Fitango Education          Health Topics                        Breast Cancerhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3
Overview   Breast cancer affects one in eight women during   their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the   United S...
Overview                         **Age**   - the chance of getting breast cancer rises, as a   woman gets olderhttp://www....
Overview                       **Genes**    - there are two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, which   greatly increase the risk. Wom...
Overview                  **Personal factors**    - beginning periods before age 12 or going   through menopause after age...
Overview                  **Personal factors**   Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in   the breast, a change in...
Symptoms   Early breast cancer usually does not cause   symptoms. This is why regular breast exams are   important. As the...
Symptoms   -- Change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast or   nipple -- for example, you may have redness,   dimplin...
Symptoms   Symptoms of advanced breast cancer may include:   -- Bone pain   -- Breast pain or discomfort   -- Skin ulcers ...
Symptoms   -- Weight losshttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3   9
Diagnosis   The doctor will ask you about your symptoms and   risk factors. Then the doctor will perform a physical   exam...
Diagnosis   -- Breast MRI to help better identify the breast   lump or evaluate an abnormal change on a   mammogram   -- B...
Diagnosis   -- Mammography to screen for breast cancer or   help identify the breast lump   -- PET scanSentinel lymph node...
Diagnosis   If your doctor learns that you do have breast   cancer, more tests will be done to see if the cancer   has spr...
Treatment   Treatment is based on many factors, including:   -- Type and stage of the cancer   -- Whether the cancer is se...
Treatment   -- Whether the cancer overproduces   (overexpresses) a gene called HER2/neu   In general, cancer treatments ma...
Treatment   -- Surgery to remove cancerous tissue --   a lumpectomy removes the breast   lump; mastectomy removes all or p...
Treatment   An example of hormonal therapy is the   drug tamoxifen. This drug blocks the effects   of estrogen, which can ...
Treatment   Another class of hormonal therapy medicines   called aromatase inhibitors, such   as exemestane (Aromasin), ha...
Treatment   Targeted therapy, also called biologic therapy, is a   newer type of cancer treatment. This therapy uses   spe...
Treatment   Local treatments involve only the area of disease.   Radiation and surgery are forms of local treatment.   Sys...
Treatment   Most women receive a combination of treatments.   For women with stage I, II, or III breast cancer, the   main...
Treatment    - Lumpectomy plus radiation or mastectomy is the   standard treatment. There is some controversy on   how bes...
Treatment                       **Stage III**    - Treatment involves surgery, possibly followed by   chemotherapy, hormon...
Treatment                      **Stage IV **   - Treatment may involve surgery, radiation,   chemotherapy, hormonal therap...
Treatment                      **Stage IV **   Women who have had a mastectomy may have   reconstructive breast surgery, e...
Causes   Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that   make up tissues. Tissues make up the breasts and   other parts...
Causes   Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells   form when the body doesnt need them, and old   or damaged cells d...
Causes                   **Benign tumors**   :   -- Are rarely a threat to life   -- Can be removed and usually dont grow ...
Causes                   **Benign tumors**   -- Dont spread to other parts of the body   **Malignant tumors**   :   -- May...
Causes                   **Benign tumors**   -- Can invade and damage nearby organs and   tissues (such as the chest wall)...
Causes                   **Benign tumors**   Breast cancer cells can spread by breaking away   from the original tumor. Th...
Causes                   **Benign tumors**   Over the course of a lifetime, 1 in 8 women will be   diagnosed with breast c...
Causes                  **Age and gender **   - Your risk of developing breast cancer increases as   you get older. Most a...
Causes          **Family history of breast cancer**    - You may also have a higher risk for breast cancer   if you have a...
Causes                       **Genes**    - Some people have genes that make them more   likely to develop breast cancer. ...
Causes                  **Menstrual cycle**   - Women who got their periods early (before age   12) or went through menopa...
Causes                     **Alcohol use**   - Drinking more than 1 - 2 glasses of alcohol a day   may increase your risk ...
Causes                     **Childbirth**    - Women who have never had children or who had   them only after age 30 have ...
Causes                         **DES**    - Women who took diethylstilbestrol (DES) to   prevent miscarriage may have an i...
Causes      **Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)**   - You have a higher risk for breast cancer if you   have received horm...
Causes                       **Obesity**    - Obesity has been linked to breast cancer,   although this link is controvers...
Causes                      **Radiation**    - If you received radiation therapy as a child or   young adult to treat canc...
Causes                      **Radiation**   Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing   underwire bras do not ra...
Prevention   Tamoxifen is approved for breast cancer   prevention in women aged 35 and older who are   at high risk. Discu...
Prevention   -- Women who have already had one breast   removed due to cancer   -- Women with a strong family history of b...
Prevention   -- Your doctor may do a total mastectomy to   reduce your risk of breast cancer. This may   reduce, but does ...
Prevention   There is still little agreement about whether   lifestyle changes can prevent breast cancer. The   best advic...
Prevention   -- Choose whole grains instead of refined grain   products   -- Eat 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetabl...
Prevention   -- Limit alcohol consumption to one drink per day   (women who are at high risk for breast cancer   should co...
Living and Coping          **Nutrition and Physical Activity**   Its important for you to take very good care of   yoursel...
Living and Coping          **Nutrition and Physical Activity**   You need the right amount of calories to maintain   a goo...
Living and Coping          **Nutrition and Physical Activity**   Sometimes, especially during or soon after   treatment, y...
Living and Coping               **Breast Reconstruction**   Some women who plan to have a mastectomy   decide to have brea...
Living and Coping               **Breast Reconstruction**   Breast reconstruction may be done at the same   time as the ma...
Living and Coping               **Breast Reconstruction**   There are many ways for a surgeon to reconstruct   the breast....
Living and Coping               **Breast Reconstruction**   You also may have breast reconstruction with   tissue that the...
Living and Coping               **Breast Reconstruction**   The type of reconstruction that is best for you   depends on y...
Living and Coping               **Breast Reconstruction**   Youll need regular checkups after treatment for   breast cance...
Living and Coping               **Breast Reconstruction**   You should report any changes in the treated area   or in your...
Living and Coping               **Breast Reconstruction**   Checkups usually include an exam of the neck,   underarm, ches...
Top Treatment Centers   As ranked by US news 2012 Best Hospitals for   Cancer   University of Texas Anderson Cancer Center...
Top Treatment Centers   Johns Hopkins Hospital – Baltimore, Md   Mayo Clinic – Rochester, MN   Dana-Farber Brigham & W...
Top Treatment Centers   Massachusetts General Hospital – Boston, Ma   University of Washington Medical Center – Seattle,  ...
Breast Cancer
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Breast Cancer

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Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than any cancer except lung cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. Risks that you cannot change include:

Age - the chance of getting breast cancer rises, as a woman gets older

Genes - there are two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, which greatly increase the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested.

Personal factors - beginning periods before age 12 or going through menopause after age 55

Other risks include being overweight, using hormone replacement therapy (also called menopausal hormone therapy), taking birth control pills, drinking alcohol, not having children or having your first child after age 35 or having dense breasts.

Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in size or shape of the breast or discharge from a nipple. Breast self-exam and mammography can help find breast cancer early when it is most treatable. Treatment may consist of radiation, lumpectomy, mastectomy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy.

Men can have breast cancer, too, but the number of cases is small.

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Breast Cancer

  1. 1. Fitango Education Health Topics Breast Cancerhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3
  2. 2. Overview Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than any cancer except lung cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. Risks that you cannot change include:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 1
  3. 3. Overview **Age** - the chance of getting breast cancer rises, as a woman gets olderhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 2
  4. 4. Overview **Genes** - there are two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, which greatly increase the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 3
  5. 5. Overview **Personal factors** - beginning periods before age 12 or going through menopause after age 55 Other risks include being overweight, using hormone replacement therapy (also called menopausal hormone therapy), taking birth control pills, drinking alcohol, not having children or having your first child after age 35 or having dense breasts.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 4
  6. 6. Overview **Personal factors** Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in size or shape of the breast or discharge from a nipple. Breast self-exam and mammography can help find breast cancer early when it is most treatable. Treatment may consist of radiation, lumpectomy, mastectomy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Men can have breast cancer, too, but the number of cases is small.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 5
  7. 7. Symptoms Early breast cancer usually does not cause symptoms. This is why regular breast exams are important. As the cancer grows, symptoms may include: -- Breast lump or lump in the armpit that is hard, has uneven edges, and usually does not hurthttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 6
  8. 8. Symptoms -- Change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast or nipple -- for example, you may have redness, dimpling, or puckering that looks like the skin of an orange -- Fluid coming from the nipple -- may be bloody, clear to yellow, green, and look like pus -- Men can get breast cancer, too. Symptoms include breast lump and breast pain and tenderness.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 7
  9. 9. Symptoms Symptoms of advanced breast cancer may include: -- Bone pain -- Breast pain or discomfort -- Skin ulcers -- Swelling of one arm (next to the breast with cancer)http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 8
  10. 10. Symptoms -- Weight losshttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 9
  11. 11. Diagnosis The doctor will ask you about your symptoms and risk factors. Then the doctor will perform a physical exam, which includes breasts, armpits, and the neck and chest area. Tests used to diagnose and monitor patients with breast cancer may include:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 10
  12. 12. Diagnosis -- Breast MRI to help better identify the breast lump or evaluate an abnormal change on a mammogram -- Breast ultrasound to show whether the lump is solid or fluid-filled -- Breast biopsy, using methods such as needle aspiration, ultrasound-guided, stereotactic, or openCT scan to see if the cancer has spreadhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 11
  13. 13. Diagnosis -- Mammography to screen for breast cancer or help identify the breast lump -- PET scanSentinel lymph node biopsy to see if the cancer has spreadhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 12
  14. 14. Diagnosis If your doctor learns that you do have breast cancer, more tests will be done to see if the cancer has spread. This is called staging. Staging helps guide future treatment and follow-up and gives you some idea of what to expect in the future. Breast cancer stages range from 0 to IV. The higher the staging number, the more advanced the cancer.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 13
  15. 15. Treatment Treatment is based on many factors, including: -- Type and stage of the cancer -- Whether the cancer is sensitive to certain hormoneshttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 14
  16. 16. Treatment -- Whether the cancer overproduces (overexpresses) a gene called HER2/neu In general, cancer treatments may include: -- Chemotherapy medicines to kill cancer cells -- Radiation therapy to destroy cancerous tissuehttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 15
  17. 17. Treatment -- Surgery to remove cancerous tissue -- a lumpectomy removes the breast lump; mastectomy removes all or part of the breast and possible nearby structures -- Hormonal therapy is prescribed to women with ER-positive breast cancer to block certain hormones that fuel cancer growth.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 16
  18. 18. Treatment An example of hormonal therapy is the drug tamoxifen. This drug blocks the effects of estrogen, which can help breast cancer cells survive and grow. Most women with estrogen- sensitive breast cancer benefit from this drug.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 17
  19. 19. Treatment Another class of hormonal therapy medicines called aromatase inhibitors, such as exemestane (Aromasin), have been shown to work just as well or even better than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors blocks estrogen from being made.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 18
  20. 20. Treatment Targeted therapy, also called biologic therapy, is a newer type of cancer treatment. This therapy uses special anticancer drugs that target certain changes in a cell that can lead to cancer. One such drug is trastuzumab (Herceptin). It may be used for women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Cancer treatment may be local or systemic.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 19
  21. 21. Treatment Local treatments involve only the area of disease. Radiation and surgery are forms of local treatment. Systemic treatments affect the entire body. Chemotherapy is a type of systemic treatment.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 20
  22. 22. Treatment Most women receive a combination of treatments. For women with stage I, II, or III breast cancer, the main goal is to treat the cancer and prevent it from returning (curing). For women with stage IV cancer, the goal is to improve symptoms and help them live longer. In most cases, stage IV breast cancer cannot be cured. **Stage 0 and DCIS**http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 21
  23. 23. Treatment - Lumpectomy plus radiation or mastectomy is the standard treatment. There is some controversy on how best to treat DCIS. **Stage I and II** - Lumpectomy plus radiation or mastectomy with some sort of lymph node removal is the standard treatment. Hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and biologic therapy may also be recommended following surgery.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 22
  24. 24. Treatment **Stage III** - Treatment involves surgery, possibly followed by chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and biologic therapy.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 23
  25. 25. Treatment **Stage IV ** - Treatment may involve surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or a combination of these treatments. After treatment, some women will continue to take medications such as tamoxifen for a period of time. All women will continue to have blood tests, mammograms, and other tests after treatment.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 24
  26. 26. Treatment **Stage IV ** Women who have had a mastectomy may have reconstructive breast surgery, either at the same time as the mastectomy or later.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 25
  27. 27. Causes Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues make up the breasts and other parts of the body. Normal cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When normal cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 26
  28. 28. Causes Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when the body doesnt need them, and old or damaged cells dont die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a lump, growth, or tumor. Tumors in the breast can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Benign tumors are not as harmful as malignant tumors:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 27
  29. 29. Causes **Benign tumors** : -- Are rarely a threat to life -- Can be removed and usually dont grow back -- Dont invade the tissues around themhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 28
  30. 30. Causes **Benign tumors** -- Dont spread to other parts of the body **Malignant tumors** : -- May be a threat to life -- Often can be removed but sometimes grow backhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 29
  31. 31. Causes **Benign tumors** -- Can invade and damage nearby organs and tissues (such as the chest wall) -- Can spread to other parts of the bodyhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 30
  32. 32. Causes **Benign tumors** Breast cancer cells can spread by breaking away from the original tumor. They enter blood vessels or lymph vessels, which branch into all the tissues of the body. The cancer cells may be found in lymph nodes near the breast. The cancer cells may attach to other tissues and grow to form new tumors that may damage those tissues. The spread of cancer is called metastasis.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 31
  33. 33. Causes **Benign tumors** Over the course of a lifetime, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer. Risk factors you cannot change include:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 32
  34. 34. Causes **Age and gender ** - Your risk of developing breast cancer increases as you get older. Most advanced breast cancer cases are found in women over age 50. Women are 100 times more likely to get breast cancer than men.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 33
  35. 35. Causes **Family history of breast cancer** - You may also have a higher risk for breast cancer if you have a close relative who has had breast, uterine, ovarian, or colon cancer. About 20 - 30% of women with breast cancer have a family history of the disease.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 34
  36. 36. Causes **Genes** - Some people have genes that make them more likely to develop breast cancer. The most common gene defects are found in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. These genes normally produce proteins that protect you from cancer. If a parent passes you a defective gene, you have an increased risk for breast cancer. Women with one of these defects have up to an 80% chance of getting breast cancer sometime during their life.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 35
  37. 37. Causes **Menstrual cycle** - Women who got their periods early (before age 12) or went through menopause late (after age 55) have an increased risk for breast cancer. Other risk factors include:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 36
  38. 38. Causes **Alcohol use** - Drinking more than 1 - 2 glasses of alcohol a day may increase your risk for breast cancer.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 37
  39. 39. Causes **Childbirth** - Women who have never had children or who had them only after age 30 have an increased risk for breast cancer. Being pregnant more than once or becoming pregnant at an early age reduces your risk of breast cancer.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 38
  40. 40. Causes **DES** - Women who took diethylstilbestrol (DES) to prevent miscarriage may have an increased risk of breast cancer after age 40. This drug was given to the women in the 1940s - 1960s.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 39
  41. 41. Causes **Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)** - You have a higher risk for breast cancer if you have received hormone replacement therapy with estrogen for several years or more.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 40
  42. 42. Causes **Obesity** - Obesity has been linked to breast cancer, although this link is controversial. The theory is that obese women produce more estrogen, which can fuel the development of breast cancer.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 41
  43. 43. Causes **Radiation** - If you received radiation therapy as a child or young adult to treat cancer of the chest area, you have a much higher risk for developing breast cancer. The younger you started such radiation and the higher the dose, the higher your risk -- especially if the radiation was given during breast development.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 42
  44. 44. Causes **Radiation** Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not raise your risk for breast cancer. There is no evidence of a direct link between breast cancer and pesticides. The National Cancer Institute provides an online tool to help you figure out your risk of breast cancer.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 43
  45. 45. Prevention Tamoxifen is approved for breast cancer prevention in women aged 35 and older who are at high risk. Discuss this with your doctor. Women at very high risk for breast cancer may consider preventive (prophylactic) mastectomy. This is the surgical removal of the breasts before breast cancer is ever diagnosed. Possible candidates include:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 44
  46. 46. Prevention -- Women who have already had one breast removed due to cancer -- Women with a strong family history of breast cancer -- Women with genes or genetic mutations that raise their risk of breast cancer (such as BRCA1 or BRCA2)http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 45
  47. 47. Prevention -- Your doctor may do a total mastectomy to reduce your risk of breast cancer. This may reduce, but does not eliminate the risk of breast cancer. Many risk factors, such as your genes and family history, cannot be controlled. However, eating a healthy diet and making a few lifestyle changes may reduce your overall chance of getting cancer.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 46
  48. 48. Prevention There is still little agreement about whether lifestyle changes can prevent breast cancer. The best advice is to eat a well-balanced diet and avoid focusing on one "cancer-fighting" food. The American Cancer Societys dietary guidelines for cancer prevention recommend that people: -- Choose foods and portion sizes that promote a healthy weighthttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 47
  49. 49. Prevention -- Choose whole grains instead of refined grain products -- Eat 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables each day -- Limit processed and red meat in the diethttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 48
  50. 50. Prevention -- Limit alcohol consumption to one drink per day (women who are at high risk for breast cancer should consider not drinking alcohol at all)http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 49
  51. 51. Living and Coping **Nutrition and Physical Activity** Its important for you to take very good care of yourself before, during, and after cancer treatment. Taking care of yourself includes eating well and staying as active as you can.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 50
  52. 52. Living and Coping **Nutrition and Physical Activity** You need the right amount of calories to maintain a good weight. You also need enough protein to keep up your strength. Eating well may help you feel better and have more energy.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 51
  53. 53. Living and Coping **Nutrition and Physical Activity** Sometimes, especially during or soon after treatment, you may not feel like eating. You may be uncomfortable or tired. You may find that foods dont taste as good as they used to. In addition, the side effects of treatment (such as poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, or mouth blisters) can make it hard to eat well. On the other hand, some women treated for breast cancer may have a problem with weight gain.Your doctor, a registered dietitian, or another health care provider can suggest ways to helphttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 52
  54. 54. Living and Coping **Breast Reconstruction** Some women who plan to have a mastectomy decide to have breast reconstruction. Other women prefer to wear a breast form (prosthesis) inside their bra. Others decide to do nothing after surgery. All of these options have pros and cons. What is right for one woman may not be right for another. What is important is that nearly every woman treated for breast cancer has choices.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 53
  55. 55. Living and Coping **Breast Reconstruction** Breast reconstruction may be done at the same time as the mastectomy, or later on. If radiation therapy is part of the treatment plan, some doctors suggest waiting until after radiation therapy is complete. If you are thinking about breast reconstruction, you should talk to a plastic surgeon before the mastectomy, even if you plan to have your reconstruction later on.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 54
  56. 56. Living and Coping **Breast Reconstruction** There are many ways for a surgeon to reconstruct the breast. Some women choose to have breast implants, which are filled with saline or silicone gel. You can read about breast implants on the Food and Drug Administration Web site at http://www.fda.gov.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 55
  57. 57. Living and Coping **Breast Reconstruction** You also may have breast reconstruction with tissue that the plastic surgeon removes from another part of your body. Skin, muscle, and fat can come from your lower abdomen, back, or buttocks. The surgeon uses this tissue to create a breast shape.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 56
  58. 58. Living and Coping **Breast Reconstruction** The type of reconstruction that is best for you depends on your age, body type, and the type of cancer surgery that you had. The plastic surgeon can explain the risks and benefits of each type of reconstruction. **Follow-up Care**http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 57
  59. 59. Living and Coping **Breast Reconstruction** Youll need regular checkups after treatment for breast cancer. Checkups help ensure that any changes in your health are noted and treated if needed. If you have any health problems between checkups, you should contact your doctor. Your doctor will check for return of the cancer. Also, checkups help detect health problems that can result from cancer treatment.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 58
  60. 60. Living and Coping **Breast Reconstruction** You should report any changes in the treated area or in your other breast to the doctor right away. Tell your doctor about any health problems, such as pain, loss of appetite or weight, changes in menstrual cycles, unusual vaginal bleeding, or blurred vision. Also talk to your doctor about headaches, dizziness, shortness of breath, coughing or hoarseness, backaches, or digestive problems that seem unusual or that dont go away. Such problems may arise months or years after treatment. They may suhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 59
  61. 61. Living and Coping **Breast Reconstruction** Checkups usually include an exam of the neck, underarm, chest, and breast areas. Since a new breast cancer may develop, you should have regular mammograms. You probably wont need a mammogram of a reconstructed breast or if you had a mastectomy without reconstruction. Your doctor may order other imaging procedures or lab tests.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 60
  62. 62. Top Treatment Centers As ranked by US news 2012 Best Hospitals for Cancer University of Texas Anderson Cancer Center – Houston, Tx Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center – New York, NYhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 61
  63. 63. Top Treatment Centers Johns Hopkins Hospital – Baltimore, Md Mayo Clinic – Rochester, MN Dana-Farber Brigham & Women’s Cancer Center – Boston, Ma Cleveland Clinic – Cleveland, OHhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 62
  64. 64. Top Treatment Centers Massachusetts General Hospital – Boston, Ma University of Washington Medical Center – Seattle, Wa Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center – Los Angeles, Ca Barnes-Jewish Hospital Washington University – Saint Louis, Mohttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=3 63

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