The Napoleon Wrasse is highly valued for its delicate flesh. This fish is endangered and protected under Indonesian and International law
Home made bombs for fishing are easy to make, a fuse, some wax, a blasting cap, some fertilizer and a glass bottle are all that is needed
Fish are stunned and collected by divers. This is done over shallow coral reefs and among schooling pelagic fish as well. The corals are severely damaged with each blast and may never recover.
Often used in the live fish trade in this region. Large fish may survive trace doses of cyanide, the coral ecosystem does not
Now to the status of the fishery itself. Not an easy topic to discuss due to lack of data or data analysis
Sea Delight will work with national and local fishery authorities as well as with WWF and EDF to push for a management plan for the fishery based on a high-risk based analysis until existing data can be properly analyzed and overall data collection systems improved.
The tragedy of the commons is when everyone is allowed to enter a fishery and catch as much of the target species as they want. The common open fishery will soon be overfished and even collapse
MSC # 4 is continues to be the issue in fisheries in SE Asia
What is an “OUU” fishery?
OUUmeans, in legal fisheries, lack of data collection, lack of good data analysis and unwillingness by fisheries authorities to set catch limits or means for effort reduction even in the case of fisheries clearly near or beyond MSY fishing pressure. This is the next big challenge we face in this mixed bottomfish fishery.
From IUU forward: Better Fishing Practice for Mixed Bottomfish Fishery
Some of the valuable catch……Onaga, Etelis Corescans (Longtailed Red Snapper)
More of the valuable catch……Opakapaka, Pristipomoides filamentosus (King Snapper)
IntroductionSea Delight, LLC, sources a variety of snapper andgrouper species from the reefs and islands of centralSulawesi. When we became engaged in the SeafoodSavers program with WWF Indonesia, Seafood Saverstook a look at this fishery and reported their findingsand recommendations to us.
Seafood Savers advised us that, although the deepwatersnapper and grouper we were sourcing from this fishery werenot caught using illegal methods there was some evidence thatour supplier may be trading in IUU fish.NOAA Defines Illegal Unreported Unregulated Fishing (IUU) as:In general terms, IUU fishing refers to fishing activities that are:illegal - meaning that the fishing activities violate applicable national orinternational laws or rules;unreported - meaning that the activities have not been reported in areaswhere such reporting is required; orunregulated - meaning that the fishing activities are inconsistent with relevantinternational laws or rules, but either the activities are not regulated, or theinvolved fishing vessels are not able to be regulated because they are flyingthe flag of a State that is not party to the relevant regional fisherymanagement organization or they are flying no flag at all.
The first steps we needed to make to begin toimprove the fishery were simple. Mandatethat the supplier: 1. Stop buying endangered Napoleon Wrasse. 2. Stop buying fish caught using explosives or cyanide. 3. Identify the participants in the processor’s supply chain of raw material
Engagement of StakeholdersWe discussed the WWF recommendations with the factory owners. They agreed that theywould address the issues immediately, first by agreeing to a total cessation of any purchasingof Napoleon wrasse and second by notifying all of their “collectors” (middlemen) of this policy.On March 4, 2011, a representative of Sea Delight went to Central Sulawesi and held aseminar on the identification of blast and cyanide caught fish. WWF Indonesia provided aPowerPoint presentation on how to identify blast and cyanide caught fish in Indonesianlanguage. Sea Delight presented this to all the QC staff, buyers and 4 of the collectors involvedin selecting and supplying fish to the factory. Stakeholders, including fish collectors and local government representatives , attending the blast and cyanide caught fish seminar.
Blast and Cyanide Fish Identification Seminar OutcomesOne outcome of the seminar was that the supplier and all of the fish collectors agreed to stoptrading in any illegally caught fish and the supplier issued an official policy letter to that effect.Another outcome was that the supplier and collectors agreed to full cooperation in identifyingthe supply chain participants and developing a logbook system for collecting catch data.. Middleman Locations No. of Small Status of Notice Notes Name and Purchased Vessels in on PTI Buying Harvest Vessel From Harvest Vessel Policy and Group # Group Logbook Cooperation 1. Halik Bangkulu island Still awaiting data Attended Seminar Bangkulu is known (Bangkulung) area, Liang- on Blast and for blast fishing. Bangkalan, Sonit, Cyanide Fishing. Fishers from this Timpaus and area asking for Banggai development projects to help them turn away from blast fishing 2. Halik (Tropot) Tropot Area “ “ “ “ Tropot area is reported to be free of blast fishing activity 3. Halik( Bontosi) Mansalean Island “ “ “ “ Also reported to be free of blast and cyanide fishing activity An excerpt of the original supply chain participants chart
. Notice at the receiving dock stating anti – IUU policy
Identification of Important Commercial Species…14 commercially important bottomfish species were identified and landing data collection initiated
Current Status of the Project1. The policy on Napoleon wrasse is in place and being enforced2. The supplier and all the fish collectors working with them have infact ceased trading in blast and cyanide caught fish.3. The supplier is enforcing their written policy on not buyingtransshipped fish, non-transshipment of raw material to other buyersand on keeping records of all fish purchased.4. The supplier has created a complete list of all supply chainparticipants including the vessel captains, number of vessels andnumber of fishermen in each landing port and the web-basedtraceability program is ongoing.5. Over two years of commercial landing data from all 3 fishery sub-areas has been kept. This data is species specific and may be used inan upcoming planned MSC pre-assessment of the fishery.
Current Project Status Continued…. An example of the logbook form for Sub-Fishery Area 1
Current Status of the Fishery Two Data-deficient ViewpointsViewpoint 1. (Sea Delight) Information from the fish collectors, fishermenand factory management indicate the fishery may already be subject tofishing pressure at or even slightly beyond Maximum Sustainable Yield(MSY), especially for grouper and Lutjanus snapper species.Reports indicated that as US fillet prices and demand peaked in2007/2008 the average fish length decreased and the fishing effort tocatch enough fish to make money increased.With the economic downturn of 2008, prices, demand and fishing effortdecreased.When demand started to come back in 2010 fishermen reported goodlandings but a “problem” with a high % of large fish caught (medium sizefish for single fillets are ideal for the export market).This information seems to indicate that any increase in catch effort overcurrent levels will result in a rapid decrease in fish size and catch volumeindicating the fishery is at or near Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY)status.
Current Status of the Fishery Two Data-Deficient ViewpointsViewpoint 2 (Local Fisheries Agency). On May 20 through 22,2012, Sea Delight representatives participated in the WWF CoralTriangle Network Initiative (WWF CTNI) and EnvironmentalDefense Fund (EDF) Rights Based Management (RBM) Workshopin Bali, Indonesia.One of the participants at this workshop was a fisheries officerfrom Central Sulawesi. He had a much more optimistic estimate ofthe status of this fishery based on years of experience in the areaand government statistics.The official estimate was that the mixed bottomfish fishery of thisarea is being fished to only 28% of MSY. He said his agency’spolicy was to encourage more vessels from other parts ofIndonesia to enter the fishery and to encourage more local catcheffort as well.
Current Status of the Fishery Two Data-Deficient Viewpoints, ContinuedA difference of opinion on fishery status in a data deficient fishery.The reality remains unknown until good data analysis can lead to acomprehensive Management Plan.
Current Status of the Fishery Two Data-Deficient Viewpoints, ContinuedPlaying the “fishing game” at the WWF CTNI Rights Based Management Workshop.This game allowed participants to experience the “Tragedy of the Commons” in anopen access fishery.
Current Status of the Fishery Two Data-Deficient Viewpoints, Continued Marine Stewardship Council Definition of a Sustainable Fishery: A fishery that is conducted in such a way that:1. It can be continued indefinitely at a reasonable level; POSSIBLE WITH AGOOD MANAGEMENT PLAN2. it maintains and seeks to maximize, ecological health and abundance; LIKELYIN THIS SMALL VESSEL HANDLINE FISHERY3. it maintains the diversity, structure and function of the ecosystem on which it depends as well as the quality of its habitat, minimizing the adverse effects that it causes; LIKELY IN THIS SMALL VESSEL HANDLINEFISHERY4. It is managed and operated in a responsible manner, in conformity with local, national and international laws and regulations; SEE NEXT SLIDE5. it maintains present and future economic and social options and benefits; POSSIBLE WITH A GOOD MANAGEMENT PLAN6. It is conducted in a socially and economically fair and responsible manner. POSSIBLE WITH A GOOD MANAGEMENT PLAN
The Elephant in the RoomMSC # 4 and “OUU” FISHERIES
A fishery that is conducted in such a way that: 4. It is managed and operated in a responsible manner, in conformity with local, national and international laws and regulationsThe Central Sulawesi Mixed Bottomfish Fishery Sea Delight sources from is not an IUUfishery. The participants in the supply chain are all acting legally and within existing andapplicable Indonesian laws and regulations. However, it can never be “managed andoperated in a responsible manner” as long as it is what could be called an “OUU”Fishery:O = Open Access No license limitations or limit to the amount of fishthat can be caught or vessels that may enter the fisheryU = Under-Reported No catch data is required to be reported by law orthe data that is required is inadequate or not applicable to valid stockassessment.U = Under-Regulated Basic regulations exist but they are insufficient toprevent overfishing. No Management Plan exists or the plan that does exist isineffective or not being implemented properly.
Future Plans for the ProjectThe best resource we have is the full cooperation of the fishermen. The supplier andcollectors maintain regular communication with and complete lists of the captains andfishermen supplying fish from each fishing village.
Future Plans for the Project1. Sea Delight is now a full member of the WWF Indonesia SeafoodSavers program. This will empower us to work more closely withboth local fishing communities and government agencies.2. Sea Delight will arrange for proper scientific analysis of the privatecatch data collected over the last two years and for theimplementation of improved private and government sanctioned datacollection in the near future.3. With the help of Seafood Savers Sea Delight will have a MSC Pre-Assessment of the fishery conducted.4. Sea Delight will assist in the development of an Ecosystem BasedFishery Management Plan in cooperation with Indonesian FisheriesAuthorities and Seafood Savers. This plan will include a trial RightsBased Management program for a sector of the fishery.5. As a representative of the seafood distribution industry in the USA,Sea Delight will actively petition Indonesian Fisheries Authorities torestrict access to and limit catch effort in the fishery.