CommunismKarl Marx – Jewish/German, founder of communism. WroteCommunist Manifesto. 18481. All of human history is class struggle: a conflict between anownership class which controls production and a lower classwhich produces the labor for goods. (rich vs. poor)2. Capitalism - "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie", believing it to berun by the wealthy classes purely for their own benefit… therich control/own production and exploit the poor for profit.3. Capitalism would eventually produce internal tensions whichwould lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a newsystem: socialism……. Workers take control, share the wealth4. eventually socialism would evolve into a stateless, classlesssociety called communism (no nationalities).
communism5. workers, poor people, slaves, non-owners should carry outorganized revolutionary action to destroy capitalism and bring aboutsocial-economic change. (violent revolution to create communism)6. Then there will be pure communism, no classes, no religion, noracism, no sexism, no nations, no profits, no private property, just adictatorship of workers living in pure equality
Communist theory on structure of capitalismAristocracy : ownersof production.Wealthy, hereditary,exploit everybodyelseBourgeoisie : assist thearistocracy as managers ofproduction. Middleclass, somewealth, administrate for thearistocracyProletarian : majority lower class, providelabor for production, poor, no realproperty, manual workers
Aristocracy• Traditionally landowners. In modern times they arebusiness/factory owners…... Or corporations• Use religion, racism, etc….. to control people (ex: high rankingpriests are youngest sons of aristocratic families)• Will fight with each other for greed (source of most wars)
Bourgeoisie• Upper-middle class …. middle class, some wealth, spoiled, assistthe aristocracy in controlling production and exploiting theproletarians. (ex: managers, educated professionals)• Will try to stop a proletarian (communist) revolution• Believe in lies like capitalism, democracy, patriotism, religion• Think they can become aristocrats one day•
Proletarians• Wage workers. Perform labor that creates products for the wealthyto sell at the market. (factory workers)• Oppressed people like indians, slaves, minorities, poor people.• Poor farmers who work to produce food that someone elseowns, but own little or no land
Communism• Most of history, the proletarian revolutions never fully succeeded (ex: ancientRome, plebs vs. patricians) or French and American revolutions ….. because thebourgeoisie would always replace the aristocracy as the new owners ofproduction as soon as the revolution would happen and the old aristocracy weredestroyed• In Mexico and Latin America, Hidalgo a poor Indian priest starts a revolutionagainst the Spanish monarchy, but as soon as the revolution happens thebourgeoisie middle class (Santa Anna & Simon Bolivar) replaces the Spanisharistocracy as the new owners of production , so proletarians fail to seize control
Communism• Proletarian revolutions didn’t work because most proletarianswere unable to read or communicate with each other• Proletarian revolutions didn’t work because most proletarianswere spread out over long distances on farms in rural areas andcouldn’t communicate or organize very well. Outsmarted bybourgeoisie whenever there is a revolution• Industrialization occurs starting 1750 – early 1900’s• Now many proletarians can read, and live and work closetogether in urban cities and factories, So they can communicate& organize• Now a true proletarian communist revolution can occur !!!!!
“Workers of the world unite, you have nothing to loose butyour chains !” -Karl Marx
Russia – Japan War 1905• Russia & Japan compete for imperial control of Manchuria and Korea• Russia looses in a small war to Japan, Czar looks like a weak idiot, so thecommunists try to start a revolution, peacfull protesters also protest formore rights.• Bloody Sunday - Czar´s soldiers shoot protesters, arrest and kill manycommunists.
Czar Nicholas II, Romanov Dynasty• Czar Nicholas II - 1894-1917 last Russian Czar, industry wasslowly getting bigger, bringing more poor farmers (proletarians) tothe cities to work in factories. Horrible working conditions.• Absolute monarchy (autocracy) would not allow reforms ordemocratic changes to government
Rasputin• Rasputin – the mad monk. Supposedly a ‘holy man’ withpsychic healing powers. Had a lot of charisma• Became a celebrity psychic healer among aristocratic womenin Russia in the early 1900’s• Was really an alcoholic pervert who manipulated hiscustomers to get sex, $$$, and power• Was introduced to the Czarina (queen) and supposedly healedher sick son Alexi who had hemophilia• From then on Rasputin is always at the palace manipulatingthe royal family
WW1 Occurs• 4,000,000 Russian soldiers dead in the first year, people angry• Russia has a famine, Russia is loosing the war, loosing territory
Czar Steps Down 1917• Just like in 1905, there are protests, strikes, and demonstrations• Czar orders his police to shoot protesters, but the police refuse• The Duma reappear (parliament) Czar has no real power• provisional government continues to fight against German invaders, loosingthe support of soldiers and civilians who want to quithttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ukGfxhJMvL4
Communist Revolution Starts• Vladimir Lenin – Leader of Bolsheviks (violent revolutionary communists) returnsto Russia and starts revolution. 1917• Lenin was sent to Russia by Germany to cause chaos in Russia.• Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed with Germany as soon as Bolsheviks take power.Communists focus on destroying anyone who is against communism.
Russian Revolution, Civil War 1917-1921• Red Army – Communists, Soviets, Bolsheviks. Led by Lenin and Trotsky.Proletarian workers, some peasants, some ex-soldiers, Jews• White Army – All others opposed to communism. Several groups. Someare loyal to the Czar, others loyal to the Duma, others just wantdemocracy. Orthodox Christian Church, aristocrats ,Bourgeois, & Kulaks• Foreign intervention - Some countries send small forces to help differentWhite Army forces. (U.S., England, Poland, France, Japan)
Transforming Russia into a Communist Country• Russia is now U.S.S.R. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics• Totalitarian – total government control of everything• Example: imagine permanent state of total war• Nationalization - government takes control of all majorbusinesses…. Banks, industrialproduction, communication, transportation, media, education, churches, agriculture, etc….• Communal lifestyles - takes away private property, no moreindividualism, everything is done in groups• Arrest and execution of anti-communists• U.S.S.R. encourages and supports communists revolutionswherever possible worldwide
Rise of Joseph Stalin• Lenin has a stroke in 1922, Stalin and Trotsky (both are communist leaders)compete for power in the communist party. Stalin wins• Stalin is a former bank robber and ex-convict (was in prison before 1917) ,ruthless, executes many rivals in the communist party. Originally from Georgia• Stalin has total control of the Communist party by 1928 Kills millions ofRussians, kills anyone seen as a threat to communism or his own dictatorship• .
Leon Trotsky• Lev Bronstein (Jewish name) changes it to Leon Trotsky• One of the leaders of the communist revolution in Russia• Commands the Red Army, responsible for more than 1 million deaths• After Lenin´s death, Stalin and Trotsky compete for power• Trotsky flees to Mexico City and has an affair with Frida• Stalin sends assassins to Mexico City and kills Trotsky• Stalin removes Trotsky from photos with Lenin, arrests his family, re-writes historyabout Trotsky´s role in the revolution