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Lesson Overview 32.2 The Muscular System
<ul><li>Muscle Tissue </li></ul>What are the principal types of muscle tissue?
<ul><li>Muscle Tissue </li></ul>Muscle tissue is found everywhere in the body.    There are three different types of muscl...
<ul><ul><li>Skeletal Muscles   </li></ul></ul>Skeletal muscles are usually attached to bones.   Most skeletal muscle movem...
<ul><ul><li>Skeletal Muscles   </li></ul></ul>When viewed under a microscope, skeletal muscle appears to have alternating ...
<ul><ul><li>Skeletal Muscles   </li></ul></ul>Skeletal muscle cells are large, have many nuclei, and vary in length. The s...
<ul><ul><li>Smooth Muscles   </li></ul></ul>Smooth muscle cells don’t have striations and therefore look “smooth” under th...
<ul><ul><li>Smooth Muscles   </li></ul></ul>Smooth muscle cells are found throughout the body, and form part of the walls ...
<ul><ul><li>Smooth Muscles   </li></ul></ul>Most smooth muscle cells can function without direct stimulation by the nervou...
<ul><ul><li>Cardiac Muscle   </li></ul></ul>Cardiac muscle is found in the heart.    It is striated like skeletal muscle, ...
<ul><ul><li>Cardiac Muscle   </li></ul></ul>Cardiac muscle is usually not under the direct control of the central nervous ...
<ul><li>Muscle Contraction </li></ul>How do muscles contract?
<ul><ul><li>Muscle Fiber Structure  </li></ul></ul>Skeletal muscle cells, or fibers, are filled with tightly-packed filame...
<ul><ul><li>Muscle Fiber Structure  </li></ul></ul>The actin filaments are bound together in areas called Z lines.    Two ...
<ul><ul><li>The Sliding-Filament Model  </li></ul></ul>During a muscle contraction, myosin filaments form cross-bridges wi...
<ul><ul><li>The Sliding-Filament Model  </li></ul></ul>Then the cross-bridge detaches from actin, and repeats the cycle by...
<ul><li>Muscles and Movement </li></ul>How do muscle contractions produce movement?
<ul><ul><li>How Muscles and Bones Interact  </li></ul></ul>Skeletal muscles are joined to bones by tough connective tissue...
<ul><ul><li>How Muscles and Bones Interact  </li></ul></ul>Most skeletal muscles work in opposing pairs—when one muscle co...
<ul><ul><li>How Muscles and Bones Interact  </li></ul></ul>For example, when the biceps muscle contracts, it bends the elb...
<ul><ul><li>How Muscles and Bones Interact  </li></ul></ul>When the triceps muscle contracts, it opens the elbow joint.
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Chapter 32.2

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Chapter 32.2

  1. 1. Lesson Overview 32.2 The Muscular System
  2. 2. <ul><li>Muscle Tissue </li></ul>What are the principal types of muscle tissue?
  3. 3. <ul><li>Muscle Tissue </li></ul>Muscle tissue is found everywhere in the body.   There are three different types of muscle tissue, each specialized for a specific function in the body: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.  
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Skeletal Muscles </li></ul></ul>Skeletal muscles are usually attached to bones.   Most skeletal muscle movements are consciously controlled by the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord).
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Skeletal Muscles </li></ul></ul>When viewed under a microscope, skeletal muscle appears to have alternating light and dark bands called “striations.” For this reason, it is said to be striated.
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Skeletal Muscles </li></ul></ul>Skeletal muscle cells are large, have many nuclei, and vary in length. The smallest skeletal muscle, which is about 1 millimeter long is found in the middle ear. The longest skeletal muscle, which may be as long as 30 centimeters, runs from the hip to the knee.   Because skeletal muscle cells are long and slender, they are often called muscle fibers .  
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Smooth Muscles </li></ul></ul>Smooth muscle cells don’t have striations and therefore look “smooth” under the microscope.   Smooth muscle cells are spindle-shaped and usually have a single nucleus.
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Smooth Muscles </li></ul></ul>Smooth muscle cells are found throughout the body, and form part of the walls of hollow structures such as the stomach, blood vessels, and intestines. Smooth muscles’ movements are usually involuntary and perform functions such as moving food through the digestive tract, controlling the flow of blood through the circulatory system, and even decreasing pupil size in bright light.
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Smooth Muscles </li></ul></ul>Most smooth muscle cells can function without direct stimulation by the nervous system.  
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Cardiac Muscle </li></ul></ul>Cardiac muscle is found in the heart.   It is striated like skeletal muscle, although its cells are smaller and usually have just one or two nuclei.
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Cardiac Muscle </li></ul></ul>Cardiac muscle is usually not under the direct control of the central nervous system.   Cardiac muscle cells can contract on their own and are connected to their neighbors by gap junctions.
  12. 12. <ul><li>Muscle Contraction </li></ul>How do muscles contract?
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Muscle Fiber Structure </li></ul></ul>Skeletal muscle cells, or fibers, are filled with tightly-packed filament bundles called myofibrils .   Each myofibril contains thick filaments of a protein called myosin and thin filaments of a protein called actin . The filaments are arranged in an overlapping pattern that produces the striations that are characteristic of skeletal muscle.   contraction part 1
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Muscle Fiber Structure </li></ul></ul>The actin filaments are bound together in areas called Z lines.   Two Z lines and the filaments between them make up a unit called a sarcomere .
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>The Sliding-Filament Model </li></ul></ul>During a muscle contraction, myosin filaments form cross-bridges with actin filaments. The cross-bridges then change shape, pulling the actin filaments toward the center of the sarcomere.  
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>The Sliding-Filament Model </li></ul></ul>Then the cross-bridge detaches from actin, and repeats the cycle by binding to another site on the actin filament.   As thick and thin filaments slide past each other, the length of the fiber shortens, hence the name “sliding-filament model” of muscle contraction.
  17. 17. <ul><li>Muscles and Movement </li></ul>How do muscle contractions produce movement?
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>How Muscles and Bones Interact </li></ul></ul>Skeletal muscles are joined to bones by tough connective tissues called tendons .   Tendons pull on the bones and make them work like levers.   The joint functions as a fulcrum—the fixed point around which the lever moves.   The muscles provide the force to move the lever.
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>How Muscles and Bones Interact </li></ul></ul>Most skeletal muscles work in opposing pairs—when one muscle contracts, the other relaxes.
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>How Muscles and Bones Interact </li></ul></ul>For example, when the biceps muscle contracts, it bends the elbow joint.  
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>How Muscles and Bones Interact </li></ul></ul>When the triceps muscle contracts, it opens the elbow joint.

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