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eLearning Framework

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Badrul Khan describes the dimensions of the e-learning framework. The original can be found at http://bookstoread.com/framework

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eLearning Framework

  1. 2. Ethical Institutional Resource Support On-line and off-line resources & support Management e-Learning Pedagogical Evaluation Technological Interface Design Learning and teaching issues Infrastructure, hardware and software Physical layout and navigation Content development and maintenance Academic, administrative & student services Ethical considerations in e-learning Assessment of learner, evaluation of learning environment
  2. 3. <ul><ul><ul><li>5. MANAGEMENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5.1 E‑Learning Content Development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5.2 E-Learning Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. RESOURCE SUPPORT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6.1 Online support </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6.2 Resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7. ETHICAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.1 Social and Political Influence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.2 Cultural Diversity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.3 Bias </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.4 Geographical diversity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.5 Learner diversity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.6 Digital Divide </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.7 Etiquette </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7.8 Legal issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8. INSTITUTIONAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8.1 Administrative Affairs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8.2 Academic affairs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8.2 Student services </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. PEDAGOGICAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.1 Content Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 Audience Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 Goal Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.4 Medium Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 Design approach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.6 Organization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.7 Methods and Strategies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. TECHNOLOGICAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1 Infrastructure planning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.2 Hardware </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.3 Software </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. INTERFACE DESIGN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 Page and site design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 Content design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 Navigation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.4 Accessibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.5 Usability testing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. EVALUATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4.1 Assessment of learners </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> 4.2 Evaluation of the instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& learning environment </li></ul></ul>http://BooksToRead.com/framework/dimensions.htm
  3. 4. Pedagogical <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul>How often is dynamic course content updated?
  4. 5. Pedagogical <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the learners? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the institution have adequate information about the learners at a distance? </li></ul>
  5. 6. Pedagogical <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul>Does the course provide clear expectations of what the student is required to do?
  6. 7. Pedagogical <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Does the course utilize multimedia attributes of the Internet and digital technologies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- other (specify) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Pedagogical <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>What is the instructor’s role? </li></ul><ul><li>- more facilitative than </li></ul><ul><li>didactic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- more didactic than facilitative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- a combination of both </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Pedagogical <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Does the course provide a sense of continuity? (e.g., each unit of the lesson builds on the previous unit, etc.) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Pedagogical <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Does the course promote Inside Collaboration by providing a supportive environment for asking questions, clarifying directions, suggesting or contributing resources and working on joint projects with class members? </li></ul>
  10. 11. Technological <ul><li>Infrastructure Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul>Does the course have personnel who can assist learners to set up for starting the course?
  11. 12. Technological <ul><li>Infrastructure Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul>Are the hardware requirements for the course clearly stated?
  12. 13. Technological <ul><li>Infrastructure Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul>Does the course provide links to resources where all necessary software can be downloaded?
  13. 14. Interface Design <ul><li>Page and Site Design </li></ul><ul><li>Content Design </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Usability Testing </li></ul>Do Web pages look good in a variety of Web browsers and devices--in text-based browsers, all recent versions of Internet Explorer and Netscape, and so on.?
  14. 15. Interface Design <ul><li>Page and Site Design </li></ul><ul><li>Content Design </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Usability Testing </li></ul>Does the course follow “one idea per paragraph” rule?
  15. 16. Interface Design <ul><li>Page and Site Design </li></ul><ul><li>Content Design </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Usability Testing </li></ul>Does the course provide structural aids or site map to guide learner’s navigation?
  16. 17. Interface Design <ul><li>Page and Site Design </li></ul><ul><li>Content Design </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Usability Testing </li></ul>Is the course Website designed to be accessible by a wider user population? (Is the course 508 compliant?)
  17. 18. Interface Design <ul><li>Page and Site Design </li></ul><ul><li>Content Design </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Usability Testing </li></ul>How quickly users find answers to the most frequently asked questions on the course site?
  18. 19. Evaluation <ul><li>Assessment of Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Instruction & Learning Environment </li></ul>Does the course have a mechanism in which a learner can be truly measured and not cheat?
  19. 20. Evaluation <ul><li>Assessment of Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Instruction & Learning Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Does the course have a system to accept students’ online evaluation of the following? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- instructor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- learning environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- learning resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- course design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- technical support </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Management <ul><li>Content Development </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>Is there a project support site for e‑learning production team?
  21. 22. Management <ul><li>Content Development </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>Does the course notify students about any changes in due dates or other course relevant matters (e.g., server down) via following means? - e-mail - announcement page - alert boxes - running footer added to a page - phone call - mail
  22. 23. Resource Support <ul><li>Online Support </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>Does the course provide troubleshooting (or expert technical support from specialized staff) assistance or a help line?
  23. 24. Resource Support <ul><li>Online Support </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>Does the course provide examples of previous student's work on the Web?
  24. 25. Ethical <ul><li>Social/Political Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues </li></ul>Does the institution have to get approval from any external entities (who can serve as political barriers) to implement e-learning?
  25. 26. Ethical <ul><li>Social/Political Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues </li></ul>To improve cross-cultural verbal communication and avoid misunderstanding, does the course make an effort to reduce or avoid the use of jargon, idioms, ambiguous or cute humor, and acronyms?
  26. 27. Ethical <ul><li>Social/Political Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues </li></ul>Does the course present more than one viewpoint on controversial issues?
  27. 28. Ethical <ul><li>Social/Political Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Is the course offered to geographically diverse population? If yes ... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the course sensitive about students from different time-zones (e.g. synchronous communications are scheduled at reasonable times for all time zones represented)? </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Ethical <ul><li>Social/Political Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues </li></ul>Is the course designed to have patience for learners who adapt to individualized distributed learning environment slower than others?
  29. 30. Ethical <ul><li>Social/Political Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues </li></ul>Information accessibility issue must be expressed in terms of digital “haves” and “have nots,” a gap expressed in the term “digital divide.” Is the digital divide issue considered in designing the e‑learning content?
  30. 31. Ethical <ul><li>Social/Political Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Does the course provide any guidance to learners on how to behave and post messages in online discussions so that their postings do not hurt others’ feelings? </li></ul>
  31. 32. Ethical <ul><li>Social/Political Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues </li></ul>Does the course get students’ permission to post any of the following on the Web? - students’ photographs - students’ projects
  32. 33. (An excerpt from a listserv posting by Kathy Murrell of South Africa): “ In multiple choice questions the selected option was marked by a &quot;tick&quot; symbol (as apposed to a &quot;cross&quot; sorry no ascii equivelent). I presume the American equivelent to be a check mark, but for most South Africans' this represents the mark next to a correct answer, - it was most disconcerting to get an error or wrong message next to the mark and many students may not even bother to read the message as they would presume it to be the correct answer. “
  33. 34. Institutional <ul><li>Administrative Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Student Services </li></ul>Is the institution ready to offer online courses?
  34. 35. Institutional <ul><li>Administrative Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Student Services </li></ul>Does the course provide academic quality such as one would expect in a traditional course?
  35. 36. Institutional <ul><li>Administrative Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Student Services </li></ul>Are instructor/tutor and technical staff available during online orientation?
  36. 37. Within the scope of today’ s presentation, I presented few e‑learning issues in the form of questions that you can ask yourself when planning or designing e‑learning. As the scope of e‑learning design expands, design projects change from one-person operations to complex team efforts. The eLearning Framework can be used to ensure that no important factor is omitted from the design of e‑learning, whatever its scope or complexity.
  37. 38. Ethical Institutional Resource Support Management e-Learning Pedagogical Evaluation Technological Interface Design
  38. 39. I strongly believe that the e-Learning Framework can provide guidance in the design, development, evaluation and implementation of: - Online Courses - e-Learning Environments - Distance Education Programs - Virtual Universities - Learning Management Systems
  39. 40. Visit the Framework at http:// B ooks T o R ead.com /framework
  40. 41. B ooks T o R ead.com /khan Info about my books and other materials can be found at:
  41. 42. Email: [email_address] Badrul Khan Homepage: http:// BooksToRead.com /khan

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