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Organicnomenclature

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Organicnomenclature

  1. 1. Organic Chemistry Nomenclature 1. Hydrocarbons o Alkanes o Alkenes o Alkynes o Unsaturated hydrocarbons o Cyclohydrocarbons o Aromatic compounds 2. Other functional groups o Alkyl Halides o Amines o Ethers o Alcohols o Aldehides & ketones o Carboxilic acid o Salts o Esters o Amides o Nitriles 2. Isomery © Patricio Gómez Lesarri
  2. 2. 1. Introduction Substances which consist of carbon & hydrogen (hydrocarbons) Heteroatoms: O, N, S, P, Halogens, alkalines, etc. Carbon tetravalence C-C bond intensity and length (350 kJ/mol) Chains and polymers
  3. 3. 1.1. Alkanes Single bond: saturated hydrocarbons Primary carbon: - CH3 Secondary carbon: -CH2- Tertiary carbon: -CH- Nomenclature: Stem + ane General formula: CnH2n+2
  4. 4. 1.1. Substituted alkanes Main chain: longest chain of atoms of carbon Substituent: branch chain attached to the main chain It is named with suffix -yl Nomenclature: branch + main chain
  5. 5. 1.1. Branches & substituents Branchs + main chain Locants: numbers which precedes a substituent and show its position. Hyphen between locant and name. Comma between two locants Chain numbered in order to get lowest locants as possible Substituents alphabetically ordered Prefixes: di-, tri- tetra- for several branches
  6. 6. 1.1. Branched alkanes When some main chains of the same length are identified, we choose one which has greater number of branches
  7. 7. 1.1. Branched alkanes When there are several main chains of the same length and number of substituents, the main chain is one which has the lowest locants
  8. 8. 1.1. Branched alkanes
  9. 9. 1.2. Alkenes Double bond Nomenclature: Stem + ene General formula: CnH2n Locant just before the suffix –ene Lowest locant as possible for double bonds
  10. 10. 1.2. Branched alkenes Prefixes di, tri, are used preceding suffix –ene Main chain: one which has all the double bonds Locant so as to give the place of branches and double bonds 2-methyl-3-sec-pentylpent-1,3-diene 2-ethyl-3,4-dimethylhex-1,3-diene
  11. 11. 1.3. Alkynes Nomenclature: Stem + yne General formula: CnH2n-2 Locant just before the suffix – yne Lowest locant as possible for the triple bond
  12. 12. 1.3. Branched alkynes Prefixes di, tri, are used before suffix –yne Main chain: one which has all the triple bonds Use of locant so as to give the place of branches and triple bonds CH3-C≡C-C≡CH pent-1,3-diyne
  13. 13. 1.3. Unsaturated hydrocarbons Nomenclature: Stem + en + yne Use of locants so as to give the position of unsaturations Lowest locant as possible for all the unsaturations When there are two choices lower locants are assigned to doubles bonds
  14. 14. 1.4. Cycloalkanes Hydrocarbons with closed chains: “rings” Nomenclature: prefix Cyclo – General formula: CnH2n Locant for unsaturations or substituents
  15. 15. 1.5. Arenes Benzen derivatives Substituent: phenyl Disubstituted Ortho (1, 2) Meta (1, 3) Para (1, 4)
  16. 16. 2. Other functional groups Functional group: group of atmos or chemical bonds which give certain chemical properties to a molecule Homogous serie: all the chemical substances which have the same functional group onjunto de compuestos con el mismo grupo funcional Priority order Name Functional group Suffix (Main chain) Prefix (substituent) Carboxilic acid R-COOH - oic acid Carboxy - Salts R-COO-M Metal - oate Esters R-COO-R Alkyl - oate Amides R-CONH2 - amide Nitriles R-CN - nitrile Cyano - Aldehides R-CHO - al Oxo - Ketones R-CO-R - one Oxo - Alcohols R-OH - ol Hidroxi - Amines R-NH2 -amine Amino - Ethers R-O-R - ether Alkoxi - Alkenes C=C - ene Alkynes C≡C - ine Halogen R-X - Halogen - Alkyl R - ane - yl
  17. 17. 2. Priority order
  18. 18. 2.1.1 Alkyl halides Functional group: halogen General formula R-X Nomenclatur: Alkyl halide Substituent: halogen -
  19. 19. 2.1.2 Ethers Functional group: ether General formula: R-O-R´ Nomenclature: Suffix ether: Alkylalkylether Substituent: alkoxy
  20. 20. 2.1.3 Amines Functional group: amino General formula: R-NH2 Nomenclature: Substituent amino - Sufix amina: Alquilamina Types: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
  21. 21. 2.1.4 Alcohols Functional group: hydroxyl General formula: R-OH Nomenclature:  Suffix –ol  Substituent: hidroxi –  Phenol
  22. 22. 2.2.1 Aldehides Functional group : carbonyl Fórmula general: R-CHO Nomenclature: Suffix: - al Substituent: oxo –
  23. 23. 2.2.2 Ketones Functional group: carbonyl General formula: R-CO-R´ Nomenclature: Suffix: - one Suffix: alkylalkylketone Substituent : oxo -
  24. 24. 2.2. Aldehides & ketones
  25. 25. 2.3.1 Carboxilic acids Functional group: carboxyl General formula: R-COOH Nomenclature: Suffix: – oic acid Substituent: carboxy -
  26. 26. 2.3.2 Salts Functional group: carboxyl General formula: R-COO-M Nomenclature: Suffix: Metal - oate
  27. 27. 2.3.3 Esters Funcional group: ester General formula: R-COO-R´ Nomenclature: Suffix: –alkyl - oate
  28. 28. 2.3.4 Amides Functional group: amide General formula: R-CONH2 Nomenclature: Suffix: -amide Substituent: carbamoil-
  29. 29. 2.3.5 Nitriles Functional group: nitrile Fórmula general: R-CN Nomenclature: Suffix: - nitrile Substituent: cyano – HCN Cianhidric acid/methanenitrile CN- cyanide

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