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http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=639Fitango EducationHealth TopicsCold Weather Safety
1OverviewWhen winter temperatures drop significantlybelow normal, stayingwarm and safe can become a challenge. Extremelyco...
2Overviewoften accompany a winter storm, so you may haveto cope with power failures and icy roads.Although staying indoors...
3OverviewMany homes will be too cold—either due to apower failure or because theheating system isnt adequate for the weath...
4OverviewExposure to cold temperatures, whether indoorsor outside, can cause other serious or life-threatening health prob...
5Winter Weather PreperationWhat constitutes extreme cold and its effects canvary across different areas of the country. In...
6Winter Weather Preperation**Plan Ahead **Prepare for extremely cold weather every winter—it’s always a possibility. There...
7Winter Weather Preperation** Emergency Supplies List: **• an alternate way to heat your home during apower failure:- dry ...
8Winter Weather Preperation** Emergency Supplies List: **• furnace fuel (coal, propane, or oil)• electric space heater wit...
9Winter Weather Preperation** Emergency Supplies List: **• multipurpose, dry-chemical fire extinguisher• first aid kit and...
10Winter Weather Preperation** Emergency Supplies List: **• battery-powered clock or watch • extrabatteries • non-electric...
11Winter Weather Preperation**Winter Survival Kit for Your Home**Keep several days’ supply of these items:• Food that need...
12Winter Weather Preperation**Winter Survival Kit for Your Home**• Water stored in clean containers, or purchasedbottled w...
13Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Home for Winter **Although periods of extreme cold cannot alwaysbe predicted fa...
14Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Home for Winter **Your ability to feel a change in temperaturedecreases with ag...
15Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **You can avoid many dangerous winter travelproblems by planning...
16Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• Have the radiator system serviced, or check theantifreeze le...
17Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• Replace any worn tires, and check the airpressure in the tir...
18Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• a can and waterproof matches (to melt snow forwater)• windsh...
19Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• compass• tool kit• paper towels• bag of sand or cat litter(t...
20Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• tire chains (in areas with heavy snow)• collapsible shovel• ...
21Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• canned compressed air with sealant (foremergency tire repair...
22Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety****Heat Your Home Safely**If you plan to use a wood stove, fireplace, or space...
23Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Use fireplace, wood stoves, or othercombustion heaters only if they are pro...
24Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Use only the type of fuel your heater is designedto use—don’t substitute.• ...
25Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Never leave children unattended near a spaceheater.• Make sure that the cor...
26Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• If your space heater has a damaged electricalcord or produces sparks, do no...
27Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Protect yourself from carbon monoxide (CO)poisoning by installing a battery...
28Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Use battery-powered flashlights orlanterns rather than candles, if possible...
29Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Never use an electric generator indoors,inside thegarage, or near the air int...
30Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Do not store gasoline indoors where the fumescould ignite.**Conserve Heat**
31Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**You may need fresh air coming in for your heateror for emergency cooking arra...
32Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Infants less than one year old should never sleep ina cold room because (1) i...
33Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Keep a Water SupplyExtreme cold can cause water pipes in yourhome to freeze a...
34Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Keep the indoor temperature warm.• Improve the circulation of heated air ne...
35Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**For example, open kitchen cabinet doors beneaththe kitchen sink. If your pipe...
36Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Eat and Drink WiselyEating well-balanced meals will help you staywarmer. Do n...
37Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**When the weather is extremely cold, andespecially if there are high winds, tr...
38Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• a scarf or knit mask to cover face and mouth• sleeves that are snug at the ...
39Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• several layers of loose fitting clothing
40Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Be sure the outer layer of your clothing is tightlywoven, preferably wind res...
41Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Avoid ExertionCold weather puts an extra strain on the heart. Ifyou have hear...
42Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Understand Wind Chill
43Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**The Wind Chill index is the temperature your bodyfeels when the air temperatu...
44Winter Weather Preperation**Be Safe During Recreation**Notify friends and family where you will be beforeyou go hiking, ...
45Winter Weather Preperation**Be Safe During Recreation**Be Cautious About Travel• Listen for radio or television reports ...
46Winter Weather Preperation**Be Safe During Recreation**• If you must travel by car, use tire chains and takea mobile pho...
47Winter Weather Preperation**Be Safe During Recreation**• Never pour water on your windshield to removeice or snow; shatt...
48Winter Weather Preperation**What to Do if You Get Stranded **Staying in your vehicle when stranded is oftenthe safest ch...
49Winter Weather Preperation**What to Do if You Get Stranded **• Tie a brightly colored cloth to the antennas asignal to r...
50Winter Weather Preperation**What to Do if You Get Stranded **• Stay awake. You will be less vulnerable to cold-related h...
51Winter Weather Preperation**What to Do if You Get Stranded **• As you sit, keep moving your arms and legsto improve your...
52HypothermiaWhen exposed to cold temperatures, your bodybegins to lose heat faster than it can be produced.Prolonged expo...
53HypothermiaHypothermia is most likely at very coldtemperatures, but it can occur even at cooltemperatures (above 40°F) i...
54HypothermiaVictims of hypothermia are often (1) elderlypeople with inadequate food, clothing, or heating;(2) babies slee...
55HypothermiaAdults:shivering, exhaustionconfusion, fumbling handsmemory loss, slurred speechdrowsinessInfants:bright red,...
56Hypothermiavery low energyWhat to DoIf you notice any of these signs, takethe person’s temperature. If it is below 95°, ...
57HypothermiaGet the victim into a warm room or shelter.If the victim has on any wet clothing, remove it.Warm the center o...
58HypothermiaWarm beverages can help increase the bodytemperature, but do not give alcoholic beverages.Do not try to give ...
59HypothermiaA person with severe hypothermia may beunconscious and may not seem to have a pulse orto be breathing. In thi...
60FrostbiteFrostbite is an injury to the body that is caused byfreezing. Frostbite causes a loss of feeling and colorin af...
61FrostbiteRecognizing FrostbiteAt the first signs of redness orpain in any skin area, get out of the cold or protectany e...
62FrostbitenumbnessA victim is often unaware of frostbite untilsomeone else points it out because the frozentissues are nu...
63FrostbiteWhat to DoIf you detect symptoms of frostbite,seek medical care. Because frostbite andhypothermia both result f...
64FrostbiteIf (1) there is frostbite but no sign of hypothermiaand (2) immediate medical care is not available,proceed as ...
65FrostbiteImmerse the affected area in warm—not hot—water (the temperature should be comfortable tothe touch for unaffect...
66FrostbiteDon’t use a heating pad, heat lamp, or the heat ofa stove, fireplace, or radiator for warming. Affectedareas ar...
67FrostbiteThese procedures are not substitutes for propermedical care. Hypothermia is a medical emergencyand frostbite sh...
68FrostbiteTaking preventive action is your best defenseagainst having to deal with extreme cold-weatherconditions. By pre...
Cold Weather Safety
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Cold Weather Safety

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When winter temperatures drop significantly below normal, staying
warm and safe can become a challenge. Extremely cold temperatures
often accompany a winter storm, so you may have to cope with power failures and icy roads. Although staying indoors as much as possible can help reduce the risk of car crashes and falls on the ice, you may also face indoor hazards. 


Many homes will be too cold—either due to a power failure or because the heating system isn't adequate for the weather. When people must use space heaters and fireplaces to stay warm, the risk of household fires increases, as well as the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. 


Exposure to cold temperatures, whether indoors or outside, can cause other serious or life-threatening health problems. Infants and the elderly are particularly at risk, but anyone can be affected. To keep yourself and your family safe, you should know how to prevent cold-related health problems and what to do if a cold-weather health emergency arises. The emergency procedures outlined here are not a substitute for training in first aid. However, these procedures will help you to know when to seek medical care and what to do until help becomes available. 

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Cold Weather Safety

  1. 1. http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=639Fitango EducationHealth TopicsCold Weather Safety
  2. 2. 1OverviewWhen winter temperatures drop significantlybelow normal, stayingwarm and safe can become a challenge. Extremelycold temperatures
  3. 3. 2Overviewoften accompany a winter storm, so you may haveto cope with power failures and icy roads.Although staying indoors as much as possiblecan help reduce the risk of car crashes and falls onthe ice, you may also face indoor hazards.
  4. 4. 3OverviewMany homes will be too cold—either due to apower failure or because theheating system isnt adequate for the weather.When people must use space heaters andfireplaces to stay warm, the risk of household firesincreases, as well as the risk of carbon monoxidepoisoning.
  5. 5. 4OverviewExposure to cold temperatures, whether indoorsor outside, can cause other serious or life-threatening health problems. Infants and theelderly are particularly at risk, but anyone can beaffected. To keep yourself and your family safe,you should know how to prevent cold-relatedhealth problems and what to do if a cold-weatherhealth emergency arises. The emergencyprocedures outlined here are not a substitute fortraining in first aid. However, these procedures willhelp you to know wh
  6. 6. 5Winter Weather PreperationWhat constitutes extreme cold and its effects canvary across different areas of the country. Inregions relatively unaccustomed to winterweather, near freezing temperatures areconsidered “extreme cold.” Whenevertemperatures drop decidedly below normal and aswind speed increases,heat can leave your bodymore rapidly. These weather related conditionsmay lead to serious health problems.Extreme coldis a dangerous situation that can bring on healthemergencies in susceptible people, such a
  7. 7. 6Winter Weather Preperation**Plan Ahead **Prepare for extremely cold weather every winter—it’s always a possibility. There are steps you cantake in advance for greater wintertime safety inyour home and in your car.
  8. 8. 7Winter Weather Preperation** Emergency Supplies List: **• an alternate way to heat your home during apower failure:- dry firewood for a fireplace or wood stove, or- kerosene for a kerosene heater
  9. 9. 8Winter Weather Preperation** Emergency Supplies List: **• furnace fuel (coal, propane, or oil)• electric space heater with automatic shut-offswitch and non-glowing elements• blankets• matches
  10. 10. 9Winter Weather Preperation** Emergency Supplies List: **• multipurpose, dry-chemical fire extinguisher• first aid kit and instruction manual• flashlight or battery-powered lantern• battery-powered radio
  11. 11. 10Winter Weather Preperation** Emergency Supplies List: **• battery-powered clock or watch • extrabatteries • non-electric can opener• snow shovel• rock salt• special needs items (diapers,hearing aidbatteries,medications, etc.)
  12. 12. 11Winter Weather Preperation**Winter Survival Kit for Your Home**Keep several days’ supply of these items:• Food that needs no cooking or refrigeration,suchas bread, crackers, cereal, canned foods,and driedfruits. Remember baby food and formula if youhave young children.
  13. 13. 12Winter Weather Preperation**Winter Survival Kit for Your Home**• Water stored in clean containers, or purchasedbottled water (5 gallons per person) in case yourwater pipes freeze and rupture.• Medicines that any family member may need.Ifyour area is prone to long periods ofcold temperatures, or if your home is isolated,stock additional amounts of food, water, andmedicine.
  14. 14. 13Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Home for Winter **Although periods of extreme cold cannot alwaysbe predicted far in advance, weather forecasts cansometimes provide you with several days’ notice.Listen to weather forecasts regularly, and checkyour emergency supplies whenever a period ofextreme cold is predicted. If you plan to use afireplace or wood stove for emergency heating,have your chimney or flue inspected each year. Askyour local fire department to recommend aninspector,or find one in the yellow pages of yourtelephone direct
  15. 15. 14Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Home for Winter **Your ability to feel a change in temperaturedecreases with age, and older people are moresusceptible to health problems caused by cold. Ifyou are over 65 years old,place an easy-to-readthermometer in an indoor location where you willsee it frequently, and check the temperature ofyour home often during the wintermonths.Insulate any water lines that run alongexterior walls so your water supply will be lesslikely to freeze. To the extent possible,weatherproof your home by adding weathers
  16. 16. 15Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **You can avoid many dangerous winter travelproblems by planning ahead. Have maintenanceservice on your vehicles often as the manufacturerrecommends.In addition,every fall:
  17. 17. 16Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• Have the radiator system serviced, or check theantifreeze level yourself with an antifreezetester. Add antifreeze, as needed.• Replace windshield-wiper fluid with a wintertimemixture.
  18. 18. 17Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• Replace any worn tires, and check the airpressure in the tires. During winter, keep the gastank near full to help avoid ice in the tank and fuellines.Winter Survival Kit for Your Car Equip your car withthese items:• blankets• first aid kit
  19. 19. 18Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• a can and waterproof matches (to melt snow forwater)• windshield scraper• booster cables• road maps• mobile phone
  20. 20. 19Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• compass• tool kit• paper towels• bag of sand or cat litter(to pour on ice or snowfor added traction)• tow rope
  21. 21. 20Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• tire chains (in areas with heavy snow)• collapsible shovel• container of water and high-calorie canned ordried foods and a can opener• flashlight and extra batteries
  22. 22. 21Winter Weather Preperation**Prepare Your Car for Winter **• canned compressed air with sealant (foremergency tire repair)• brightly colored cloth
  23. 23. 22Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety****Heat Your Home Safely**If you plan to use a wood stove, fireplace, or spaceheater,be extremely careful.Follow the manufacturer’s instructions as well asthe home safety measures on page 3,and remember these safety tips:
  24. 24. 23Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Use fireplace, wood stoves, or othercombustion heaters only if they are properlyvented to the outside and do not leak flue gas intothe indoor air space.• Do not burn paper in a fireplace.• Ensure adequate ventilation if you must usea kerosene heater.
  25. 25. 24Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Use only the type of fuel your heater is designedto use—don’t substitute.• Do not place a space heater within 3 feet ofanything that may catch on fire, such as drapes,furniture, or bedding,and never cover your spaceheater.• Never place a space heater on top of furniture ornear water.
  26. 26. 25Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Never leave children unattended near a spaceheater.• Make sure that the cord of an electric spaceheater is not a tripping hazard but do not run thecord under carpets or rugs.• Avoid using extension cords to plug in your spaceheater.
  27. 27. 26Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• If your space heater has a damaged electricalcord or produces sparks, do not use it.• Store a multipurpose, dry-chemical fireextinguisher near the area to be heated.
  28. 28. 27Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Protect yourself from carbon monoxide (CO)poisoning by installing a battery-operated COdetector and never using generators, grills, campstoves, or similar devices indoors.**Light and Cook Safely**If there is a power failure:
  29. 29. 28Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Use battery-powered flashlights orlanterns rather than candles, if possible.• Never leave lit candles unattended.• Never use a charcoal or gas grill indoors—thefumes are deadly.
  30. 30. 29Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Never use an electric generator indoors,inside thegarage, or near the air intake of yourhouse because of the risk of carbon monoxidepoisoning:• Plug in appliances to the generatorusing individual heavy-duty, outdoor-rated cords.• Do not use the generator or appliances if theyare wet because of the risk of electrocution.
  31. 31. 30Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Do not store gasoline indoors where the fumescould ignite.**Conserve Heat**
  32. 32. 31Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**You may need fresh air coming in for your heateror for emergency cooking arrangements. However,if you don’t need extra ventilation, keep as muchheat as possible inside your home. Avoidunnecessary opening of doors or windows.Closeoff unneeded rooms, stuff towels or rags in cracksunder doors, and close draperies or cover windowswith blankets at night.Monitor Body Temperature
  33. 33. 32Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Infants less than one year old should never sleep ina cold room because (1) infants lose body heatmore easily than adults; and (2) unlike adults,infants can’t make enough body heat by shivering.Provide warm clothing for infants and try tomaintain a warm indoor temperature. Ifthe temperature cannot be maintained, maketemporary arrangements to stay elsewhere. In anemergency, you can keep an infant warm usingyour own body heat. If you must sleep, takeprecautions to prevent rolling
  34. 34. 33Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Keep a Water SupplyExtreme cold can cause water pipes in yourhome to freeze and sometimes rupture.When very cold temperatures are expected:• Leave all water taps slightly open so they dripcontinuously.
  35. 35. 34Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• Keep the indoor temperature warm.• Improve the circulation of heated air near pipes.
  36. 36. 35Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**For example, open kitchen cabinet doors beneaththe kitchen sink. If your pipes do freeze, do notthaw them with a torch.Instead, thaw them slowlyby directing the warm air from an electric hairdryer onto the pipes. If you cannot thaw yourpipes, or the pipes are ruptured,use bottled wateror get water from a neighbor’s home. As anemergency measure—if no other water isavailable—snow can be melted for water. Bringingwater to a rolling boil for one minute will kill mostmicroorganisms o
  37. 37. 36Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Eat and Drink WiselyEating well-balanced meals will help you staywarmer. Do not drink alcoholic or caffeinatedbeverages—they cause your body to lose heatmore rapidly. Instead,drink warm, sweet beveragesor broth to help maintain your bodytemperature. If you have any dietaryrestrictions, ask your doctor.Outdoor Safety
  38. 38. 37Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**When the weather is extremely cold, andespecially if there are high winds, try to stayindoors.Make any trips outside as brief as possible, andremember these tips to protect your health andsafety:Dress Warmly and Stay Dry Adults and childrenshould wear:• a hat
  39. 39. 38Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• a scarf or knit mask to cover face and mouth• sleeves that are snug at the wrist• mittens (they are warmer than gloves)• water-resistant coat and boots
  40. 40. 39Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**• several layers of loose fitting clothing
  41. 41. 40Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Be sure the outer layer of your clothing is tightlywoven, preferably wind resistant, to reduce body-heat loss caused by wind. Wool, silk, orpolypropylene inner layers of clothing will holdmore body heat than cotton. Stay dry—wetclothing chills the body rapidly. Excess perspirationwill increase heat loss, so remove extra layers ofclothing whenever you feel too warm. Also, avoidgetting gasoline or alcohol on your skin while de-icing and fueling your car or using a snow blower.These
  42. 42. 41Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Avoid ExertionCold weather puts an extra strain on the heart. Ifyou have heart disease or high blood pressure,follow your doctor’s advice about shoveling snowor performing other hard work in the cold.Otherwise, if you have to do heavy outdoorchores, dress warmly and work slowly.Remember,your body is already working hard justto stay warm, so don’t overdo it.
  43. 43. 42Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**Understand Wind Chill
  44. 44. 43Winter Weather Preperation**Indoor Safety**The Wind Chill index is the temperature your bodyfeels when the air temperature is combined withthe wind speed.It is based on the rate of heat lossfrom exposed skin caused by the effects of windand cold. As the speed of the wind increases, it cancarry heat away from your body much morequickly, causing skin temperature to drop. Whenthere are high winds, serious weather-relatedhealth problems are more likely, even whentemperatures are only cool. Avoid Ice Walking onice it is extremel
  45. 45. 44Winter Weather Preperation**Be Safe During Recreation**Notify friends and family where you will be beforeyou go hiking, camping, or skiing. Do not leaveareas of the skin exposed to the cold. Avoidperspiring or becoming overtired. Be prepared totake emergency shelter. Pack dry clothing, a two-wave radio, waterproof matchesand paraffin starters with you. Do not use alcoholand other mood altering substances, and avoidcaffeinated beverages.Avoid walking on ice orgetting wet. Carefully watch for signs of cold-weather health problems.
  46. 46. 45Winter Weather Preperation**Be Safe During Recreation**Be Cautious About Travel• Listen for radio or television reports of traveladvisories issued by the National Weather Service.• Do not travel in low visibility conditions.• Avoid traveling on ice-covered roads, overpasses,and bridges if at all possible.
  47. 47. 46Winter Weather Preperation**Be Safe During Recreation**• If you must travel by car, use tire chains and takea mobile phone with you.• If you must travel, let someone know yourdestination and when you expect to arrive. Askthem to notify authorities if you are late.• Check and restock the winter emergency suppliesin your car before you leave.
  48. 48. 47Winter Weather Preperation**Be Safe During Recreation**• Never pour water on your windshield to removeice or snow; shattering may occur.• Don’t rely on a car to provide sufficient heat;thecar may break down.• Always carry additional warm clothingappropriate for the winter conditions.
  49. 49. 48Winter Weather Preperation**What to Do if You Get Stranded **Staying in your vehicle when stranded is oftenthe safest choice if winter storms create poorvisibility or if roadways are ice covered.These steps will increase your safety whenstranded:
  50. 50. 49Winter Weather Preperation**What to Do if You Get Stranded **• Tie a brightly colored cloth to the antennas asignal to rescuers and raise the hood of the car (ifit is not snowing).• Move anything you need from the trunk into thepassenger area.• Wrap your entire body, including your head, inextra clothing, blankets, or newspapers.
  51. 51. 50Winter Weather Preperation**What to Do if You Get Stranded **• Stay awake. You will be less vulnerable to cold-related health problems.• Run the motor (and heater) for about 10minutes per hour, opening one window slightly tolet in air. Make sure that snow is not blocking theexhaust pipe—this will reduce the risk of carbonmonoxide poisoning.
  52. 52. 51Winter Weather Preperation**What to Do if You Get Stranded **• As you sit, keep moving your arms and legsto improve your circulation and stay warmer.• Do not eat un-melted snow because it will loweryour body temperature.• Huddle with other people for warmth.
  53. 53. 52HypothermiaWhen exposed to cold temperatures, your bodybegins to lose heat faster than it can be produced.Prolonged exposure to cold will eventually use upyour body’s stored energy. The result ishypothermia, or abnormally low bodytemperature. Body temperature that is too lowaffects the brain, making the victim unable to thinkclearly or move well. This makes hypothermiaparticularly dangerous because a person may notknow it is happening and won’t be able to doanything about it.
  54. 54. 53HypothermiaHypothermia is most likely at very coldtemperatures, but it can occur even at cooltemperatures (above 40°F) if a person becomeschilled from rain, sweat, or submersion in coldwater.
  55. 55. 54HypothermiaVictims of hypothermia are often (1) elderlypeople with inadequate food, clothing, or heating;(2) babies sleeping in cold bedrooms; (3) peoplewho remain outdoors for long periods—thehomeless, hikers, hunters, etc.; and (4) people whodrink alcohol or use illicit drugs.Recognizing HypothermiaWarnings signs ofhypothermia:
  56. 56. 55HypothermiaAdults:shivering, exhaustionconfusion, fumbling handsmemory loss, slurred speechdrowsinessInfants:bright red, cold skin
  57. 57. 56Hypothermiavery low energyWhat to DoIf you notice any of these signs, takethe person’s temperature. If it is below 95°, thesituation is an emergency—get medical attentionimmediately.If medical care is not available, begin warming theperson, as follows:
  58. 58. 57HypothermiaGet the victim into a warm room or shelter.If the victim has on any wet clothing, remove it.Warm the center of the body first—chest, neck,head, and groin—using an electric blanket, ifavailable. Or use skin-to-skin contact under loose,dry layers of blankets, clothing, towels, or sheets.
  59. 59. 58HypothermiaWarm beverages can help increase the bodytemperature, but do not give alcoholic beverages.Do not try to give beverages to an unconsciousperson.After body temperature has increased, keep theperson dry and wrapped in a warm blanket,including the head and neck.Get medical attention as soon as possible.
  60. 60. 59HypothermiaA person with severe hypothermia may beunconscious and may not seem to have a pulse orto be breathing. In this case, handle the victimgently, and get emergency assistance immediately.Even if the victim appears dead, CPR should beprovided. CPR should continue while the victim isbeing warmed, until the victim responds ormedical aid becomes available. In some cases,hypothermia victims who appear to be dead canbe successfully resuscitated.
  61. 61. 60FrostbiteFrostbite is an injury to the body that is caused byfreezing. Frostbite causes a loss of feeling and colorin affected areas. It most often affects the nose,ears, cheeks, chin, fingers, or toes. Frostbite canpermanently damage the body, and severe casescan lead to amputation. The risk of frostbite isincreased in people with reduced blood circulationand among people who are not dressed properlyfor extremely cold temperatures.
  62. 62. 61FrostbiteRecognizing FrostbiteAt the first signs of redness orpain in any skin area, get out of the cold or protectany exposed skin—frostbite may be beginning. Anyof the following signs may indicate frostbite:a white or grayish-yellow skin areaskin that feels unusually firm or waxy
  63. 63. 62FrostbitenumbnessA victim is often unaware of frostbite untilsomeone else points it out because the frozentissues are numb.
  64. 64. 63FrostbiteWhat to DoIf you detect symptoms of frostbite,seek medical care. Because frostbite andhypothermia both result from exposure, firstdetermine whether the victim also shows signs ofhypothermia, as described previously.Hypothermia is a more serious medical conditionand requires emergency medical assistance.
  65. 65. 64FrostbiteIf (1) there is frostbite but no sign of hypothermiaand (2) immediate medical care is not available,proceed as follows:Get into a warm room as soon as possible.Unless absolutely necessary, do not walk onfrostbitten feet or toes—this increases thedamage.
  66. 66. 65FrostbiteImmerse the affected area in warm—not hot—water (the temperature should be comfortable tothe touch for unaffected parts of the body).Or, warm the affected area using body heat. Forexample, the heat of an armpit can be used towarm frostbitten fingers.Do not rub the frostbitten area with snow ormassage it at all. This can cause more damage.
  67. 67. 66FrostbiteDon’t use a heating pad, heat lamp, or the heat ofa stove, fireplace, or radiator for warming. Affectedareas are numb and can be easily burned.
  68. 68. 67FrostbiteThese procedures are not substitutes for propermedical care. Hypothermia is a medical emergencyand frostbite should be evaluated by a health careprovider. It is a good idea to take a first aid andemergency resuscitation (CPR) course to preparefor cold-weather health problems. Knowing whatto do is an important part of protecting yourhealth and the health of others.
  69. 69. 68FrostbiteTaking preventive action is your best defenseagainst having to deal with extreme cold-weatherconditions. By preparing your home and car inadvance for winter emergencies, and by observingsafety precautions during times of extremely coldweather, you can reduce the risk of weather-related health problems.

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