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Amyloidosis  

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Amyloidosis is a disorder in which abnormal proteins build up in tissues and organs. Clumps of the abnormal proteins are called amyloid deposits.

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Amyloidosis  

  1. 1. Fitango Education Health Topics Amyloidosishttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=328
  2. 2. OverviewAmyloidosis is a disorder in which abnormalproteins build up in tissues and organs. Clumps ofthe abnormal proteins are called amyloid deposits. 1
  3. 3. SymptomsSymptoms depend on the organs affected by thedeposits. These organs can include thetongue, intestines, skeletal and smoothmuscles, nerves, skin, ligaments, heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys.Symptoms include:-- Abnormal heart rhythm 2
  4. 4. Symptoms-- Enlarged tongue-- Fatigue-- Numbness of hands and feet-- Shortness of breath-- Skin changes-- Swallowing problems 3
  5. 5. Symptoms-- Swelling in the arms and legs-- Weak hand grip-- Weight lossOther symptoms that may occur with this disease:-- Decreased urine output 4
  6. 6. Symptoms-- Diarrhea-- Hoarseness or changing voice-- Joint pain-- Weakness 5
  7. 7. DiagnosisYour doctor may discover that you have anenlarged liver or spleen.If organ damage is suspected, your doctor mayorder tests to confirm amyloidosis of that organ.For example:-- Abdominal ultrasound may reveal a swollen liveror spleen. 6
  8. 8. Diagnosis-- An abdominal fat pad aspiration, rectal mucosabiopsy, or bone marrow biopsy can help confirmthe diagnosis.-- A heart evaluation, including an ECG, may revealarrhythmias, abnormal heart sounds, or signs ofcongestive heart failure.-- An echocardiogram shows poor motion of theheart wall, due to a stiff heart muscle. 7
  9. 9. Diagnosis-- A carpal tunnel syndrome evaluation may showthat hand grips are weak. -Nerve conductionvelocity shows abnormalities.-- Kidney function tests may show signs of kidneyfailure or too much protein in the urine (nephroticsyndrome).-- BUN level is increased. 8
  10. 10. Diagnosis-- Serum creatinine is increased.-- Urinalysis shows protein, casts, or fat bodies.This disease may also affect the results of thefollowing tests:-- Bence-Jones protein (quantitative) 9
  11. 11. Diagnosis-- Carpal tunnel biopsy-- Gum biopsy-- Immunoelectrophoresis - serum-- Myocardial biopsy-- Nerve biopsy 10
  12. 12. Diagnosis-- Quantitative immunoglobulins-- Tongue biopsy-- Urine protein 11
  13. 13. TreatmentSome patients with primary amyloidosis respondto chemotherapy focused on the abnormal plasmacells. A stem cell transplant may be done, as inmultiple myeloma. 12
  14. 14. TreatmentIn secondary amyloidosis, aggressively treating thedisease that is causing the excess amyloid proteincan improve symptoms and/or slow the diseasefrom getting worse. Complications such as heartfailure, kidney failure, and other problems cansometimes be treated, when needed. 13
  15. 15. CausesThe cause of primary amyloidosis is unknown. Thecondition is related to abnormal and excessproduction of antibodies by a type of immune cellcalled plasma cells.Primary amyloidosis can lead to conditions thatinclude:-- Carpal tunnel syndrome 14
  16. 16. Causes-- Heart muscle damage (cardiomyopathy) leadingto congestive heart failure-- Intestinal malabsorption-- Liver enlargement-- Kidney failure-- Nephrotic syndrome 15
  17. 17. Causes-- Neuropathy (nerves that do not work properly)-- Orthostatic hypotension (abnormal drop inblood pressure with standing)The deposits build up in the affectedorgans, causing them to become stiff, whichdecreases their ability to function. 16
  18. 18. CausesRisk factors have not been identified. Primaryamyloidosis is rare. It is similar to multiplemyeloma, and is treated the same way. 17
  19. 19. Additional ResourcesMedline PlusNational Institutes of HealthThe Amyloidosis Foundation 18

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