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Lean isn't lean

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Talk given at Lean Agile Scotland 2013. Looking at how people have "opened the box" for Lean thinking and just followed the prescription in them, instead of understanding why the original thinkers, like Taiishi Ohno, did and said what they did.

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Lean isn't lean

  1. 1. Lean isn’t Lean Francis Fish FJF/DI/DM consultancy http://fjfdidm.com Engage! FJF/DI/DMFJF/DI/DM Engage! Love what you do & do it wellLove what you do & do it well Wednesday, 2 October 13
  2. 2. Who? • 30 years a coder • Member of the humanist wing of the agile movement • Despite provocative title for the talk, not here to pick a fight but engage human to human • Qualified sports coach Wednesday, 2 October 13
  3. 3. https://leanpub.com/unicorns Wednesday, 2 October 13
  4. 4. ? • History of term Lean • Analytical vs systems thinking • An example: standard work • Discussion • Questions Wednesday, 2 October 13
  5. 5. Lean? • Taiichi Ohno • Toyota Wednesday, 2 October 13
  6. 6. After the fact Wednesday, 2 October 13
  7. 7. After the fact • TAKT time Wednesday, 2 October 13
  8. 8. After the fact • TAKT time • Waste Wednesday, 2 October 13
  9. 9. After the fact • TAKT time • Waste • Standard work Wednesday, 2 October 13
  10. 10. Wednesday, 2 October 13
  11. 11. Wednesday, 2 October 13
  12. 12. But first ... Wednesday, 2 October 13
  13. 13. Analytical thinking Wednesday, 2 October 13
  14. 14. Analytical thinking Wednesday, 2 October 13
  15. 15. Analytical thinking Wednesday, 2 October 13
  16. 16. Semantics Wednesday, 2 October 13
  17. 17. Semantics Efficient? Effective? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  18. 18. Semantics Solving?Fixing? Efficient? Effective? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  19. 19. Semantics Solving?Fixing? Efficient? Effective? Restorative?Palliative? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  20. 20. Semantics Solving?Fixing? Efficient? Effective? Analytical Restorative?Palliative? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  21. 21. Semantics Solving?Fixing? Efficient? Effective? Analytical Systems Restorative?Palliative? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  22. 22. Semantics Solving?Fixing? Efficient? Effective? Analytical Systems • Lean is a term invented by Western academics Restorative?Palliative? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  23. 23. The analytic box Wednesday, 2 October 13
  24. 24. The analytic box • Observe, but don’t engage Wednesday, 2 October 13
  25. 25. The analytic box • Observe, but don’t engage • Break into pieces Wednesday, 2 October 13
  26. 26. The analytic box • Observe, but don’t engage • Break into pieces • Put it in a box Wednesday, 2 October 13
  27. 27. The analytic box • Observe, but don’t engage • Break into pieces • Put it in a box • Turn creativity into an algorithm (yeah, right) Wednesday, 2 October 13
  28. 28. The analytic box • Observe, but don’t engage • Break into pieces • Put it in a box • Turn creativity into an algorithm (yeah, right) • Didactic, destructive Wednesday, 2 October 13
  29. 29. The analytic box • Observe, but don’t engage • Break into pieces • Put it in a box • Turn creativity into an algorithm (yeah, right) • Didactic, destructive • The word is not the thing - Oasis are not the Beatles Wednesday, 2 October 13
  30. 30. The analytic box Wednesday, 2 October 13
  31. 31. Wednesday, 2 October 13
  32. 32. Wednesday, 2 October 13
  33. 33. Control is a double-edged sword; it involves doing things right (efficiency) and doing the right thing (effectiveness). It is better to do the right thing wrong than the wrong thing right. Unfortunately, the righter we do the wrong things, the wronger we become. In some cases, increases in efficiency can decrease effectiveness. ... Wednesday, 2 October 13
  34. 34. Wednesday, 2 October 13
  35. 35. Managers are seduced by all sorts of panaceas on the basis of alleged demonstrations of the results they bring about, only to learn later that they are often ineffective. Such allegations of effectiveness are almost always based on observed associations, not causal relationships. Wednesday, 2 October 13
  36. 36. Deming’s 14 points Wednesday, 2 October 13
  37. 37. Deming’s 14 points 1. Constancy of purpose 2. Adopt the new philosophy ... 8. Drive out fear ... 10. Eliminate slogans 11. Eliminate management by objectives 12. Remove barriers to pride of workmanship Wednesday, 2 October 13
  38. 38. Example: • Standard work Wednesday, 2 October 13
  39. 39. What did Ohno say? • There is something called standard work, but standards should be changing constantly. Instead, if you think of the standard as the best you can do, it’s all over. The standard is only a baseline for doing further kaizen. It is kaiaku if things get worse than now, and it is kaizen if things get better than now. Standards are set arbitrarily by humans, so how can they not change? • Without some standard, you can’t say, “We made it better,” because there is nothing to compare it to, so you must create a standard for comparison. Wednesday, 2 October 13
  40. 40. What did Ohno say? • Years ago, I made them hang the standard work documents on the shop floor. After a year I said to a team leader, “The color of the paper has changed, which means you have been doing it the same way, so you have been a salary thief for the last year.” I said, “What do you come to work to do each day? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  41. 41. So ... • Creating a basis for continuous improvement • Not fixed in stone • Owned by the people who do the work Wednesday, 2 October 13
  42. 42. Analytical Standardisation Wednesday, 2 October 13
  43. 43. Analytical Standardisation • Make work standard Wednesday, 2 October 13
  44. 44. Analytical Standardisation • Make work standard • Efficient! Wednesday, 2 October 13
  45. 45. Analytical Standardisation • Make work standard • Efficient! • Deliver to that standard Wednesday, 2 October 13
  46. 46. Analytical Standardisation • Make work standard • Efficient! • Deliver to that standard • Only automata need apply Wednesday, 2 October 13
  47. 47. Analytical Standardisation Wednesday, 2 October 13
  48. 48. • An example ... Wednesday, 2 October 13
  49. 49. Demand Team 1 Team alphaTeam premier Wednesday, 2 October 13
  50. 50. What’s wrong • Point of delivery should be the same as point of standardisation Wednesday, 2 October 13
  51. 51. Wednesday, 2 October 13
  52. 52. Wednesday, 2 October 13
  53. 53. Demand profile Wednesday, 2 October 13
  54. 54. Demand profile • Averages don’t tell demand story Wednesday, 2 October 13
  55. 55. Demand profile • Averages don’t tell demand story • Average of averages - don’t go there! Wednesday, 2 October 13
  56. 56. Demand profile • Averages don’t tell demand story • Average of averages - don’t go there! • 95% of capability comes from the system Wednesday, 2 October 13
  57. 57. Demand profile • Averages don’t tell demand story • Average of averages - don’t go there! • 95% of capability comes from the system • Each has a different “how” Wednesday, 2 October 13
  58. 58. Demand profile • Averages don’t tell demand story • Average of averages - don’t go there! • 95% of capability comes from the system • Each has a different “how” • The box from the centre won’t fit Wednesday, 2 October 13
  59. 59. Demand profile • Averages don’t tell demand story • Average of averages - don’t go there! • 95% of capability comes from the system • Each has a different “how” • The box from the centre won’t fit • Æsop’s fable: The miller, his son and their ass Wednesday, 2 October 13
  60. 60. Demand Imagined Wednesday, 2 October 13
  61. 61. Failure Demand Imagined Wednesday, 2 October 13
  62. 62. Bureaucracy Do it for doing its sake Demand Wednesday, 2 October 13
  63. 63. Demand Idealised Meetingneeds Wednesday, 2 October 13
  64. 64. WASTE Rework WASTE Dead hand of bureaucracy Wednesday, 2 October 13
  65. 65. What happens Wednesday, 2 October 13
  66. 66. What happens • More disconnected with customer needs the smaller the intersection Wednesday, 2 October 13
  67. 67. What happens • More disconnected with customer needs the smaller the intersection • Everything changes over time - this is an iron rule Wednesday, 2 October 13
  68. 68. What happens • More disconnected with customer needs the smaller the intersection • Everything changes over time - this is an iron rule • The centre cannot hold - in fact it hasn’t a clue Wednesday, 2 October 13
  69. 69. What happens • More disconnected with customer needs the smaller the intersection • Everything changes over time - this is an iron rule • The centre cannot hold - in fact it hasn’t a clue • Staff are infantalised Wednesday, 2 October 13
  70. 70. What happens • More disconnected with customer needs the smaller the intersection • Everything changes over time - this is an iron rule • The centre cannot hold - in fact it hasn’t a clue • Staff are infantalised • Everyone is treated like a beginner, with no knowledge or skill Wednesday, 2 October 13
  71. 71. Fixing not solving Wednesday, 2 October 13
  72. 72. Fixing not solving • Targets Wednesday, 2 October 13
  73. 73. Fixing not solving • Targets • Make it work, somehow Wednesday, 2 October 13
  74. 74. Fixing not solving • Targets • Make it work, somehow • If you measure costs, costs go up Wednesday, 2 October 13
  75. 75. Fixing not solving • Targets • Make it work, somehow • If you measure costs, costs go up • Each delivery point has own experienced people, equipment, demand profile Wednesday, 2 October 13
  76. 76. Fixing not solving • Targets • Make it work, somehow • If you measure costs, costs go up • Each delivery point has own experienced people, equipment, demand profile • True empowerment solves it permanently Wednesday, 2 October 13
  77. 77. Fixing not solving • Targets • Make it work, somehow • If you measure costs, costs go up • Each delivery point has own experienced people, equipment, demand profile • True empowerment solves it permanently • Fixing is ahistorical, assumes nothing will change Wednesday, 2 October 13
  78. 78. Demand Bureaucratic Waste Wednesday, 2 October 13
  79. 79. Service Unmet variety Wednesday, 2 October 13
  80. 80. Unmet Variety? • Opportunity to improve! • Different at each point Wednesday, 2 October 13
  81. 81. Givens Bob Alice Mary Wednesday, 2 October 13
  82. 82. Givens Bob Alice Mary Wednesday, 2 October 13
  83. 83. Givens Bob Alice Mary £? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  84. 84. Givens Bob Alice Mary £? £? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  85. 85. Givens Bob Alice Mary £? £? £? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  86. 86. Givens Bob Alice Mary £? £? £? £? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  87. 87. Givens Bob Alice Mary £? £? £? £? £? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  88. 88. Cost? • Measure at the hand over points • Optimisations are done there • Steps are arbitrary, analytical, given • Change steps, change cost • Silos - call centre, provisioning, finance - are they really necessary or are they givens? • Conway’s law Wednesday, 2 October 13
  89. 89. And ... • This is the way you have always done it • The original people who did that job meant it was split up that way • When you replaced you got another Bob/Mary/ Alice • ... if it all burned down tomorrow, what would the replacement do, (Ackoff) Wednesday, 2 October 13
  90. 90. BUT! • Cost is end to end - not per process • Clean flow reduces cost, without measuring it • Theory of constraints teaches us that can only go as fast as the bottleneck • Cost is in the flow, not in the measuring points • Measure costs, costs go up - breaks flow, breaks clean, causes rework and delay Wednesday, 2 October 13
  91. 91. Algorithms ≢ Wednesday, 2 October 13
  92. 92. Algorithms ≢ Imagination? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  93. 93. Algorithms ≢ Imagination? Innovation? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  94. 94. Algorithms ≢ Imagination? Innovation? Improvement? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  95. 95. Algorithms ≢ Imagination? Innovation? Improvement? Inspiration? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  96. 96. Algorithms ≢ Imagination? Innovation? Improvement? Inspiration? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  97. 97. Tech management The main reason we tend to focus on the technical rather than the human side of the work is not because it’s more crucial, but because it’s easier to do. Wednesday, 2 October 13
  98. 98. Tech management • No heart! • Work that’s fit for humans Wednesday, 2 October 13
  99. 99. So what is lean? Wednesday, 2 October 13
  100. 100. So what is lean? • Go see Wednesday, 2 October 13
  101. 101. So what is lean? • Go see • Start where people are - constancy of purpose Wednesday, 2 October 13
  102. 102. So what is lean? • Go see • Start where people are - constancy of purpose • Humble - NVC - no more “should” Wednesday, 2 October 13
  103. 103. So what is lean? • Go see • Start where people are - constancy of purpose • Humble - NVC - no more “should” • Engage with the variety at each point of delivery Wednesday, 2 October 13
  104. 104. So what is lean? • Go see • Start where people are - constancy of purpose • Humble - NVC - no more “should” • Engage with the variety at each point of delivery • Train and work to demand Wednesday, 2 October 13
  105. 105. So what is lean? • Go see • Start where people are - constancy of purpose • Humble - NVC - no more “should” • Engage with the variety at each point of delivery • Train and work to demand • Allow continuous improvement, not fixed, things will move Wednesday, 2 October 13
  106. 106. So what is lean? • Go see • Start where people are - constancy of purpose • Humble - NVC - no more “should” • Engage with the variety at each point of delivery • Train and work to demand • Allow continuous improvement, not fixed, things will move • The system always wins Wednesday, 2 October 13
  107. 107. Takt time, waste Wednesday, 2 October 13
  108. 108. Takt time, waste • Takt time works for manufacturing processes not people (Theory of Constraints) Wednesday, 2 October 13
  109. 109. Takt time, waste • Takt time works for manufacturing processes not people (Theory of Constraints) • Waste is not the same as efficiency Wednesday, 2 October 13
  110. 110. Takt time, waste • Takt time works for manufacturing processes not people (Theory of Constraints) • Waste is not the same as efficiency • Think, engage Wednesday, 2 October 13
  111. 111. Takt time, waste • Takt time works for manufacturing processes not people (Theory of Constraints) • Waste is not the same as efficiency • Think, engage • Historic opportunity Wednesday, 2 October 13
  112. 112. One last quote You are a fool if you do just as I say. You are a greater fool if you don’t do as I say. You should think for yourself and come up with better ideas than mine. - Ohno Wednesday, 2 October 13
  113. 113. Wednesday, 2 October 13
  114. 114. francis@fjfdidm.com @fjfish Some images from openclipart.org Engage! FJF/DI/DMFJF/DI/DM Engage! Love what you do & do it wellLove what you do & do it well Wednesday, 2 October 13

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