IUU Lessons Learned –       FFA Regional MCS           Strategy       Past, Present and Future                            ...
Who am I?   Director of Fisheries Operations at the Forum Fisheries    Agency       Fisheries Management Organization su...
Why Fish?
Why the Concern about IUU? 2009study estimated the average annual IUU catch in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean regi...
Why the Concern about IUU? 2009study estimated the average annual IUU catch in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean regi...
The Past - Challenges to IUU Framing  the issue:   Challenge posed by IUU fishing is a global    phenomenon.   Developi...
Support to Developing Countries Recognizing    the limitations of developing countries in  addressing IUU fishing, variou...
Experiences of the South Pacific As  a result, FFA members developed low cost and  innovative means of dealing with contr...
MTCs and Regional Register Minimum    Terms and Conditions of access for fishing  vessels requires close coordination and...
Flag State Control Effective  flag State control is essential to proper  management of the fisheries resources. An illus...
Cooperation Under the Niue Treaty The   Niue Treaty provides a framework that enables FFA  members to cooperate closely i...
FFA Vessel Monitoring System Satellite-based  vessel monitoring systems (VMS) makes  it possible for FFA members to track...
Concentration of Purse Seining Effort in 2005
Concentration of Long Lining Effort in 2005
The Present - Evaluating IUU Risks 2009  MRAG Study was conducted to support the  development of the Regional MCS Strateg...
Highest IUU Risks Some  of the highest risks to stocks occur outside the FFA area of interest.   Some of the highest ris...
Highest IUU Risks Non-compliance     by licensed vessels.   Unlike some other parts of the world in which IUU    fishing...
Highest IUU Risks Inadequate   reporting is a key risk area.   Of non-compliance associated with licensed fleets,    fai...
Highest IUU Risks Inadequate  reporting is a key risk area.   Observer data indicated ‘not reporting catches in    vesse...
Highest IUU Risks There  is a need to strengthen catch monitoring and validation throughout the supply chain.   A number...
Highest IUU RisksArange of risks to bycatch species exist.  Based on evidence available, the impact of the long   line f...
Highest IUU RisksA range of risks to bycatch species exist.   Based on evidence available, the impact of the LL    fishe...
Highest IUU RisksA range of risks to bycatch species exist.   Based on evidence available, the impact of the LL    fishe...
Highest IUU Risks There   is a need to strengthen catch monitoring and validation throughout the supply chain.   The abs...
Highest IUU Risks There  is an urgent need to improve the coverage and quality of information relating to risks.   The a...
How do we know this fish was caught legally?      IUU Lessons Learned – the Future
IUU Lessons Learned – the Future Need  for the development of an Integrated Fisheries Information Management System (iFIM...
IUU Lessons Learned – the Future Need  for the development of an Integrated Fisheries Information Management System (iFIM...
IUU Lessons Learned – the Future Catch/Trade    Documentation Schemes - Traceability   Prohibition on landings and trans...
IUU Lessons Learned – the Future
IUU Lessons Learned – the Future Catch/Trade  Documentation Schemes - Traceability             Questions?   Prohibition ...
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IUU Lessons Learned FFA Regional MCS Strategy

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  • Significant weaknesses were evident in rates of logsheet submission to relevant coastal states. Problems with weaknesses also exist in CCM compliance with WCPFC reporting obligations. A recent review of WCPFC data gaps revealed that while compliance with aggregate catch reporting obligations is relatively good, compliance with operational level catch and effort reporting obligations is poor.
  • IUU Lessons Learned FFA Regional MCS Strategy

    1. 1. IUU Lessons Learned – FFA Regional MCS Strategy Past, Present and Future Mark Young Director of Fisheries OperationsPacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency Honiara, Solomon Islands Mark.Young@FFA.int
    2. 2. Who am I? Director of Fisheries Operations at the Forum Fisheries Agency  Fisheries Management Organization supporting 17 Pacific Island Nations and Territories  Compliance and Enforcement  Vessel Register  Vessel Monitoring System  Regional Fisheries Surveillance Centre  Sub-Regional Observer Programmes under UST and FSMA  Surveillance and Enforcement Training and Workshops  Information Technology Retired Commander, U.S. Coast Guard  Chief of Enforcement for Western and Central Pacific  Fisheries emphasis in the Atlantic, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, Bering Seas and Western and Central Pacific  Master’s Degree in Fisheries Management and Policy from the University of Washington
    3. 3. Why Fish?
    4. 4. Why the Concern about IUU? 2009study estimated the average annual IUU catch in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean region:  Between 786,000 and 1,730,000 metric tonnes and $707million USD and $1557 million USD during the 2000-2003 period. What must be done? - Build upon lessons learned from the past and present to lead to a more effective future response to address IUU fishing
    5. 5. Why the Concern about IUU? 2009study estimated the average annual IUU catch in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean region:  Between 786,000 and 1,730,000 metric tonnes and $707million USD and $1557 million USD during the 2000-2003 period. Combating IUU is simply not effectively addressed by at-sea surveillance, enforcement and compliance mechanisms
    6. 6. The Past - Challenges to IUU Framing the issue:  Challenge posed by IUU fishing is a global phenomenon.  Developing countries have greater difficulties addressing IUU fishing because of limited resources.  Problem is exacerbated by large ocean regions required to be controlled and the migratory nature of both fish stocks and fishing vessels that target the stocks.  Countries cannot unilaterally respond to the problems of IUU fishing because of the transnational nature of the fishery and the vessels that exploit the fishery.  Thus, international cooperation is critical to address the problems of IUU fishing.
    7. 7. Support to Developing Countries Recognizing the limitations of developing countries in addressing IUU fishing, various international instruments have called for special assistance to be given to developing countries.  The United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement specifically calls on States to assist developing countries in MCS and to provide funding for national and regional observer programs.  The FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing also enjoins States and intergovernmental organizations to give full recognition to the special requirements of developing countries.
    8. 8. Experiences of the South Pacific As a result, FFA members developed low cost and innovative means of dealing with controlling the activities of foreign fishing vessels. Although the measures were not developed to deal with IUU fishing per se, their application is pertinent in combating IUU fishing. These measures include:  Harmonization of Terms and Conditions of access;  A Regional Register of Foreign Fishing Vessels;  Effective Flag State Responsibility;  Cooperation in Fisheries Surveillance and Law Enforcement; and  Satellite-based Vessel Monitoring System;
    9. 9. MTCs and Regional Register Minimum Terms and Conditions of access for fishing vessels requires close coordination and cooperation amongst FFA members to ensure fishing vessels operate under uniform regulations. The Regional Register provides an information database of fishing vessels operating in the region. Each vessel is given a unique Regional Registration number as a prerequisite for licensing to fish in FFA members’ waters. The registration may be withdrawn or suspended if a vessel is involved in a serious violation of the fisheries laws of any FFA member.
    10. 10. Flag State Control Effective flag State control is essential to proper management of the fisheries resources. An illustration of flag State control can be seen via the Treaty on Fisheries between the Governments of certain Pacific Island States and the United States This Treaty specifically includes an Agreed Minute on Cooperation in Surveillance and Enforcement that facilitates engagement and MCS information exchange to address IUU fishing.
    11. 11. Cooperation Under the Niue Treaty The Niue Treaty provides a framework that enables FFA members to cooperate closely in fisheries surveillance and enforcement through the sharing of enforcement assets, equipment and personnel. A new multilateral Subsidiary Agreement is being finalized that encompasses the broad spectrum of FFA membership. Offers opportunities for closer enforcement cooperation with non-members and surveillance partners extending to even broader law enforcement issues.
    12. 12. FFA Vessel Monitoring System Satellite-based vessel monitoring systems (VMS) makes it possible for FFA members to track the movement of vessels from port to port. The problem with FFA VMS is that only licensed vessels can be monitored. There are currently more than 1,350 fishing vessels on the FFA Vessel Register at any given time. However, there are an additional 1,500+ additional fishing vessels authorized to fish on the high seas in the region which are monitored by the WCPFC VMS Current rules within WCPFC prevent the ability of coastal States to view these vessels when they move in-zone into FFA member waters – to include non-viewing by the Commission Secretariat.
    13. 13. Concentration of Purse Seining Effort in 2005
    14. 14. Concentration of Long Lining Effort in 2005
    15. 15. The Present - Evaluating IUU Risks 2009 MRAG Study was conducted to support the development of the Regional MCS Strategy. Provided for an assessment of risks to pelagic fish stocks arising from fishing that undermines fisheries management frameworks and objectives. Risks were assessed for their ‘residual’ risk - defined as: ‘…the risk remaining after application of current MCS arrangements to a given threat…’ Two parts – Risks and how these risks are tied to the application of an array of MCS components
    16. 16. Highest IUU Risks Some of the highest risks to stocks occur outside the FFA area of interest.  Some of the highest risks to the achievement of FFA members’ regional fisheries goals occur on shared stocks harvested outside the region, most notably as a result of overfishing by domestic fleets in south east Asia.
    17. 17. Highest IUU Risks Non-compliance by licensed vessels.  Unlike some other parts of the world in which IUU fishing appears to be dominated by large unlicensed fleets, the majority of high risk areas were associated with licensed vessels and fleets.  There is a strong case to be made that IUU activities by licensed vessels (and in particular non-compliance with reporting obligations) is likely to represent a greater risk to the achievement of regional goals than unlicensed activity.
    18. 18. Highest IUU Risks Inadequate reporting is a key risk area.  Of non-compliance associated with licensed fleets, failure to comply with reporting obligations was identified as one of the highest risks.  Access to timely and accurate catch, effort and other data is central to achieving regional fisheries goals and weaknesses in current compliance were identified across a spectrum of reporting obligations.  Misreporting (including under-reporting) of target species was rated a severe risk in both the purse seine and long line fisheries.
    19. 19. Highest IUU Risks Inadequate reporting is a key risk area.  Observer data indicated ‘not reporting catches in vessel logs’ and ‘not reporting catches of commercial species’ was reported on at least 1/3 of trips in both purse seine and long line fisheries.  Non-compliance with catch reporting in the long line fishery was of particular concern given its potential to undermine catch reduction targets and scientific data used in stock assessments of key species.  Misreporting (including non-reporting) of bycatch species was also identified as one of the most widespread compliance problems.
    20. 20. Highest IUU Risks There is a need to strengthen catch monitoring and validation throughout the supply chain.  A number of weaknesses were evident in monitoring and validation of catch throughout the supply chain.  At the catching vessel level under- and misreporting of catch is a key compliance concern, as was the failure to submit timely and accurate logsheets.  In the post-harvest sector, illegal transhipping presented a high risk based on its potential to facilitate the laundering of catches taken in contravention of CMMs.
    21. 21. Highest IUU RisksArange of risks to bycatch species exist.  Based on evidence available, the impact of the long line fishery for tunas and like species on sharks appears to be one of the highest risk areas.  Sharks regularly make up a larger proportion of the catch than target species and MCS arrangements to monitor catches are currently weak.  Rates of observer coverage are low and available evidence indicates that current catch rates on some shark species may be higher than sustainable.  There is a pressing need to understand bycatch rates and species compositions in the long line fishery.
    22. 22. Highest IUU RisksA range of risks to bycatch species exist.  Based on evidence available, the impact of the LL fishery for tunas and like species on sharks appears to be one of the highest risk areas. Sharks regularly make up a larger proportion of the catch than target species and MCS arrangements to monitor catches are currently weak.  Rates of observer coverage are low and under- reporting of catch appears to be a widespread problem. Available evidence indicates that current catch rates on some shark species may be higher than sustainable.  There is a pressing need to understanding of bycatch
    23. 23. Highest IUU RisksA range of risks to bycatch species exist.  Based on evidence available, the impact of the LL fishery for tunas and like species on sharks appears to be one of the highest risk areas. Sharks regularly make up a larger proportion of the catch than target species and MCS arrangements to monitor catches are currently weak.  Rates of observer coverage are low and under- reporting of catch appears to be a widespread problem. Available evidence indicates that current catch rates on some shark species may be higher than sustainable.  There is a pressing need to understanding of bycatch
    24. 24. Highest IUU Risks There is a need to strengthen catch monitoring and validation throughout the supply chain.  The absence of cooperative catch monitoring where catch taken in FFA members’ waters was landed at foreign ports was also identified as a key risk.  Catch monitoring appears to be weakest in the long line sector which is generally subject to:  Very low rates of observer coverage;  Lower rates of logsheet return and operational catch and effort data coverage than the purse seine fleet; and  Includes a large number of vessels that rarely, if ever, enter FFA member ports.
    25. 25. Highest IUU Risks There is an urgent need to improve the coverage and quality of information relating to risks.  The amount and quality of the information available to inform risk assessments varies considerably.  Little ‘hard data’ is available upon which to base planning decisions.  Focus should be on continually improving the availability and quality of information accessible to national and regional officials upon which to assess relative risk. Not surprisingly – this leads us to the future…..
    26. 26. How do we know this fish was caught legally? IUU Lessons Learned – the Future
    27. 27. IUU Lessons Learned – the Future Need for the development of an Integrated Fisheries Information Management System (iFIMS)  An integrated collection of application systems and related processes that together support a country’s national fisheries (marine resources management) authority and MCS components in achieving its business objectives through the provision of comprehensive, timely and quality data.
    28. 28. IUU Lessons Learned – the Future Need for the development of an Integrated Fisheries Information Management System (iFIMS)  iFIMS functions to integrate relevant fisheries data sets and makes them available to fisheries managers and MCS practitioners at the “press of a button”.  A system in line with “best practice” data and information management, utilizing the latest technology to allow fisheries managers and MCS practitioners to make informed decisions in a timely manner.  iFIMS will also allow for electronic exchanges on a national and regional basis involving partner agencies and the fishing industry itself.
    29. 29. IUU Lessons Learned – the Future Catch/Trade Documentation Schemes - Traceability  Prohibition on landings and transhipments without established mechanisms for exchanging data amongst relevant coastal States and RFMOs;  By identifying the origin and documenting the legality of fish at the point of catch and landing, the market can be provided with a certification that the fish purchased were caught in a manner consistent with their conservation.
    30. 30. IUU Lessons Learned – the Future
    31. 31. IUU Lessons Learned – the Future Catch/Trade Documentation Schemes - Traceability Questions?  Prohibition on landings and transhipments with established mechanisms for exchanging data amongst relevant coastal States and RFMOs; CDS is among one of the most promising programmes put forth to encourage legal Mark Young fishing. Director of Fisheries Operations  By identifying the origin and documenting the legality Pacific Islands Forumand landing, the market Fisheries Agency of fish at the point of catch Mark.Young@ffa.int can be provided with a certification that the fish purchased were caught in a manner consistent with their conservation.

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