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Immunization is one of the many marvels of modern medicine. A simple shot in the arm has now protected generations from illnesses that were once a scourge on society or in the case of smallpox completely eradicated them. Immunization is one of the easiest preventative health measures any parent can take to shield their child from illness. Vaccinations begin at birth and continue to age 18 for children. Although all vaccination continues throughout a person’s lifetime and may depend upon factors such as age, sex, and exposure.  

Recently immunization among children has hit new lows. This has been mostly due to unfounded claims that immunizations can cause illness. There is no scientific evidence of links between any major illnesses and immunization.  Parents that choose not to immunize their children put them at risk to a wide variety of diseases.  Though what many parents that choose not to immunize their children don’t realize is the risk they are exposing other children to as well. Immunization is safe and those with doubts should be sure to read about the subject from vetted sources such as the CDC and not blogs or celebrities.  Immunization not only keeps you and your family healthy, it also keeps everyone you come in contact with healthy.

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  1. 1. EducationHealth TopicsImmunizations
  2. 2. 1OverviewImmunization is one of the many marvels ofmodern medicine. A simple shot in the arm hasnow protected generations from illnesses thatwere once a scourge on society or in the case ofsmallpox completely eradicated them.Immunization is one of the easiest preventativehealth measures any parent can take to shield theirchild from illness. Vaccinations begin at birth andcontinue to age 18 for children. Although allvaccination continues throughout a person’slifetime and may depend upon factor
  3. 3. 2OverviewRecently immunization among children hashit new lows. This has been mostly due tounfounded claims that immunizations can causeillness. There is no scientific evidence of linksbetween any major illnesses andimmunization. Parents that choose not toimmunize their children put them at risk to a widevariety of diseases. Though what many parentsthat choose not to immunize their children don’trealize is the risk they are exposing other childrento as well. Immunization is safe and those
  4. 4. 3Immunization ScheduleThis is the schedule of vaccines recommendedfor healthy children from birth through age 6years. All childhood vaccines are given as a seriesof 2 or more doses. Each vaccine dose isrecommended at a specific age, but the schedulehas some flexibility. For example, some vaccinescan be given over a range of ages. Other vaccinescome in a combination form, so one injection(shot) can provide protection against manydiseases. Vaccine recommendations are based onwhen a child is at highe
  5. 5. 4Immunization ScheduleSome illnesses or health conditions indicate thatyou may need to delay or not get some vaccinesfor your child. Talk to your child’s health careprovider and see the Health Conditions area formore information.If you have more questions about childhoodimmunization, read the "Schedule Explained" tab,see the CDC Parent’s Guide to ChildhoodImmunization, or ask your child’s health careprovider.
  6. 6. 5Immunization ScheduleVACCINEAGEBirth1 mo2 mo4 mo6 mo12 mo15mo18 mo19-23 mo2-3 yr4-6 yrHepB1Hepatitis B1of 32 of 3 doses 3 of 3 doses RV2Rotavirus 1 of32 of 33 of 3 DTaP3Diphtheria, Tetanus,acellularPertussis
  7. 7. 6Immunization Schedule1 of 52 of 53 of 5 4 of 5 doses 5 of5Hib4Haemophilus Influenzaetype b 1 of 42 of 43of 44 of 4 doses PCV5Pneumococcal 1 of 42 of43 of 44 of 4 doses IPV6InactivatedPoliovirus(Polio) Vaccine 1 of 42 of 43 of 4 doses 4of 4Flu7Influenza Recommended eachyearMMR8Measles, Mumps, Rubella 1 of 2doses 2 of 2Varicella9Chickenpox 1 of 2doses 2 of 2HepA10Hepatitis A 2 doses
  8. 8. 7Hepatitis B VaccineThere are a number of vaccines your child shouldreceivewithin their first 18 months of life. The first ofthese is the Hep B vaccinewhich prevents hepatitis B (HBV). While
  9. 9. 8Hepatitis B Vaccineit may seem overly cautious to administer avaccine the same day as birth,there are very good reasons behind this. HepatitisB displays no signs orsymptoms in half of those infected. Adults whocontract HBV only have a 6 – 10%
  10. 10. 9Hepatitis B Vaccinechance of chronic infection while those thatcontact HBV before the age of fivehave a 30 – 50% chance of chronic infection. Thoseborn to mothers who are HBVcarriers can contract the virus at birth, but this canbe prevented with prompt
  11. 11. 10Hepatitis B Vaccinetreatment via vaccination. Immunization canprevent HBV and can spare yourchild liver cancer or cirrhosis later in life.Theschedule for HBV starts with the first shotpreferably before the newborn is
  12. 12. 11Hepatitis B Vaccinedischarged from the hospital. Given that thenewborn is healthy and up toweight. The second dose should be administeredat 1 to 2 months of age. Thelast dose can be given from 6 months to 18months.
  13. 13. 12Dtap VaccineThe DTap is a combined vaccine which willimmunize yourchild against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis allat once. Diphtheria is anillness rarely heard of in our day, but it used to berampant. Diphtheria starts
  14. 14. 13Dtap Vaccinewith strep throat like symptoms and progresses todevelop a thick membrane ofmucus in the back of the throat that can obstructthe airway. It can also causekidney, heart and nervous system damage. Givenits disastrous effects on the
  15. 15. 14Dtap Vaccinebody one can understand how important it is tovaccinate against it and do itearly.Tetanusis caused by spores in the soil and can be foundanywhere. The bacterium that
  16. 16. 15Dtap Vaccineresults from the spores creates a toxin that causesmuscle spasms that can leadto broken bones and obstruction of the airway.Since tetanus spores areeverywhere and they can enter the body throughsmall or large cuts the bestdefense against it is vaccination.
  17. 17. 16Dtap VaccinePertussisor whooping cough as it is commonly known ischaracterized by a whooping soundmade by infected children or infants whilebreathing. The whooping is caused bythe throat being swollen from long coughing jagsthat can exhaust the infected
  18. 18. 17Dtap Vaccineand even cause vomiting that can lead todehydration. In the most severe casesbrain inflammation can complicate the illness, onethird of those with thiscomplication die, another third live with braindamage and the rest survive
  19. 19. 18Dtap Vaccinewith no lasting nervous system damage. In the pastrisks of side effectsprevented parents from vaccinating their children,but with new vaccines thereis no great risk to the children it is administered to.This vaccine is administered in
  20. 20. 19Dtap Vaccinefive doses. The first can be given at two months ofage followed by the secondat four months, the third at six months, the fourthat 15-18 months and thefifth dose at four to six years of age.
  21. 21. 20Hib VaccineHib vaccine prevents HaemophilusInfluenzae type B, a serious form of bacterialmeningitis that can causepneumonia, severe swelling of the throat, death,infections of the bones,
  22. 22. 21Hib Vaccinejoints, blood and pericardium (the covering of theheart). Before the inventionof the vaccine Hib was the leading cause ofbacterial meningitis in childrenwith 20,000 children contracting the diseaseannually, with vaccination thereare only 200 cases of Hib yearly.
  23. 23. 22Hib VaccineHib isadministered in four doses. The first can be givenat two months, the second atfour months, the third at six months and the finalfourth dose can be given at12-15 months.
  24. 24. 23PVC VaccinePVC is a vaccine used to prevent Streptococcuspneumoniae infection that can cause pneumonia,meningitis and blood infections in children. Whilepneumococcal meningitis israre it is fatal in 1 in 10 of the children whocontract it. Before the vaccine
  25. 25. 24PVC Vaccinethere were over 700 cases of meningitis, 13,000blood infections, 5 million earinfections and 200 deaths caused bypneumococcal infections.Theschedule for PVC vaccine is four doses beginning attwo months of age. The
  26. 26. 25PVC Vaccinesecond dose can be given at four months, the thirdat six months and the fourthat 12-15 months of age.
  27. 27. 26Polio VaccineIVP stands for the inactivated poliovirus vaccine,whenadministered for four full doses it prevents polioinfection. Polio used to bea scourge that left young children paralyzed in itswake. Now the virus is on
  28. 28. 27Polio Vaccinethe verge of eradication and is all but dead exceptin Afghanistan, Pakistanand India. Even though risk of Polio islow in the United States it is still very important toget vaccinated againstit.
  29. 29. 28Polio VaccineTheschedule for vaccination starts at two months ofage and continues with threemore doses at four months, six to 18 months andfinally a last dose at four tosix years of age.
  30. 30. 29Flu VaccineEach year the influenza virus that causes the flumutatesand causes a new strain of flu. That is why eachyear everyone should get a flushot. Flu shots can begin at six months of age andbe repeated yearly with each
  31. 31. 30Flu Vaccinenew strain of flu.
  32. 32. 31Rotovirus VaccineRotavirus is the leading cause of severe acutegastroenteritis (vomiting and severe diarrhea)among children worldwide. Two different rotavirusvaccines are currently licensed for use in infants inthe United States. The vaccines are RotaTeq® (RV5)and Rotarix® (RV1). Before being licensed, bothvaccines were tested in clinical trials and shown tobe safe and effective. Both vaccines are oral (takenby mouth and swallowed), not a shot.
  33. 33. 32Rotovirus VaccineThere are two brands of rotavirus vaccine. A babyshould get either two or three doses, dependingon which brand is used.The doses are recommended at these ages:First Dose: 2 months of ageSecond Dose: 4 months of age
  34. 34. 33Rotovirus VaccineThird Dose: 6 months of age (if needed)The first dose may be given as early as six weeks ofage, and should be given by age 14 weeks 6 days.The last dose should be given by eight months ofage.Rotavirus vaccine may be given at the same time asother childhood vaccines. Babies who get thevaccine may be fed normally afterward.
  35. 35. 34Chickenpox VaccineGetting vaccinated is the best way to preventchickenpox. Currently, two doses of vaccine arerecommended for children, adolescents, andadults.
  36. 36. 35Chickenpox VaccineWhile no vaccine is 100% effective in preventingdisease, the chickenpox vaccine is very effective:about 8 to 9 out of every 10 people who arevaccinated are completely protected fromchickenpox. In addition, the vaccine almost alwaysprevents severe disease. If a vaccinated persondoes get chickenpox, it is usually a very mild caselasting only a few days and involving fewer skinblisters (usually less than 50), mild or no fever, andfew other symptoms.
  37. 37. 36Chickenpox VaccineFOR INFANTS AND CHILDRENGetting chickenpox vaccine is much safer thangetting chickenpox disease. Most people who getchickenpox vaccine do not have any problems withit. Learn more about possible side effects ofchickenpox vaccines.
  38. 38. 37Chickenpox VaccineChildren who have never had chickenpox shouldget 2 doses of the chickenpox vaccine at theseages:1st Dose: 12-15 months of age2nd Dose: 4-6 years of age (may be given earlier, ifat least 3 months after the 1st dose)
  39. 39. 38Chickenpox VaccinePeople 13 years of age and older (who have neverhad chickenpox or received chickenpox vaccine)should get two doses at least 28 days apart.A “combination” vaccine called MMRV, whichcontains both chickenpox and measles, mumpsand rubella (MMR) vaccines, may be given topeople 12 years of age and younger instead of the2 individual vaccines. Your child’s doctor can helpyou decide which vaccine to use.
  40. 40. 39Chickenpox VaccineFOR ADULTSAnyone born during or after 1980 who has not hadchickenpox or been vaccinated is at risk and shouldget 2 doses of the chickenpox vaccine. (Thecombination MMRV vaccine is not licensed forthose over 12 years old.)
  41. 41. 40Chickenpox VaccineHowever, pregnant women should wait to get thechickenpox vaccine until after they have givenbirth. Women should not get pregnant for 1 monthafter getting the chickenpox vaccine.
  42. 42. 41Hepatitis A VaccineThe best way to prevent hepatitis A is throughvaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine.Vaccination is recommended for all children age 12months and older, for travelers to certaincountries, and for people at high risk for infectionwith the virus.
  43. 43. 42Hepatitis A VaccineThe hepatitis A vaccine is given as two shots, sixmonths apart. The hepatitis A vaccine also comesin a combination form, containing both hepatitis Aand B vaccine, that can be given to persons 18years of age and older. This form is given as threeshots, over a period of six months or as three shotsover one month and a booster shot at 12 months.FOR CHILDREN
  44. 44. 43Hepatitis A VaccineGetting hepatitis A vaccine is much safer thangetting the disease. But a vaccine, like anymedicine, could possibly cause serious problemssuch as severe allergic reactions. Learn more aboutpossible side effects of hepatitis A vaccine.
  45. 45. 44Hepatitis A VaccineThe first dose should be given at 12-23 months ofage. Children who are not vaccinated by two yearsof age can be vaccinated at later visits.FOR TRAVELERS
  46. 46. 45Hepatitis A VaccineThe first dose of hepatitis A vaccine isrecommended for healthy international travelersyounger than 40 years of age at any time beforedeparture. A shot called immune globulin (IG) canbe considered in addition to hepatitis A vaccine forolder adults, immunocompromised persons, andpersons with chronic liver disease or other chronicmedical conditions who are traveling within twoweeks.
  47. 47. 46Hepatitis A VaccineIG without hepatitis A vaccine can be given totravelers who are younger than 12 months of age,allergic to a vaccine component, or who elect notto receive vaccine.FOR OTHERSThe hepatitis A vaccine series may be startedwhenever a person is at risk of infection:
  48. 48. 47Hepatitis A VaccineMen who have sexual contact with other menUsers of certain illegal drugs, both injection andnon-injectionFamily and caregivers before arrival ofinternational adopteesPeople with chronic (lifelong) liver diseases, suchas hepatitis B or hepatitis C
  49. 49. 48Hepatitis A VaccinePeople who are treated with clotting-factorconcentratesPeople who work with hepatitis A infected animalsor in a hepatitis A research laboratorySOME PEOPLE SHOULD NOT BE VACCINATED ORSHOULD WAIT TO GET VACCINATED
  50. 50. 49Hepatitis A VaccineAnyone who has ever had a severe (lifethreatening) allergic reaction to a previous dose ofhepatitis A vaccine should not get another dose.Anyone who has a severe (life threatening) allergyto any vaccine component should not get thevaccine. Tell your doctor if you have any severeallergies. All hepatitis A vaccines contain alum andsome hepatitis A vaccines contain 2-phenoxyethanol.
  51. 51. 50Hepatitis A VaccineAnyone who is moderately or severely ill at thetime the shot is scheduled should probably waituntil they recover. Ask your doctor or nurse.People with a mild illness can usually get thevaccine.
  52. 52. 51Hepatitis A VaccineTell your doctor if you are pregnant. The safety ofhepatitis A vaccine for pregnant women has notbeen determined. But there is no evidence that itis harmful to either pregnant women or theirunborn babies. The risk, if any, is thought to bevery low.
  53. 53. 52MMR VaccineThe MMR Vaccine stands for measles, mumps andrubella which are serious diseases. Before vaccinesthey were very common, especially amongchildren.
  54. 54. 53MMR Vaccine**Measles **-- Measles virus causes rash, cough, runny nose,eye irritation, and fever.-- It can lead to ear infection, pneumonia,seizures (jerking and staring), brain damage, anddeath.
  55. 55. 54MMR Vaccine**Mumps**-- Mumps virus causes fever, headache, musclepain, loss of appetite, and swollen glands.-- It can lead to deafness, meningitis (infection ofthe brain and spinal cord covering), painfulswelling of the testicles or ovaries, and rarelysterility.
  56. 56. 55MMR Vaccine**Rubella (German Measles) **-- Rubella virus causes rash, arthritis (mostlyin women), and mild fever.-- If a woman gets rubella while she is pregnant,she could have a miscarriage or her baby could beborn with serious birth defects.
  57. 57. 56MMR Vaccine**Rubella (German Measles) **These diseases spread from person to personthrough the air. You can easily catch them by beingaround someone who is already infected. Measles,mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine can protectchildren (and adults) from all three ofthese diseases.Thanks to successful vaccination programsthese diseases are much less common in the U.S.than they used to be. But if we stopped vaccinatingthey would return.
  58. 58. 57MMR Vaccine**Rubella (German Measles) **Children should get 2 doses of MMR vaccine:– First Dose: 12-15 months of age– Second Dose: 4-6 years of age (may be givenearlier,if at least 28 days after the 1st dose)
  59. 59. 58Meningococcal VaccineMeningococcal vaccines can prevent four types ofmeningococcal disease, including two of the threetypes most common in the United States and atype that causes epidemics in Africa.Meningococcal vaccines cannot prevent all types ofthe disease, but they do protect many people whomight become sick if they didnt get the vaccine.FOR CHILDREN:
  60. 60. 59Meningococcal VaccineMeningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) isrecommended for children 9 months through tenyears of age who are at increased risk formeningococcal disease. Children may be atincreased risk due to certain medical conditions orbecause they are traveling to a country with highrates of meningococcal disease. Booster doses maybe recommended if your child remains atincreased risk. Talk to your child’s health careprovider for more information.
  61. 61. 60Meningococcal VaccineFOR PRETEENS/TEENS:
  62. 62. 61Meningococcal VaccineMeningococcal conjugate vaccine is routinelyrecommended for all 11 through 18 year olds. Thefirst dose should be given at 11-12 years of age anda booster dose at 16 years of age. For adolescentswho receive the first dose at age 13 through 15years, a one-time booster dose should beadministered, preferably at age 16 through 18years, before the peak in increased risk.Adolescents who receive their first dose ofmeningococcal conjugate vaccine at or after age 16years do not need a booster do
  63. 63. 62Meningococcal VaccineFOR ADULTS:Either meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine ormeningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommendedfor adults if you:Are a college freshman living in a dormitoryAre a military recruit
  64. 64. 63Meningococcal VaccineHave a damaged spleen or your spleen has beenremovedHave terminal complement deficiencyAre a microbiologist who is routinely exposedto Neisseria meningitidis (the causal pathogen)Are traveling to or residing in countries in whichthe disease is common
  65. 65. 64Meningococcal VaccineBooster doses may be recommended for adultswho remain at increased risk. Talk to your healthcare provider for more information.
  66. 66. 65HPV VaccineHPV vaccines are available for females and malesto protect against the types of HPV (humanpapillomavirus) that most commonly cause healthproblems. The best way a person can be sure toget the most benefit from HPV vaccination is tocomplete all three doses before beginning sexualactivity.
  67. 67. 66HPV VaccineHPV vaccine is important because **it can preventmost cases of cervical cancer**
  68. 68. 67HPV Vaccinein females, if it is given before a person is exposedto the virus. Protection from HPV vaccine isexpected to be long-lasting. But vaccination is nota substitute for cervical cancer screening. Womenshould still get regular Pap tests.Two HPV vaccineshave been used in the U.S. and around the worldfor several years. These vaccine are consideredvery safe. Learn more about possible side effects ofHPV vaccines.
  69. 69. 68HPV VaccineHPV vaccine is given as a three-dose series:1st DoseNow2nd Dose1 to 2 months after Dose 13rd Dose
  70. 70. 69HPV Vaccine6 months after Dose 1**FOR GIRLS AND WOMEN**Two vaccines (Cervarix and Gardasil) are availableto protect females against the types of HPV thatcause most cervical cancers. One of these vaccines(Gardasil) also protects against most genital warts.Gardasil has also been tested and shown to protectagainst cancers of the vagina, vulva and anus.
  71. 71. 70HPV VaccineBoth vaccines are recommended for 11- and 12-year-old girls, and for women 13 through 26 yearsold who did not get any or all of the threerecommended doses when they were younger.These vaccines can also be given to girls beginningat age nine. It is recommended that females getthe same vaccine brand for all three doses,whenever possible.
  72. 72. 71HPV VaccineHPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnantwomen. However, receiving HPV vaccine whenpregnant is not a reason to consider terminatingthe pregnancy. Women who are breast feedingmay get the vaccine.**FOR BOYS AND MEN**
  73. 73. 72HPV VaccineOne vaccine (Gardasil) protects males against mostgenital warts and anal cancers. This vaccine isavailable for boys and men ages 9-26.The best way a person can be sure to get the mostbenefit from HPV vaccination is to complete allthree doses before beginning sexual activity.
  74. 74. 73HPV VaccineLearn more about HPV and vaccines to preventcervical cancer by reading answers to frequentlyasked questions.
  75. 75. 74Additional ResourcesVaccines.govCDC