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For most people, hay fever is a seasonal problem—something to endure for a few weeks once or twice a year. But for others, such allergies can lead to more serious complications, including sinusitis and asthma.
Sinusitis is one of the most commonly reported chronic diseases and costs almost $6 billion a year to manage. It is the inflammation or infection of the four pairs of cavities behind the nose. Congestion in them can lead to pressure and pain over the eyes, around the nose, or in the cheeks just above the teeth. Chronic sinusitis is associated with persistent inflammation and is often difficult to treat. Extended bouts of hay fever can increase the likelihood of chronic sinusitis. But only half of all people with chronic sinusitis are allergic.
Asthma is a lung disease that narrows or blocks the airways. This causes wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and other breathing difficulties. Asthma attacks can be triggered by viral infections, cold air, exercise, anxiety, allergens, and other factors. Allergic asthma is responsible for almost 80 percent of all asthma diagnoses. It presents the same symptoms as nonallergic asthma, but differs in that it is set
off primarily by an immune response to specific allergens. In most people with allergic asthma, the culprit allergens are those found indoors, such as pets, house dust mites, cockroaches and mold.