian cotton yarn spinning factory.
  • Carding is the process of pulling the fibers into parallel alignment to form a thin web. High speed electronic equipment with wire toothed rollers perform this task. The web of fibers is eventually condensed into a continuous, untwisted, rope-like strand called a sliver. These slivers then continue to a combing machine. Here, the fibers shorter than half-inch and impurities are removed from the cotton.This process makes the sliver smoother so more uniform yarns can be produced. The drawing or pulling of this sliver is next. The sliver is drawn out to a thinner strand and given a slight twist to improve strength, then wound on bobbins (spools wound with the thread-like product for storage). Having completed this process, it is now called roving. The roving bobbins are now ready for the spinning process.
  • Spinning is the last process in yarn manufacturing. Today's mills draw and twist the roving into yarn and place it on bobbins. They do this quite efficiently. A large, modern mill can produce enough yarn or thread in 30 days to wrap around the earth 2300 times or go to and return from the moon 235 times. With the use of automatic winding, the yarn bobbins are transferred to larger bobbins called cheese cones. These cheese cones can be stored until they are needed in the weaving process.Main idea is to arrange and keep all fibers paralled to make yarn.
  • Once the yarn is spun, the manufacturers must prepare a correct package. The type of package depends on whether the yarn will be used for weaving or knitting. Winding, spooling, twisting and quilling are considered preparatory steps for weaving and knitting yarn. In general, the product of spooling will be used as warp yarns (the yarns that run lengthwise in woven fabric) and the product of winding will be used as filling yarns, or weft yarns (the yarns that run across the fabric). The products from open-end spinning by-pass these steps and are packaged for either the filling or warp. Twisting produces ply yarns, where two or more yarns are twisted together before further processing. In the quilling process yarn is wound onto small bobbins, small enough to fit inside the shuttle of a box loom. Sometimes the quilling process takes place at the loom
  • It is for repeated designs and each color should have been filled into one roll.
  • This printing is more for placemant print like the tshirt example here. The print is not repeated.
  • Textile training

    1. 1. Textile Training
    2. 2. Agenda 1. Fiber Types 2. Yarn Manufacturing Process 3. Fabric Manufacturing Process (Woven/ Knitting) 4. Fabric dying process 5. Fabric printing process 6. Embroidery
    3. 3. • Fiber, Yarn, Fabric, Finished Fabric
    4. 4. Natural Fibers: Cotton, Linen, Wool, Coir(coconut husk) Synthetic Fibers: Lyocell, Viscose, Polyester, Acrylic 1. Fibers
    5. 5. 2. Yarn Manufacturing Process
    6. 6. Yarn Manufacturing Process • Opening, Blending, Mixing and Cleaning • Carding and Combing • Spinning • Winding and Spooling
    7. 7. Opening, Blending, Mixing and Cleaning Picker Machine
    8. 8. Carding and Combing Combing Machine Carding Machine
    9. 9. Spinning
    10. 10. Winding and Spooling(old machine)
    11. 11. Winding and Spooling(new machine)
    12. 12. 3. Fabric Manufacturing Process
    13. 13. Fabric Manufacturing Process • Woven Fabric • Knitting Fabric
    14. 14. Fabric Manufacturing Process • Woven Fabric
    15. 15. Warp (end) yarns are placed on the weaving loom and run on the vertical length of the fabric. Weft (filling or pick) yarns interlace with the warp yarns through the weaving process. Weft yarns run horizontally (side to side) of the fabric. Woven illustration warpweft Woven Fabric
    16. 16. Weaving 16 1. Air-jet loom 2. Water-jet loom 3. Rapier loom 4. Simple Power loom 5. Hand loom
    17. 17. How to produce different woven fabric? 17 Dobby Loom Jacquard Loom
    18. 18. 18 Key things to specify woven fabrics o weave type o construction( warp density/ weft density) o yarn count o fabric weight Example: Bed linen Sateen 40*40/ 110 x 90 TC 210 160 gsm
    19. 19. Fabric Manufacturing Process • Knitting Fabric
    20. 20. Weft knitting has one set of yarn which only travels horizontally across the fabric. (Jersey Bed sheets) Warp knitting has one set of yarn which travels only vertically. (Lace curtains) Knitting Fabric
    21. 21. 21 Key things to specify knitting fabric o knitting type o Construction(courses and wales) o yarn count o fabric weight Rib fabric, 7 wales x 10courses, 8/2 ply yarn, 100%cotton, 200g/m2
    22. 22. 4. Fabric Dyeing Process
    23. 23. Fabric Dyeing Flow
    24. 24. 5. Fabric printing process
    25. 25. Rotary Screen Printing
    26. 26. Flat Screen Printing
    27. 27. 6. Embroidery Process
    28. 28. Embroidery
    29. 29. Thank You Questions

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