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ADHD is a problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination. For these problems to be diagnosed as ADHD, they must be out of the normal range for a child's age and development.
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  1. 1. EducationHealth TopicsADHD
  2. 2. 1OverviewADHD is a problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination. For theseproblems to be diagnosed as ADHD, they must beout of the normal range for a childs age anddevelopment.PubMed Health
  3. 3. 2SymptomsThe symptoms of ADHD fall into three groups:-Lack of attention (inattentiveness)-Hyperactivity-Impulsive behavior (impulsivity)
  4. 4. 3Symptoms-Some children with ADHD primarily have theinattentive type. Others may have a combinationof types. Those with the inattentive type are lessdisruptive and are more likely to not be diagnosedwith ADHD.-Inattentive symptoms-Fails to give close attention to details or makescareless mistakes in schoolwork
  5. 5. 4Symptoms-Has difficulty keeping attention during tasks orplay-Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly-Does not follow through on instructions and failsto finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in theworkplace-Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
  6. 6. 5Symptoms-Avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustainedmental effort (such as schoolwork)-Often loses toys, assignments, pencils, books, ortools needed for tasks or activities-Is easily distracted-Is often forgetful in daily activities
  7. 7. 6SymptomsHyperactivity symptoms:-Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat-Leaves seat when remaining seated is expected-Runs about or climbs in inappropriate situations-Has difficulty playing quietly
  8. 8. 7Symptoms-Is often "on the go," acts as if "driven by a motor,"talks excessivelyImpulsivity symptoms:-Blurts out answers before questions have beencompleted-Has difficulty awaiting turn
  9. 9. 8Symptoms-Interrupts or intrudes on others (butts intoconversations or games)
  10. 10. 9DiagnosisToo often, difficult children are incorrectly labeledwith ADHD. On the other hand, many children whodo have ADHD remain undiagnosed. In either case,related learning disabilities or mood problems areoften missed. The American Academy of Pediatrics(AAP) has issued guidelines to bring more clarity tothis issue.
  11. 11. 10DiagnosisThe diagnosis is based on very specific symptoms,which must be present in more than one setting.Children should have at least 6 attentionsymptoms or 6 hyperactivity/impulsivitysymptoms, with some symptoms present beforeage 7.The symptoms must be present for at least 6months, seen in two or more settings, and notcaused by another problem.
  12. 12. 11DiagnosisThe symptoms must be severe enough to causesignificant difficulties in many settings, includinghome, school, and in relationships with peers.In older children, ADHD is in partial remissionwhen they still have symptoms but no longer meetthe full definition of the disorder.
  13. 13. 12DiagnosisThe child should have an evaluation by a doctor ifADHD is suspected. Evaluation may include:Parent and teacher questionnaires (for example,Connors, Burks)Psychological evaluation of the child AND family,including IQ testing and psychological testing
  14. 14. 13DiagnosisComplete developmental, mental, nutritional,physical, and psychosocial examination
  15. 15. 14TreatmentTreating ADHD is a partnership between the healthcare provider, parents or caregivers, and the child.For therapy to succeed, it is important to:-Set specific, appropriate target goals to guidetherapy.-Start medication and behavior therapy.
  16. 16. 15Treatment-Follow-up regularly with the doctor to check ongoals, results, and any side effects of medications.During these check-ups, information should begathered from parents, teachers, and the child.If treatment does not appear to work, the healthcare provider should:-Make sure the child indeed has ADHD
  17. 17. 16Treatment-Check for other, possible medical conditions thatcan cause similar symptoms-Make sure the treatment plan is being followed
  18. 18. 17CausesADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavioraldisorder of childhood. It affects about 3 - 5% ofschool aged children. ADHD is diagnosed muchmore often in boys than in girls.
  19. 19. 18CausesADHD may run in families, but it is not clear exactlywhat causes it. Whatever the cause may be, itseems to be set in motion early in life as the brainis developing. Imaging studies suggest that thebrains of children with ADHD are different fromthose of other children.
  20. 20. 19CausesDepression, lack of sleep, learning disabilities, ticdisorders, and behavior problems may be confusedwith, or appear with, ADHD. Every child suspectedof having ADHD should be carefully examined by adoctor to rule out possible other conditions orreasons for the behavior.
  21. 21. 20CausesMost children with ADHD also have at least oneother developmental or behavioral problem. Theymay also have a psychiatric problem, such asdepression or bipolar disorder.
  22. 22. 21PreventionAlthough there is no proven way to prevent ADHD,early identification and treatment can preventmany of the problems associated with ADHD.
  23. 23. 22Additional ResourcesPubMed HealthNational Institute of Mental Health