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Urinary Tract Infection


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A urinary tract infection (or UTI) is caused by a bacterial infection in the urinary tract. The urinary tract is the body's drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. 
Normally, bacteria that enter the urinary tract are quickly removed by the body before they cause symptoms. But sometimes bacteria overcome the body’s natural defenses and cause infection, thus leading to a UTI. 
Urinary Tract Infections are the 2nd most popular type of infection in the body. Women are especially prone to UTIs for anatomical reasons. *One factor is that a woman’s urethra is shorter, allowing bacteria quicker access to the bladder. Also, a woman’s urethral opening is near sources of bacteria from the anus and vagina. For women, the lifetime risk of having a UTI is greater than 50 percent. 

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Urinary Tract Infection

  1. 1. Fitango Education Health Topics Urinary Tract Infection
  2. 2. OverviewA urinary tract infection (or UTI) is caused by abacterial infection in the urinary tract. The urinarytract is the bodys drainage system for removingwastes and extra water. The urinary tract includestwo kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. 1
  3. 3. OverviewNormally, bacteria that enter the urinary tract arequickly removed by the body before they causesymptoms. But sometimes bacteria overcome thebody’s natural defenses and cause infection, thusleading to a UTI. 2
  4. 4. OverviewUrinary Tract Infections are the 2nd most populartype of infection in the body. Womenare especially prone to UTIsfor anatomical reasons. *One factor is that awoman’s urethra is shorter, allowing bacteriaquicker access to the bladder. Also, a woman’surethral opening is near sources of bacteria fromthe anus and vagina. For women, the lifetime riskof having a UTI is greater than 50 percent. 3
  5. 5. CausesMost UTIs are caused by bacteria that live in thebowel. The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli)causes the vast majority of UTIs. Microbes calledChlamydia and Mycoplasma can infect the urethraand reproductive system but not the bladder.Chlamydia and Mycoplasma infections may besexually transmitted and require treatment ofsexual partners. 4
  6. 6. CausesThe urinary tract has several systems to preventinfection. The points where the ureters attach tothe bladder act like one-way valves to preventurine from backing up toward the kidneys, andurination washes microbes out of the body. Inmen, the prostate gland produces secretions thatslow bacterial growth. In both sexes, immunedefenses also prevent infection. But despite thesesafeguards, infections still occur. Certain bacteriahave a strong ability to attach themselves to thelining of the 5
  7. 7. RisksPeople of any age or sex can get UTIs, but womenare 4 times more likely than men to get them.Others at high risk for UTIs:-- women who use a diaphragm as their form ofbirth control-- people with diabetes or problems with thebody’s natural defense system 6
  8. 8. Risks-- people who need a tube to drain their bladder-- people with urinary tract abnormalities thatblock the flow of urine-- people with spinal cord injuries or other nervedamage 7
  9. 9. SymptomsYou should see your health care provider if youhave any of these signs or symptoms:-- a burning feeling when you urinate-- frequent or intense urges to urinate, even whenyou have little urine to pass 8
  10. 10. Symptoms-- pain in your back or side below the ribs-- cloudy, dark, bloody, or foul-smelling urine-- fever or chills 9
  11. 11. DiagnosisHealth care providers diagnose UTIs by askingabout your symptoms and then testing a sample ofyour urine. Your urine will be checked with amicroscope for bacteria and white bloodcells, which the body produces to fight infection.Because bacteria can be found in the urine ofhealthy people, a UTI is diagnosed based both onsymptoms and a lab test. 10
  12. 12. DiagnosisIf you have repeat infections or are in the hospital,your urine may be cultured. The culture isperformed by placing part of the urine sample in atube or dish with a substance that encourages anybacteria present to grow. Once the bacteria havemultiplied, which usually takes 1 to 3 days, theycan be identified. Your health care provider mayalso order a sensitivity test, which tests thebacteria for sensitivity to different antibiotics tosee which medicine is best for treating theinfection. 11
  13. 13. DiagnosisIf you have repeat infections, your health careprovider may also order one or more tests to see ifyour urinary tract is normal****Kidney and bladder ultrasound** 12
  14. 14. DiagnosisUltrasound uses a device, called a transducer, thatbounces safe, painless sound waves off organs tocreate an image of their structure. The procedureis performed in a health care provider’soffice, outpatient center, or hospital by a speciallytrained technician, and the images are interpretedby a radiologist—a doctor who specializes inmedical imaging; anesthesia is not needed. Theimages can show abnormalities in the kidneys andbladder. However, this test cannot reveal allimportant ur 13
  15. 15. Diagnosis **Voiding cystourethrogram**This test is an x-ray image of the bladder andurethra taken while the bladder is full and duringurination, also called voiding. As you lie on the x-ray table, a health care provider inserts the tip of athin, flexible tube called a catheter through yoururethra into your bladder. Your bladder andurethra are filled with a special dye, called contrastmedium, to make the structures clearly visible onthe x-ray images. The x rays are taken from variousangles while your bladder is full of contra 14
  16. 16. Diagnosis **Computerized tomography (CT) scan**CT scans use a combination of x rays and computertechnology to create three-dimensional (3-D)images. A CT scan may include the injection ofcontrast medium. CT scans require you to lie on atable that slides into a tunnel-shaped device wherethe x rays are taken. The procedure is performed inan outpatient center or hospital by an x-raytechnician, and the images are interpreted by aradiologist; anesthesia is not needed. CT scans canprovide clearer, more detailed images to help thehealth ca 15
  17. 17. Diagnosis **Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)**MRI machines use radio waves and magnets toproduce detailed pictures of your body’s internalorgans and soft tissues without using x rays. AnMRI may include an injection of contrast medium.With most MRI machines, you lie on a table thatslides into a tunnel-shaped device that may beopen ended or closed at one end; some newermachines are designed to allow you to lie in amore open space. The procedure is performed inan outpatient center or hospital by a speciallytrained technician, and t 16
  18. 18. Diagnosis **Radionuclide scan**A radionuclide scan is an imaging technique thatrelies on the detection of small amounts ofradiation after injection of radioactive chemicals.Because the dose of the radioactive chemicals issmall, the risk of causing damage to cells is low.Special cameras and computers are used to createimages of the radioactive chemicals as they passthrough your kidneys. Radionuclide scans areperformed in a health care provider’soffice, outpatient center, or hospital by a speciallytrained technician 17
  19. 19. Diagnosis **Urodynamics**Urodynamic testing is any procedure that looks athow well your bladder, sphincters, and urethra arestoring and releasing urine. Most of these tests areperformed in the office of a urologist—a doctorwho specializes in urinary problems—by aurologist, physician assistant, or nurse practitioner.Some procedures may require light sedation tokeep you calm. Most urodynamic tests focus onyour bladder’s ability to hold urine and emptysteadily and completely. Urodynamic tests can alsoshow w 18
  20. 20. Diagnosis**Urodynamics** 19
  21. 21. TreatmentUTIs are treated with antibiotics that can kill thebacteria causing the infection. The antibioticprescribed will depend on the type of bacteriacausing your UTI. Some antibiotics may be ruledout if you have allergies to them. Tell your healthcare provider if you are allergic to any medicines. 20
  22. 22. TreatmentYou may need to take antibiotics for a few days orfor 7 days or longer. The length of treatmentdepends on a few factors:-- how severe the infection is-- whether you were given the right antibiotic atfirst-- whether the bacteria resists the antibiotic 21
  23. 23. Treatment-- whether you have repeat infections-- whether you have a urinary tract abnormalitythat blocks the flow of urine-- whether you are male or female; men may needlonger treatment because bacteria can hide deepinside prostate tissue. 22
  24. 24. TreatmentFollow your health care provider’s instructionscarefully and completely when taking antibiotics.Drinking lots of fluids and urinating frequently willspeed healing. If needed, you may take variousmedicines to relieve the pain of a UTI. A heatingpad on the back or abdomen may also help. 23
  25. 25. PreventionIn addition to taking antibiotics, changing some ofyour daily habits and lifestyle choices may help youprevent repeat UTIs. 24
  26. 26. Prevention **Eating, Diet, and Nutrition**Drinking lots of fluid can help flush bacteria fromyour system. Water is best. Most people should tryfor six to eight, 8-ounce glasses a day. But do notdrink this much fluid if you have kidney failure.Check with your health care provider to learn howmuch fluid is healthy for you. 25
  27. 27. Prevention **Bathroom Habits**Urinate often and when you first feel the urge.Bacteria can grow when urine stays in the bladdertoo long. Urinate shortly after sex to flush awaybacteria that might have entered your urethraduring sex. Drinking a glass of water will also helpflush bacteria away. 26
  28. 28. Prevention **Bathroom Habits**After using the toilet, always wipe from front toback. This step is most important after a bowelmovement to keep from getting bacteria into theurethra.**Clothing** 27
  29. 29. Prevention **Bathroom Habits**Wear cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothesso air can keep the area around the urethra dry.Avoid nylon underwear and tight-fittingjeans, which can trap moisture and help bacteriagrow.**Birth Control** 28
  30. 30. Prevention **Bathroom Habits**For women, using a diaphragm or spermicide forbirth control can lead to UTIs by increasingbacteria growth. If you have trouble with UTIs, tryswitching to a new form of birth control.Unlubricated condoms or spermicidal condomsincrease irritation, which may help bacteria grow.Consider switching to lubricated condoms withoutspermicide or using a nonspermicidal lubricant. 29
  31. 31. Prevention **Bathroom Habits**For women who get recurrent UTIs, a doctor maysuggest the following:-- drink plenty of water every day-- urinate when the need arises and avoid resistingthe urge to urinate-- urinate after sexual intercourse 30
  32. 32. Prevention **Bathroom Habits**-- switch to a different method of birth control 31
  33. 33. Additional ResourcesFor more information: 32
  34. 34. Additional Resources**American Urological Association Foundation**1000 Corporate BoulevardLinthicum, MD 21090Phone: 1–800–828–7866 or 410–689–3700Fax: 410–689–3998 33
  35. 35. Additional Resources**American Urological Association Foundation**Email: auafoundation@auafoundation.orgInternet: 34
  36. 36. Additional Resources **The Prostatitis Foundation**1063 30th Street, Box 8Smithshire, IL 61478Phone: 1–888–891–4200Fax: 309–325–7184 35
  37. 37. Additional Resources **The Prostatitis Foundation**Email: MCapstone@aol.comInternet: 36