West Nile Virus

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West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. WNV is spread when mosquitos infected with the disease bite humans or animals. People who contract WNV usually have no symptoms or mild symptoms. Those with symptoms may have a fever, headache, body aches, skin rash or swollen lymph glands.


If West Nile virus enters the brain, it can be deadly. It may cause inflammation of the brain, called encephalitis, or inflammation of the tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, called meningitis.


http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/westnilevirus.html 

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West Nile Virus

  1. 1. Fitango Education Health Topics West Nile Virushttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=212
  2. 2. OverviewWest Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease thatfirst appeared in the United States in 1999. WNV isspread when mosquitos infected with the diseasebite humans or animals. People who contract WNVusually have no symptoms or mild symptoms.Those with symptoms may have a fever, headache,body aches, skin rash or swollen lymph glands. 1
  3. 3. OverviewIf West Nile virus enters the brain, it can be deadly.It may cause inflammation of the brain, calledencephalitis, or inflammation of the tissue thatsurrounds the brain and spinal cord, calledmeningitis.http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/westnilevirus.html 2
  4. 4. SymptomsSome people infected with WNV will developsevere illness. The severe symptoms can includehigh fever, headache, neckstiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbnessand paralysis. These symptoms may last severalweeks, and neurological effects may bepermanent. 3
  5. 5. SymptomsUp to 20 percent of the people who becomeinfected have milder symptoms such as fever,headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, andsometimes swollen lymph glands or a skin rash onthe chest, stomach and back. Symptoms can lastfor as short as a few days, though even healthypeople have become sick for several weeks. 4
  6. 6. SymptomsApproximately 80 percent of people (about 4 outof 5) who are infected with WNV will not show anysymptoms at all.http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm 5
  7. 7. DiagnosisMilder WNV illness improves on its own, andpeople do not necessarily need to seek medicalattention for this infection though they maychoose to do so. If you develop symptoms ofsevere WNV illness, such as unusually severeheadaches or confusion, seek medical attentionimmediately. Severe WNV illness usuallyrequires hospitalization. Pregnant women andnursing mothers are encouraged to talk totheir doctor if they develop symptoms that couldbe WNV. 6
  8. 8. DiagnosisPeople typically develop symptoms between 3 and14 days after they are bitten by the infectedmosquito.http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm 7
  9. 9. TreatmentThere is no specific treatment for WNV infection.In cases with milder symptoms, people experiencesymptoms such as fever and aches that pass ontheir own, although even healthy people havebecome sick for several weeks. In more severecases, people usually need to go to the hospitalwhere they can receive supportive treatmentincluding intravenous fluids, help with breathingand nursing care. 8
  10. 10. CausesWest Nile Virus is caused by the following:-- Infected Mosquitoes. Most often, WNV is spreadby the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoesbecome infected when they feed on infected birds.Infected mosquitoes can then spread WNV tohumans and other animals when they bite. 9
  11. 11. Causes-- Transfusions, Transplants, and Mother-to-Child.In a very small number of cases, WNV also hasbeen spread through blood transfusions, organtransplants, breastfeeding and even duringpregnancy from mother to baby.http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm 10
  12. 12. RisksPeople over the age of 50 are more likely todevelop serious symptoms of WNV if they do getsick and should take special care to avoid mosquitobites. 11
  13. 13. RisksBeing outside means also youre at risk. The moretime you are outdoors, the more time likely youare to be bitten by an infected mosquito. Payattention to avoiding mosquito bites if you spend alot of time outside.**Other possible risks include**: 12
  14. 14. Risks-- Donated Blood. All donated blood is checked forWNV before being used. The risk of getting WNVthrough blood transfusions and organ transplantsis very small, but if you have concerns, talk to yourdoctor about the risks.-- Pregnancy and Nursing. The risk that WNV maybe passed down to a fetus or infant throughbreastmilk is still being evaluated. Talk to yourhealth care provider if you have questions. 13
  15. 15. Riskshttp://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm 14
  16. 16. PreventionPrevention measures consist of community-basedmosquito control programs that are able to reducevector populations, personal protection measuresto reduce the likelihood of being bitten by infectedmosquitoes, and the underlying surveillanceprograms that characterize spatial/temporalpatterns in risk that allow health and vectorcontrol agencies to target their interventions andresources. 15
  17. 17. Prevention ******The easiest way to avoid WNV is to preventmosquito bites**:-- When outdoors, use insect repellent with anEPA-registered active ingredient 16
  18. 18. Prevention ****-- Get rid of mosquito breeding sites by emptyingstanding water from flower pots, buckets orbarrels. Change water in bird baths and pet dishesweekly. -Keep childrens wading pools empty whenthey arent being used-- Wear long sleeves and pants, if possible-- Stay indoors between dusk and dawn, whenmosquitoes are most active 17
  19. 19. Prevention ****-- Use screens on windows to keep mosquitoes out*Older people are more at risk for West NileVirus, so they should be especially careful.http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm 18

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