Indoor Positioning Techniques in 2014: Where Are They Now?

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OVERVIEW
The geolocation capabilities of smartphones are fantastic and well documented, so if your project requires you to locate people outside, you’re pretty well covered. But what do you do if you need to locate and identify participants indoors? This presentation will provide an introduction to a range of techniques for finding people within a predefined space. It will cover everything from optical tracking and WiFi monitoring to the more recently available iBeacon, and discuss how you can incorporate these techniques into your creative coding projects.

Edward Keeble
Developer, edwardkeeble.com

Edward Keeble was born in Toronto, Ontario in 1984 and received a BFA in New Media from Ryerson University. A long-time resident of Toronto, he moved to Calgary, Alberta in 2013 to pursue danger and art. Of particular interest to him are projects which explore technologically-mediated social interactions and device-human relations.

He has built really big screens, multi-touch walls, mobile apps, interactive installations and web applications at Globacore, Fabrica, SiG@MaRS and DreamNow. His work has been exhibited in Canada and Europe and featured on Make: Online, Gizmodo and the Discovery Channel.

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Indoor Positioning Techniques in 2014: Where Are They Now?

  1. 1. W H E R E A R E T H E Y * N O W ? * T H E Y = S M A R T P H O N E S L O C A L P O S I T I O N I N G T E C H N I Q U E S
  2. 2. L O C A L P O S I T I O N I N G S Y S T E M • Locates users within a predefined space • Relatively accurate positioning • Unique user identification • Persistent uniqueness
  3. 3. W H Y N O T G P S ? • Doesn’t work indoors • LPS can provide accurate, context-specific location
  4. 4. A P P L I C AT I O N S • Wayfinding • Retail analytics • Gaming • Art Installations • Crowd density and traffic flow • Home automation
  5. 5. A C T I V E C L I E N T ( C L I E N T- S I D E ) A C T I V E S E N S O R ( S E R V E R - S I D E )
  6. 6. A C T I V E C L I E N T • Requires user interaction (must have installed an app) • Allows for greater user interaction within your application • Builds trust • Accurate and reliable
  7. 7. A C T I V E S E N S O R • Requires no user interaction • Monitor existing wireless traffic from user devices • Hard to detect • Less accurate than active-user • Central database = privacy risk • Creepy, bro
  8. 8. L O C A L P O S I T I O N I N G I S N O T R E A L LY L O C A L I Z E D G P S
  9. 9. C O N S I D E R Y O U R R E Q U I R E M E N T S
  10. 10. P R E S E N C E - D E T E C T I O N P R O X I M I T Y T R I G G E R S A B S O L U T E P O S I T I O N I N G
  11. 11. P R E S E N C E D E T E C T I O N • Simplest approach • Can use a single sensor or an array of sensors for different areas • Is user within your area (and roughly how far away are they)? • Useful for traffic flow analysis and determining crowd density
  12. 12. Source: CNET
  13. 13. PA S S I V E W I F I S N I F F I N G
  14. 14. B E A C O N F R A M E S
  15. 15. P R O B E R E Q U E S T S
  16. 16. P R O B E R E Q U E S T S • Broadcast or Targeted (with SSID) • Client MAC Address
  17. 17. Source: TP-Link
  18. 18. W H AT I S I T G O O D F O R ?
  19. 19. P R O X I M I T Y T R I G G E R S
  20. 20. C A P P E D !
  21. 21. i B E A C O N
  22. 22. W H E R E C A N Y O U G E T S O M E B E A C O N S ?
  23. 23. i B E A C O N C O N F I G U R AT I O N • UUID • Major • Minor • Measured Power
  24. 24. i B E A C O N C O N F I G U R AT I O N FD80C499-D6EC-42D5-87BC-D40F2D41522F 1 2 3 1 3 2 1 2
  25. 25. N O T O N LY F O R i O S
  26. 26. W O R K F L O W • Scan for beacons with your project’s UUID • Callbacks for Entering and Exiting the vicinity of a beacon • Callback once per second (roughly) while within range of a beacon • Can determine the proximity to a beacon
  27. 27. Far Near Immediate P R O X I M I T Y
  28. 28. A B S O L U T E P O S I T I O N I N G
  29. 29. A B S O L U T E P O S I T I O N I N G x1, y1 x2, y2 x3, y3 -51 dBm -48 dBm -44 dBm
  30. 30. R S S I R E A L LY S O M E T H I N G S O M E T H I N G I N A C C U R AT E
  31. 31. N O F I LT E R
  32. 32. K A L M A N F I LT E R
  33. 33. D I S TA N C E E S T I M AT I O N 2.9198m 3.2924m 6.9365m RSSI at 1m: -40 RSSI at 1m: -41 RSSI at 1m: -39 RSSI: -52.0243 RSSI: -47.5238 RSSI: -45.9421
  34. 34. T R I L AT E R AT I O N 2.9198m 3.2924m 6.9365m x1, y1 x2, y2 x3, y3 client X, client Y
  35. 35. S O R T O F.
  36. 36. C O M M E R C I A L O F F E R I N G S
  37. 37. i B E A C O N
  38. 38. W I F I F I N G E R P R I N T I N G S O U R C E : G A M A G R O U P, D E PA R T M E N T O F C O M P U T I N G , P O LY U
  39. 39. M A G N E T I C F I N G E R P R I N T I N G
  40. 40. L I G H T B E A C O N S Source: ByteLight
  41. 41. N E W A P P R O A C H E S
  42. 42. N AV I S E N S
  43. 43. P R O J E C T TA N G O
  44. 44. W I F I S L A M Simultaneous Localization and Mapping
  45. 45. T H A N K S ! @edkeeble edwardkeeble.com

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