Honor killing


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Honor killing

  2. 2. HONOR KILLINGS 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I will like to express our special thanks of gratitude to our teacher MANSI HANDA as well as our DEAN DR PARUL MALIK who gave us the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic “ HONOR KILLINGS” which also helped us in doing a lot of Research and we came to know about so many new things. We are really thankful to them.
  4. 4. HONOR KILLINGS 4 ABSTRACT This study focuses on people’s perception on honour crimes and whether it is encouraged by Islam or cultural beliefs, it has been suggested that a large proportion of honour crime victims are mainly women. The violence towards these people differentiates from culture to culture. It has been argued that more Muslims countries comply with honour crimes then western countries. To investigate these issues in depth a qualitative research strategy was adopted, and semi structured interviews was conducted. A total of eight interviews were conducted of which three were males and five where females, the sample was randomly selected according to who was available at the time to give the interview. From the primary and secondary research that was conducted it was clear that honour crimes was motivated by cultural beliefs, however there is not one clear universal definition to honour crimes, and people perception varied according to time and culture. It was found that honour crimes falls under the category of domestic violence within the UK. The concept of honour crime has just recently been highlighted, and more people are aware of it, a new task force has been assigned to tackle this crime. The main themes that were extracted from this research consisted of the different perceptions of honour crimes, and how it varied from the different organisations. It was also acknowledged that honour crimes was culturally motivated, but mainly took place in rural areas, due to a lack of education. Even though the phenomenon of honour crimes is predominant in Muslims country not a single text within the Qur’an, permits this. INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. HONOR KILLINGS 5 An honour killing or honour killing is the homicide of a member of a family or social group by other members, due to the belief of the perpetrators that the victim has brought dishonour upon the family or community. The perceived dishonour is normally the result of one of the following behaviours, or the suspicion of such behaviours: dressing in a manner unacceptable to the family or community, wanting to terminate or prevent an arranged marriage or desiring to marry by own choice, especially if to a member of a social group deemed inappropriate, engaging in heterosexual acts outside marriage and engaging in homosexual acts. Honour killings have been labelled as a form of gender apartheid. The United Nations estimate for the number of honour killings in the world is 5000 per year. Many women's groups in the Middle East and Southwest Asia suspect that more than 20,000 women are honour killed in the world each year. "Honour crimes" are extremely frequent in the East and South-East of Turkey. They are traditional in the whole Mediterranean area as they are in the Near East and extend as far as Asia and Africa. So what are "honour crimes"? Girls who have lost their virginity must reckon with being killed by their families. A love affair is just as deadly as rape or sexual abuse, even by a family member. In such cases, the offender redresses the family honour by killing the person who has been abused. The woman is under the same threat if she escapes from a marriage with an unloved man or flees from a marriage arranged by the family, even if she is not involved with another man. GLOBAL PROBLEM
  6. 6. HONOR KILLINGS 6 The exact number of honour murders remains unknown, since many crimes are camouflaged as accidents. In the town of Urfa in Turkey in the last five years alone, the number of known honour killings is numbered at 26. In Pakistan hundreds of women are injured or killed each year by male relations as a result of apparently illegitimate sexual relations. The girls, if they have run away, are tracked down and killed - stabbed, shot or drenched in petrol and set alight, drowned, run over (by male family members) or poisoned (by their mother or mother in law). Being banished from the family seldom suffices. Sometimes "dishonoured" girls are remarried quickly. However if the young woman's "loss of honour" is known of in the new family, she is also threatened with death. The background: The patriarchal moral makes the honour of the family dependent on the virginity of the girl or the chastity of the married women. Whether the virginity was lost in free will or as a result of violence is of no consequence here. If the "dishonour" becomes known to outside persons, perhaps due to a pregnancy, the death of the woman concerned is the only way of reinstalling the family honour. The woman affected usually cannot expect any help from members of the family, since they must and want to maintain the honour of the family. "Dishonouring" the family by a daughter can also ruin the chances of her sisters getting married. In South Anatolia, for instance, two thirds of all marriages are still arranged by the family. Important for the prestige of the family here is bride money. This is too high for many young men and they must reckon with having to save for years to afford the marriage. The girls are condemned to marrying older, unloved men which is the reason why many young couples run away to the cities. REASON BEHIND THE KILLING
  7. 7. HONOR KILLINGS 7 The perceived dishonour is normally the result of one of the following behaviours, or the suspicion of such behaviours: 1.1 Dressing in a manner unacceptable to the family or community, 1.2 Wanting to terminate or prevent an arranged marriage or desiring to marry by own choice, 1.3 Engaging in heterosexual sexual acts outside marriage, or even due to a non-sexual relationship perceived as inappropriate. 1.4 Engaging in homosexual acts. Women and girls are killed at a much higher rate than men. Several different evolutionary psychology explanations have been proposed for honour killings. Honour killings, as well as the related concept of crime of passion due to adultery, have occurred and have to some degree been seen as justified in many different and separated cultures. This may be explained that men, unlike women, have difficulty knowing with certainty that they are the biological parents of the children they spend considerable resources on in a long-term relationship. Sexual jealousy is argued to have evolved in order to reduce the risk of children not being biologically related and to be relatively stronger in men. Men may use a variety of strategies, including physical violence, in order to prevent adultery. Actual killings have been argued to be maladaptive by-products of this since by killing the woman she cannot contribute further to the man's reproductive success. However, it has also been argued that the such killings may be adaptive by being a warning to other wives, restoring lost social status, and preventing complications from possibly not genetically related children being born. These adaptive explanations have been criticized for less extreme violence possibly achieving the same thing or involving unlikely complex calculations. It has also been pointed out that to argue that society must morally accept and be structured according to what is claimed to be natural, such as by legal exceptions for honour killings or crimes of passion, is an example of the naturalistic fallacy. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
  8. 8. HONOR KILLINGS 8 Sharif Kanaana, professor of anthropology at Birzeit University, says that “honour killing is a complicated issue that cuts deep into the history of Arab society. What the men of the family, clan, or tribe seek control of in a patrilineal society is reproductive power. Women for the tribe were considered a factory for making men. The honour killing is not a means to control sexual power or behaviour. What's behind it is the issue of fertility, or reproductive power. An Amnesty International statement adds: The regime of honour is unforgiving: women on whom suspicion has fallen are not given an opportunity to defend themselves, and family members have no socially acceptable alternative but to remove the stain on their honour by attacking the woman. Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, an anthropology professor at Rhode Island College, explains how honour killings can be viewed in cultural relativist terms. She writes that the act, or even alleged act, of any female sexual misconduct, upsets moral order for the culture of interest and bloodshed is the only way to remove any shame brought about by the actions and restore social equilibrium. Changing cultural and economic status of women has also been used to explain the occurrences of honour killings. Women in largely patriarchal cultures who have gained economic independence from their families go against their male-dominated culture. Some researchers argue that the shift towards greater responsibility for women and less for their fathers may cause their male family members to act in oppressive and sometimes violent manners in order to regain authority. This change of culture can also be seen to have an effect in Western cultures such as Britain where honour killings often arise from women seeking greater independence and adopting seemingly Western values. For women who trace their ancestry back to the Middle East or South Asia, wearing clothes that are considered Western, having a boyfriend, or refusing to accept an arranged marriage are all offenses that can and have led to an honour killing.
  9. 9. HONOR KILLINGS 9 Cultural implications can often be seen in public and private views of honour killings. In some cultures, honour killings are considered less serious than other murders simply because they arise from long-standing cultural traditions and are thus deemed appropriate or justifiable. Additionally, according to a poll done by the BBC’s Asian network, 1 in 10 of the 500 Hindus, Sikhs, Christians and Muslims surveyed said they would condone any murder of someone who threatened their family’s honour. The lawyer and human rights activist Hina Jilani says, "The right to life of women in Pakistan is conditional on their obeying social norms and traditions." Nighat Taufeeq of the women's resource canter Shirkatgah (Lahore, Pakistan) says: "It is an unholy alliance that works against women: the killers take pride in what they have done, the tribal leaders condone the act and protect the killers and the police connive the cover-up." A July 2008 Turkish study by a team from Dicle University on honour killings in the South- eastern Anatolia Region, the predominantly Kurdish area of Turkey, has so far shown that little if any social stigma is attached to honour killing. It also comments that the practice is not related to a feudal societal structure, "There are also perpetrators who are well-educated university graduates. Of all those surveyed, 60 per cent are either high school or university graduates or at the very least, literate." Fareena Alam, editor of a Muslim magazine, writes that honour killings which arise in Western cultures such as Britain are a tactic for immigrant families to cope with the alienating consequences of urbanization. Alam argues that immigrants remain close to the home culture and their relatives because it provides a safety net. She writes that, “In villages "back home", a man's sphere of control was broader, with a large support system. In our cities full of strangers, there is virtually no control over who one's family members sit, talk or work with.”
  10. 10. HONOR KILLINGS 10 THE PROBLEM IN INDIA There are various reasons why people or family members decide to kill the daughter in the name of preserving their family honour. The most obvious reason for this practice to continue in India, albeit, at a much faster and almost daily basis, is because of the fact that the caste system continues to be at its rigid best and also because people from the rural areas refuse to change their attitude to marriage. According to them, if any daughter dares to disobey her parents on the issue of marriage and decides to marry a man of her wishes but from another gotra or outside her caste, it would bring disrepute to the family honour and hence they decide to give the ultimate sentence that is death to the daughter. Now as has become the norm, the son-in-law is killed as well. Sociologists believe that the reason why honour killings continue to take place is because of the continued rigidity of the caste system. Hence the fear of losing their caste status through which they gain many benefits makes them commit this heinous crime. The other reason why honour killings are taking place is because the mentality of people has not changed and they just cannot accept that marriages can take place in the same gotra or outside one’s caste. The root of the cause for the increase in the number of honour killings is because the formal governance has not been able to reach the rural areas and as a result. Thus, this practice continues though it should have been removed by now.
  11. 11. HONOR KILLINGS 11 There are various misconceptions regarding the practice of honour killing. The first misconception about honour killing is that this is a practice that is limited to the rural areas. The truth is that it is spread over such a large geographical area that we cannot isolate honour killings to rural areas only, though one has to admit that majority of the killings take place in the rural areas. But it has also been seen recently that even the metropolitan cities like Delhi and Tamil Nadu are not safe from this crime because 5 honour killings were reported from Delhi and in Tamil Nadu; a daughter and son in law were killed due to marriage into the same gotra. So it can be seen clearly that honour killing is not isolated to rural areas but also to urban areas and as already pointed out, it has a very wide geographical spread. The second misconception regarding honour killing is that it has religious roots. Even if a woman commits adultery, there have to be four male witnesses with good behaviour and reputation to validate the charge. Furthermore only the State can carry out judicial punishments, but never an individual vigilante. So, we can clearly see that there is no religious backing or religious roots for this heinous crime.
  12. 12. HONOR KILLINGS 12 WHERE THE PROBLEM LIES Legislation on this issues varies, but today the vast majority of countries no longer allow a husband to legally kill a wife for adultery (although adultery itself continues to be punishable by death in some countries) or to commit other forms of honour killings. However, in many places, adultery and other "immoral" sexual behaviours by female family members can be considered mitigating circumstances in case when they are killed, leading to significantly shorter sentences. In the Western World, a country that is often associated with "crimes of passion" and adultery related violence is France, and indeed, recent surveys have shown French public to be more accepting of these practices than the public in other countries. One 2008 Gallup survey compared the views of the French, German and British public and those of French, German and British Muslims on several social issues: 4% of French public said "honour killings" were "morally acceptable" and 8% of French public said "crimes of passion" were "morally acceptable"; honour killings were seen as acceptable by 1% of German public and also 1% of British public; crimes of passion were seen as acceptable by 1% of German public and 2% of British public. Among Muslims 5% in Paris, 3% in Berlin and 3% in London saw honour killings as acceptable, and 4% in Paris (less than French public), 1% in Berlin and 3% in London saw crimes of passion as acceptable. According to the report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur submitted to the 58th session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in 2002 concerning cultural practices in the family that reflect violence against women (E/CN.4/2002/83): The Special Rapporteur indicated that there had been contradictory decisions with regard to the honour defence in Brazil, and that legislative provisions allowing for partial or complete defence in that context could be found in the penal codes of Argentina, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Peru, Syria, Venezuela and the Palestinian National Authority.
  13. 13. HONOR KILLINGS 13 Various laws that allow full or partial defences, or otherwise are interpreted to create the possibility of shorter sentences include: Haiti: Article 269 of the penal code states "in the case of adultery as provided for in Article 284, the murder by a husband of his wife and/or her partner, immediately upon discovering them in flagrante delicto in the conjugal abode, is to be pardoned." Jordan: Part of article 340 of the Penal Code states that "he who discovers his wife or one of his female relatives committing adultery and kills, wounds, or injures one of them, is exempted from any penalty." This has twice been put forward for cancellation by the government, but was retained by the Lower House of the Parliament, in 2003: a year in which at least seven honour killings took place.[105] Article 98 of the Penal Code is often cited alongside Article 340 in cases of honour killings. "Article 98 stipulates that a reduced sentence is applied to a person who kills another person in a 'fit of fury'". Morocco: Revisions to Morocco's criminal code in 2003 helped improve women's legal status by eliminating unequal sentencing in adultery cases. Article 418 of the penal code granted extenuating circumstances to a husband who kills, injures, or beats his wife or her partner, or both, when catching them in flagrante delicto while committing adultery. While this article has not been repealed, the penalty for committing this crime is at least now the same for both genders. In Brazil, an explicit defence to murder in case of adultery has never been part of the criminal code, but a defence of "honour" (not part of the criminal code) has been widely used by lawyers in such cases to obtain acquittals. Although this defence has been generally rejected in modern parts of the country (such as big cities) since the 1950s, it has been very successful in the interior of the country. In 1991 Brazil’s Supreme Court explicitly rejected the “honour” defence as having no basis in Brazilian law.
  14. 14. HONOR KILLINGS 14 Countries where honour killing is not legal but is known to occur include: Syria: In 2009, Article 548 of the Syrian Law code was amended. Beforehand, the article waived any punishment for males who committed murder on a female family member for inappropriate sex acts. Article 548 states that "He who catches his wife or one of his ascendants, descendants or sister committing adultery (flagrante delicto) or illegitimate sexual acts with another and he killed or injured one or both of them benefits from a reduced penalty, that should not be less than 2 years in prison in case of a killing." Article 192 states that a judge may opt for reduced punishments (such as short-term imprisonment) if the killing was done with an honourable intent. In addition to this, Article 242 says that a judge may reduce a sentence for murders that were done in rage and caused by an illegal act committed by the victim. Italy: Article 133 and 62 of the Italian Penal Code offer the possibility of reduced sentencing and punishment for crimes that occur within the offender's cultural norms. In the case of honour killings and other honour related crimes, these articles could possibly allow for honour killing offenders to ask a reduced punishment. Italian Parliament member Souad Sbai suggested in 2010 that Italy amend these articles so that honour killings do not have extra protection under Italian law. Turkey: In Turkey, persons found guilty of this crime are sentenced to life in prison. There are well documented cases, where Turkish courts have sentenced whole families to life imprisonment for an honour killing. The most recent was on January 13, 2009, where a Turkish Court sentenced five members of the same Kurdish family to life imprisonment for the honour killing of Naile Erdas, 16, who got pregnant as a result of rape. Pakistan: Honour killings are known as karo kari. The practice is supposed to be prosecuted under ordinary killing, but in practice police and prosecutors often ignore it. Often a man must simply claim the killing was for his honour and he will go free. Nilofar Bakhtiar, advisor to Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, stated that in 2003, as many as 1,261 women were killed in honour killings.
  15. 15. HONOR KILLINGS 15 The Hudood Ordinances of Pakistan enacted in 1979 by then ruler General Zia-ul-Haq, created laws that realigned Pakistani rule with Islamic law. The law had the effect of reducing the legal protections for women, especially regarding sex outside of the marriage. Women, who made accusations of rape, after this law, were required to provide four male witnesses. If unable to do this, the alleged rape could not be prosecuted in the courts. Because the woman had admitted to sex outside of marriage, however, she could be punished for having sex outside of the marriage, a punishment that ranged from stoning to public lashing. This law made it that much more risky for women to come forward with accusations of rape. In 2006, the Women's Protection Bill amended these Hudood Ordinances by removing four male witnesses as a requirement for rape allegations. On December 8, 2004, under international and domestic pressure, Pakistan enacted a law that made honour killings punishable by a prison term of seven years, or by the death penalty in the most extreme cases. Women's rights organizations were, however, wary of this law as it stops short of outlawing the practice of allowing killers to buy their freedom by paying compensation to the victim's relatives. Women's rights groups claimed that in most cases it is the victim's immediate relatives who are the killers, so inherently the new law is just whitewash. It did not alter the provisions whereby the accused could negotiate pardon with the victim's family under the Islamic provisions. In March 2005, the Pakistani parliament rejected a bill which sought to strengthen the law against the practice of honour killing. However, the bill was brought up again, and in November 2006, it passed. It is doubtful whether or not the law would actually help women. Egypt: A number of studies on honour crimes by The Centre of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law, at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, includes one which reports on Egypt's legal system, noting a gender bias in favour of men in general, and notably article 17 of the Penal Code: judicial discretion to allow reduced punishment in certain circumstance, often used in honour killings case.
  16. 16. HONOR KILLINGS 16 RISING HONOUR KILLINGS IN INDIA Honour killings have been reported in northern regions of India, mainly in the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, as a result of people marrying without their family's acceptance, and sometimes for marrying outside their caste or religion. In contrast, honour killings are rare to non-existent in South India and the western Indian states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. In some other parts of India, notably West Bengal, honour killings ceased about a century ago, largely due to the activism and influence of reformists such as Vivekananda, Ramakrishna, Vidyasagar and Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Among Rajputs, marriages with members of other castes can provoke the killing of the married couple and immediate family members. This form of honour killing is attributed [who?] to Rajput culture and traditional views on the perceived "purity" of a lineage. The Indian state of Punjab has a large number of honour killings. According to data compiled by the Punjab Police, 34 honour killings were reported in the state between 2008 and 2010: 10 in 2008, 20 in 2009, and four in 2010. Haryana is also notorious for incidents of honour killing, mainly in the upper caste of society, among rajputs and jaats. Bhagalpur in the eastern Indian state of Bihar has also been notorious for honour killings. Recent cases include a 16-year-old girl, Imrana, from Bhojpur who was set on fire inside her house in a case of what the police called 'moral vigilantism'. The victim had screamed for help for about 20 minutes before neighbours arrived, only to find her smouldering body. She was admitted to a local hospital, where she later died from her injuries. In May 2008, Jayvirsingh Bhadodiya shot his daughter Vandana Bhadodiya and struck her on the head with an axe. In June 2010 some incidents were reported even from Delhi.
  17. 17. HONOR KILLINGS 17 In a landmark judgment in March 2010, Karnal district court ordered the execution of five perpetrators of an honour killing in Kaithal, and imprisoning for life the khap (local caste-based council) chief who ordered the killings of Manoj Banwala (23) and Babli (19), a man and woman of the same clan who eloped and married in June 2007. Despite having been given police protection on court orders, they were kidnapped; their mutilated bodies were found a week later in an irrigation canal. In 1990 the National Commission for Women set up a statutory body in order to address the issues of honour killings among some ethnic groups in North India. This body reviewed constitutional, legal and other provisions as well as challenges women face. The NCW's activism has contributed significantly towards the reduction of honour killings in rural areas of North India. According to Pakistani activists Hina Jilani and Eman M. Ahmed, Indian women are considerably better protected against honour killings by Indian law and government than Pakistani women, and they have suggested that governments of countries affected by honour killings use Indian law as a model in order to prevent honour killings in their respective societies. In June 2010, scrutinizing the increasing number of honour killings, the Supreme Court of India issued notices to the Central Government and six states including Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan to take preventive measures against honour killings Alarmed by the rise of honour killings, the Government planned to bring a bill in the Monsoon Session of Parliament July 2010[dated info] to provide for deterrent punishment for 'honour' killings. In June 2012, a man chopped off his 20-year-old daughter's head with a sword in Rajasthan after learning that she was dating men. According to police officer, "Omkar Singh told the police that his daughter Manju had relations with several men. He had asked her to mend her ways several times in the past. However, she did not pay heed. Out of pure rage, he chopped off her head with the sword.
  18. 18. HONOR KILLINGS 18 SOLUTION Firstly, the mentality of the people has to change. And when we say that the mentality has to change, we mean to say that parents should accept their children’s wishes regarding marriage as it is they who have to lead a life with their life partners and if they are not satisfied with their life partner then they will lead a horrible married life which might even end in suicide. Secondly, we need to have stricter laws to tackle these kinds of killings as this is a crime which cannot be pardoned because. Humans do not have the right to write down death sentences of innocent fellow humans.
  19. 19. HONOR KILLINGS 19 CONCLUSION The information that was gathered through interviews and other academic researchers, established to be a very interesting subject to be researched, there are many other topics within this field that could have been looked at, as honour crime is a wide concept that consists of many different issues. Honour crime is a global problem, and there needs to be more research put in to it. The participants that were chosen for the interviews worked within organisations that help deal with victims of honour related crimes, to help make comparison with academic writers. A better perspective could have been given if victims of honour related crimes were allowed to be interviewed, as the definition to honour crime varies from person to person, it would have given a clear understanding of what the actual definition consists of or similarities that were shown, but due to the sensitivity of the research, the researcher was unable to do this as it goes against all ethical considerations
  20. 20. HONOR KILLINGS 20 RECOMMENDATION Firstly, as small scale study was done, and will definitely have some flaws mainly due the fact that the findings cannot be generalised across the world as a small scale study was used. It would be better to do a research where a larger population could be used, and this time, the general public would be used in the sample, to get a broader understanding of the concept. Secondly a cross cultural research needs to be carried out to get a clear understanding of the different motivations of honour crimes, and the research would be done on people from different generations and to distinguish the differences in their perception of honour crimes. Thirdly more topics would need to researched, as the concept of honour crime is really broad.
  21. 21. HONOR KILLINGS 21 REFERENCE • Abu-Odeh, L., ‘Comparatively Speaking: The "Honor" of the "East" and the "Passion" of the "West"’, Utah Law Review, (1997), 287-307 • Alexander,C. Goldsmith, C. (2007) U.K. `Honor Killings,' Cloaked in Family Silence, Stymie Police. Available at: http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601102&sid=aQe8VVyUR.qk&refer =uk Accessed: 10th April 2007 • Al-Hanooti. S.M, (2006 ), Available at: http://www.islamawareness.net/HonourKilling/fatwa.html accessed: 7th March 2007 • Ali, S. Gender and Human Rights in Islam and International Law, Equal Before Allah, Unequal before Man? Published by Kluwer Law International, London • Anon, (2002), the Palestinian Humans Right Monitor, available at: http://www.phrmg.org/monitor2002/Aug2002.htm, accessed 16th March 2007 • Anon, Kurdish women’s right watch (2006) available at: http://www.kwrw.org/index.asp?id=77, accessed 30/03/07 • Bambale. Y. Y, (2003), Crimes and punishments under Islamic law, 2nd edition, Malthouse press Limitation, place of publication: Nigeria.
  22. 22. HONOR KILLINGS 22 • Burke, J (2000), The Observer, Love, honour obey – or die, Available at, http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,379174,00.html, accessed 11th March 2007 • BBC (http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/honourcrimes/crimesofhonor_2.shtml Accessed 23rd February 2007 • Breakwell. G.M, Hammond. S, Fife-Shaw. C, Smith. J.A, (2006) Research Methods in Psychology, 3rd Edition, Sage Publications Ltd. • Bryman. A (2004) Social Research Methods, Oxford University Press, New York
  23. 23. HONOR KILLINGS 23 BIBLIOGRAPHY Al- Jibaly, The Fragile Vessels- rights and obligation between spouses in Islam the muslim family Sunnah publications. • Beattie, M. (2005), Women ‘forced to wed rapist or die’, Available at http://news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=612&id=2279292005, accessed 01/04/07 • Biehl, J. (2005), The Whore Lived life a German, Spiegel Online, http://www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,344374,00.html • Blog, I, (2007), UK Muslims Honor killings: Wife and daughters burned alive: Available at : • Charif, M (2006), Islam and liberty – The Historical misunderstanding, Zed Books Publications • Daniel, N. (1993), Islam and the west – the making of an image, One world publications • Dasgupta, B, (2004), No Honour in honour killings, Available at: http://www.countercurrents.org/gender-dasgupta210204.htm • Dick, Bob (2005), Grounded theory: a thumbnail sketch. [On line] Available at http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/grounded.html Accessed: 4/3/07
  24. 24. HONOR KILLINGS 24 • Eremy, J, (2003) Reputation is everything, Honour killing among the Palestinians, Available at: http://www.worldandi.com/newhome/public/2003/may/clpub.asp • Esman, A, (2005), Hirshi Ali leaves hiding to spotlight honour killings, available at: http://www.feminist.com/news/vaw26.html • Eteraz, A, (2006), Why Muslims honour killing why, available at: http://eteraz.wordpress.com/2006/08/18/why-muslim-honor-killings-why/
  25. 25. HONOR KILLINGS 25