GPS. Global Positioning Satellites. Receiver unit. Communicates with 4 satellites. Trigonometrically determines position. Information available. Location, velocity, acceleration, elevation.
Use in Sport. Popular in team-based field sports. AFL worldwide leader. Cricket, Hockey, Rugby League and Union. Recent addition to sport. Low cost and portable. Referred to as ‘Bros.’ Evolved to be suitable for competition and training. Receiver size and athlete comfort. Force absorption and strength.
Current Research. Research is currently in infancy stages. Lacks quantity. Differing analysis methods. Willingness to share data. Yet to fully unlock the information. Data interpretation. Application to training and competition. GPS is the future of sports coaching and exercise science.
Accuracy. Inconsistent findings in literature. Research methods and techniques. Positive findings. Accurate for maximal velocity*. Accuracy improves with duration and distance. Negative findings. Circular paths and non-linear movement cause underestimation. Accuracy decreases with increasing velocity*. Challenging to draw conclusions. *different studies
AFL Average distance covered in match 12km for all players. Midfield players have additional requirements. 3.4% greater distance travelled. 4.8% lower playing time. 17% greater exertion index. Decline in exertion index of 11% from 1st to 4th quarter. Individualized training. Wisbey B, et al. Quantifying movement demands of AFL football using GPS tracking. J Sci Med Sport (2009), doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2009.09.002
Rugby Union Average distance covered per match is 6.9km. 2.8km (37%) – Standing and Walking. 1.9km (27%) – Jogging. 0.4km (6%) – Sprinting. Backs do more high intensity work, greater recovery. Forwards contact not included. Forwards have higher total movement. Greater distance covered in 2nd half. Specifically third quarter of match. Fatigue relevance. CUNNIFFE, B., PROCTOR, W., BAKER, J. S. & DAVIES, B. 2009. An evaluation of the physiological demands of elite rugby union using global positioning system tracking software. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23, 1195-1203.
Practical Applications. Training specificity. Sport. Positional. Tactical. Performance analysis. KPI’s Work rate. Data and evaluation.
Data Analysis Considerations. Competition and training specificity. Speed zones and distances. Data analysis methods. Decision-making and conclusions. Further evidence and other information sources.
Further Research. Accuracy and validity of GPS units. Technical evolution. Sport-specific data analysis. Factors: equipment, environment, gender. Defining relationship between data and performance. Correlation and causation.
Conclusion GPS data is a valuable coaching tool. Yet to realise full potential. Further research required. Consistency within data analysis important. Important role for GPS in the sports coaching future.
Discussion. What is the future of GPS technology? Is modern-day sport too data-orientated? As a coach, how would you use GPS? Please continue the discussion with me online. Twitter: @fitzcity or use the hashtags #sportGPSfuture #SpCP13 http://fitzcity.wordpress.com/
Literature References. AUGHEY, R. J. 2011. Applications of GPS technologies to field sports. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 6, 295-310. BARBERO-ÁLVAREZ, J. C., COUTTS, A., GRANDA, J., BARBERO-ÁLVAREZ, V. & CASTAGNA, C. 2010. The validity and reliability of a global positioning satellite system device to assess speed and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13, 232-235. CUNNIFFE, B., PROCTOR, W., BAKER, J. S. & DAVIES, B. 2009. An evaluation of the physiological demands of elite rugby union using global positioning system tracking software. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23, 1195-1203. DUFFIELD, R., REID, M., BAKER, J. & SPRATFORD, W. 2010. Accuracy and reliability of GPS devices for measurement of movement patterns in confined spaces for court-based sports. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13, 523-525. DWYER, D. B. & GABBETT, T. J. 2012. Global positioning system data analysis: Velocity ranges and a new definition of sprinting for field sport athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26, 818-824. GABBETT, T. J., JENKINS, D. G. & ABERNETHY, B. 2012. Physical demands of professional rugby league training and competition using microtechnology. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15, 80-86.
Literature References. LACHAPELLE, G., MORRISON, A. & ONG, R. Ultra-precise positioning for sport applications. proceedings of 13th IAIN world congress, Stockholm, 2009. 27-30. LARSSON, P. 2003. Global positioning system and sport-specific testing. Sports Medicine, 33, 1093-1101. VENTER, R. E., OPPERMAN, E. & OPPERMAN, S. 2011. The use of global positioning system (GPS) tracking devices to assess movement demands and impacts in under-19 rugby union match play. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 17, 1-8. WISBEY, B., MONTGOMERY, P. G., PYNE, D. B. & RATTRAY, B. 2010. Quantifying movement demands of AFL football using GPS tracking. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13, 531-536.