Fitango Education          Health Topics                            Melanomahttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10
Overview   Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer.   Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the   size,...
Overview                     **Asymmetry**   - the shape of one half does not match the otherhttp://www.fitango.com/catego...
Overview                       **Border**   - the edges are ragged, blurred or irregularhttp://www.fitango.com/categories....
Overview                        **Color**   - the color is uneven and may include shades of   black, brown and tanhttp://w...
Overview                      **Diameter**   - there is a change in size, usually an increase   Melanoma can be cured if i...
Symptoms   Often, the first sign of melanoma is a change in the   size, shape, color, or feel of an existing mole. Most   ...
Symptoms   Most people have moles. Moles are groups of   melanocytes that form an abnormal growth.   However, they are not...
Symptoms   The following sections discuss 4 A-B-C-D tips:   asymmetry, border, color, and diameter.   **Asymmetry**   A me...
Symptoms                       **Border**   Melanomas have edges that are   ragged, notched, blurred, or irregular in outl...
Symptoms                        **Color**   The color of melanomas is uneven. Shades of   black, brown, and tan may be pre...
Symptoms                      **Diameter**   Melanomas are usually larger than the eraser of a   pencil (5 mm or 1/4 inch)...
Symptoms                      **Diameter**   Melanoma can be cured if diagnosed and treated   when the tumor is thin and h...
Diagnosis   If the doctor suspects that a spot on the skin is   melanoma, the patient will need to have a biopsy.   A biop...
Diagnosis   If there is too much growth to remove entirely, the   doctor removes a sample of the tissue. A biopsy   can us...
Diagnosis   If melanoma is found, the doctor will determine   what stage the cancer is in before planning   treatment.   R...
Diagnosis   The doctor also does a careful physical exam and,   depending on the thickness of the tumor, may   order chest...
Treatment   A treatment plan for melanoma depends on:   -- The location and thickness of the tumor   -- How deeply the mel...
Treatment   -- Whether melanoma cells have spread to nearby   lymph nodes or other parts of the body   -- The patients age...
Treatment   Surgery to remove a melanoma is the standard   treatment. It is necessary to remove not only the   tumor but a...
Treatment   Lymph nodes near the tumor may be removed   during surgery because cancer can spread through   the lymphatic s...
Treatment   Surgery is generally not effective in controlling   melanoma that has spread to other parts of the   body. In ...
Treatment   The side effects of cancer treatment mainly   depend on the type and extent of treatment. Side   effects may n...
Risks   You are more likely to have melanoma if any of the   melanoma risk factors apply to you.   The following are risk ...
Risks   2. Having abnormal moles   3. Having had melanoma before   4. Having more than 50 moles   5. Having had one or mor...
Risks   If you have one or more melanoma risk factors,   you should check your skin regularly and have   regular skin exam...
Prevention   To help prevent and reduce the risk of melanoma   caused by UV radiation, people should avoid   exposure to t...
Prevention   Sunglasses that have UV-absorbing lenses should   also be worn. The label should specify that the   lenses bl...
Melanoma
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Melanoma

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Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma may also appear as a new mole. It may be black, abnormal or "ugly looking."


Thinking of "ABCD" can help you remember what to watch for:


Asymmetry - the shape of one half does not match the other


Border - the edges are ragged, blurred or irregular


Color - the color is uneven and may include shades of black, brown and tan


Diameter - there is a change in size, usually an increase
Melanoma can be cured if it is diagnosed and treated early. If melanoma is not removed in its early stages, cancer cells may grow downward from the skin surface and invade healthy tissue. If it spreads to other parts of the body it can be difficult to control.

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Melanoma

  1. 1. Fitango Education Health Topics Melanomahttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10
  2. 2. Overview Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma may also appear as a new mole. It may be black, abnormal or "ugly looking." Thinking of "ABCD" can help you remember what to watch for:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 1
  3. 3. Overview **Asymmetry** - the shape of one half does not match the otherhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 2
  4. 4. Overview **Border** - the edges are ragged, blurred or irregularhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 3
  5. 5. Overview **Color** - the color is uneven and may include shades of black, brown and tanhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 4
  6. 6. Overview **Diameter** - there is a change in size, usually an increase Melanoma can be cured if it is diagnosed and treated early. If melanoma is not removed in its early stages, cancer cells may grow downward from the skin surface and invade healthy tissue. If it spreads to other parts of the body it can be difficult to control.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 5
  7. 7. Symptoms Often, the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of an existing mole. Most melanomas have a black or blue-black area.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 6
  8. 8. Symptoms Most people have moles. Moles are groups of melanocytes that form an abnormal growth. However, they are not cancerous. When surgically removed, they normally do not return. They do not spread through the lymph nodes to internal parts of the body. How can you distinguish between a benign mole and a cancerous mole?http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 7
  9. 9. Symptoms The following sections discuss 4 A-B-C-D tips: asymmetry, border, color, and diameter. **Asymmetry** A melanoma is usually asymmetric, which means it is not usually perfectly round. A non-cancerous mole usually does have symmetry. In melanomas the two halves of the lesion do not usually look similar.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 8
  10. 10. Symptoms **Border** Melanomas have edges that are ragged, notched, blurred, or irregular in outline.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 9
  11. 11. Symptoms **Color** The color of melanomas is uneven. Shades of black, brown, and tan may be present. Areas of white, gray, red, pink, or blue may also be seen.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 10
  12. 12. Symptoms **Diameter** Melanomas are usually larger than the eraser of a pencil (5 mm or 1/4 inch); non-cancerous moles are smaller.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 11
  13. 13. Symptoms **Diameter** Melanoma can be cured if diagnosed and treated when the tumor is thin and has not deeply invaded the skin. However, if a melanoma is not removed in an early stage, cancer cells may grow down into the skin, invading healthy tissue.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 12
  14. 14. Diagnosis If the doctor suspects that a spot on the skin is melanoma, the patient will need to have a biopsy. A biopsy is the only way to make a definite diagnosis. In a biopsy, the doctor tries to remove all suspicious-looking growth.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 13
  15. 15. Diagnosis If there is too much growth to remove entirely, the doctor removes a sample of the tissue. A biopsy can usually be done in the doctors office using a local anesthetic. A pathologist then examines the tissue under a microscope to check for cancer cells.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 14
  16. 16. Diagnosis If melanoma is found, the doctor will determine what stage the cancer is in before planning treatment. Removal of nearby lymph nodes for examination under a microscope is sometimes necessary.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 15
  17. 17. Diagnosis The doctor also does a careful physical exam and, depending on the thickness of the tumor, may order chest X-rays; blood tests; and scans of the liver, bones, and brain.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 16
  18. 18. Treatment A treatment plan for melanoma depends on: -- The location and thickness of the tumor -- How deeply the melanoma has invaded the skinhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 17
  19. 19. Treatment -- Whether melanoma cells have spread to nearby lymph nodes or other parts of the body -- The patients age and general health The standard treatment for melanoma is surgery; in some cases, the doctor may also use chemotherapy, biological therapy, or radiation therapy. The doctor may decide to use one treatment method or a combination of methods.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 18
  20. 20. Treatment Surgery to remove a melanoma is the standard treatment. It is necessary to remove not only the tumor but also some normal tissue around it in order to minimize the chance that any cancer gets left behind. If a large area of tissue is removed, a skin graft may be done. For this procedure, the doctor uses skin from another part of the body to replace the skin that was removed.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 19
  21. 21. Treatment Lymph nodes near the tumor may be removed during surgery because cancer can spread through the lymphatic system. If the pathologist finds cancer cells in the lymph nodes, it may mean that the disease has spread to other parts of the body.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 20
  22. 22. Treatment Surgery is generally not effective in controlling melanoma that has spread to other parts of the body. In such cases, doctors may use other methods of treatment, such as chemotherapy, biological therapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these methods.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 21
  23. 23. Treatment The side effects of cancer treatment mainly depend on the type and extent of treatment. Side effects may not be the same for everyone, and they may change from one treatment to the next.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 22
  24. 24. Risks You are more likely to have melanoma if any of the melanoma risk factors apply to you. The following are risk factors for melanoma: 1. Having 2 or more close relatives who have had melanomahttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 23
  25. 25. Risks 2. Having abnormal moles 3. Having had melanoma before 4. Having more than 50 moles 5. Having had one or more severe sunburns as a child or teenager 6. Having fair skin that burns easily in the sunhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 24
  26. 26. Risks If you have one or more melanoma risk factors, you should check your skin regularly and have regular skin exams by a doctor or nurse specialist.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 25
  27. 27. Prevention To help prevent and reduce the risk of melanoma caused by UV radiation, people should avoid exposure to the midday sun. Wearing a hat and long sleeves offers protection. Lotion, cream, or gel that contains sunscreen can help protect the skin. Those with an SPF (sun protection factor) of 30 or higher provide high protection against sunburn.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 26
  28. 28. Prevention Sunglasses that have UV-absorbing lenses should also be worn. The label should specify that the lenses block at least 99% of UVA and UVB radiation. Melanoma can be cured if detected early. Early detection involves regularly checking your body for skin growths that have changes in symmetry, color, texture, and size.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=10 27

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